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An Hsi Report: Human Health Implications Of Intensive Poultry Production And Avian Influenza, Humane Society International 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

An Hsi Report: Human Health Implications Of Intensive Poultry Production And Avian Influenza, Humane Society International

HSI Reports: Farm Animal Protection

The high stocking density, stress, unhygienic conditions, lack of sunlight, and breeding practices typical of industrial poultry and egg production systems may facilitate the emergence and spread of diseases, including highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with public health implications such as H5N1.


An Hsi Fact Sheet: Avian Influenza In India, Humane Society International 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

An Hsi Fact Sheet: Avian Influenza In India, Humane Society International

HSI Fact Sheets: Farm Animal Protection

Avian influenza (AI), commonly known as bird flu, typically causes little or no harm to its wild waterfowl hosts. In 2003-2004, however, nine Asian countries reported unprecedented outbreaks of high-mortality AI in domestic poultry. This viral lineage, subtype H5N1, has spread to over 60 countries, and is considered endemic in at least four.

In India, H5N1 outbreaks were first recorded in 2006, and have continued each year since, reaching a total of 86 by 2012. Millions of India’s chickens and ducks have been culled in efforts to contain and eliminate the virus. India has declared itself free of AI ...


An Hsus Report: Food Safety Concerns With The Slaughter Of Downed Cattle, The Humane Society of the United States 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

An Hsus Report: Food Safety Concerns With The Slaughter Of Downed Cattle, The Humane Society Of The United States

HSUS Reports: Farm Industry Impacts on Environment and Human Health

Nonambulatory cattle may be at higher risk of harboring foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and, very rarely, the infectious agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy, colloquially known as “mad cow disease.” The exclusion of nonambulatory cattle from slaughter for human consumption may strengthen the safety of the food supply and is a prudent measure already in place throughout the European Union.


An Hsus Report: Human Health Implications Of Non-Therapeutic Antibiotic Use In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society of the United States 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

An Hsus Report: Human Health Implications Of Non-Therapeutic Antibiotic Use In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society Of The United States

HSUS Reports: Farm Industry Impacts on Environment and Human Health

For decades, the U.S. meat industry has fed medically important antibiotics to chickens, pigs, and cattle to accelerate their weight gain and prevent disease in the stressful and unhygienic conditions that typify industrialized animal agriculture production facilities. A strong scientific consensus exists, asserting that this practice fosters antibiotic resistance in bacteria to the detriment of human health. In response to this public health threat, the European Union has banned the non-therapeutic feeding of a number of antibiotics of human importance to farm animals. Given these serious concerns as well as recent data that suggest an overall lack of financial ...


An Hsus Report: Human Health Implications Of U.S. Live Bird Markets In The Spread Of Avian Influenza, The Humane Society of the United States 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

An Hsus Report: Human Health Implications Of U.S. Live Bird Markets In The Spread Of Avian Influenza, The Humane Society Of The United States

HSUS Reports: Farm Industry Impacts on Environment and Human Health

After millions of years of existing as a harmless infection of aquatic birds, some strains of avian flu have developed the ability to mutate into highly pathogenic forms that may not only be deadly for birds, but potentially more dangerous for humans as well. Experts from the World Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations have joined leading scientists in implicating industrialized poultry production for providing fertile ground for the transformation of benign bird flu into highly pathogenic strains.

Live bird markets can be the conduit by which waterfowl ...


An Hsus Report: Industrial Farm Animal Production And Livestock Associated Mrsa (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus), The Humane Society of the United States 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

An Hsus Report: Industrial Farm Animal Production And Livestock Associated Mrsa (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus), The Humane Society Of The United States

HSUS Reports: Farm Industry Impacts on Environment and Human Health

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bacterial infection and is increasingly found to be resistant to antibiotic therapy. A newly described type of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus carried by farm animals, Livestock Associated MRSA (LA-MRSA), is now causing infections in humans with and without direct livestock contact. A reduction in the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in feed would likely reduce the capacity of industrial animal agriculture to continue to create, disseminate, and perpetuate a large reservoir of LA-MRSA on a global scale, but more fundamental changes in the way animals are raised for food may be necessary forestall a ...


Effects On Pinniped Immune Response Upon In Vitro Exposure To The Perfluorinated Compounds, Pfos And Pfoa, Elizabeth J. Meiman 2014 University of Connecticut

Effects On Pinniped Immune Response Upon In Vitro Exposure To The Perfluorinated Compounds, Pfos And Pfoa, Elizabeth J. Meiman

Honors Scholar Theses

This study investigated the effects of environmental toxicants on the immune system of two pinniped species, grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata). The toxicants included two perfluorinated compounds (PFC), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), compounds commonly found in a wide variety of household consumer products, including Scotchguard and Teflon. Although corporations such as 3M curtailed the use of these chemicals in the past decade, concentrations of these chemicals are increasing in the arctic aquatic ecosystem and have been measured in the tissues and blood of arctic pinnipeds. However, the effects of these chemicals on the ...


The Spread And Potential Control Of Disease Across The Domestic Cattle-Wildlife Interface, Rachel Jackson 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Spread And Potential Control Of Disease Across The Domestic Cattle-Wildlife Interface, Rachel Jackson

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Wing Fractures On Survival And Re-Release, Katherine O'Neill 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Evaluation Of Wing Fractures On Survival And Re-Release, Katherine O'Neill

Animal Science

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Oral Meloxicam On Circulating Physiological Biomarkers Of Stress And Inflammation In Beef Steers After Long Distance Transportation, Nicholas K. Van Engen, Matthew L. Stock, Terry Engelken, Rhonda Vann, Larry W. Wulf, Locke A. Karriker, Jeff Lakritz, Walter H. Hsu, Barry Bradford, Abigail Carpenter, Darrel Busby, Chong Wang, Johann F. Coetzee 2014 Iowa State University

Impact Of Oral Meloxicam On Circulating Physiological Biomarkers Of Stress And Inflammation In Beef Steers After Long Distance Transportation, Nicholas K. Van Engen, Matthew L. Stock, Terry Engelken, Rhonda Vann, Larry W. Wulf, Locke A. Karriker, Jeff Lakritz, Walter H. Hsu, Barry Bradford, Abigail Carpenter, Darrel Busby, Chong Wang, Johann F. Coetzee

Animal Industry Report

We hypothesized that meloxicam administration to beef steers before shipping may be effective at reducing the impact of transportation on stress biomarkers. Circulating physiological biomarkers of stress were analyzed in a transportation trial between a meloxicam treatment group and a placebo treatment group. There were significant differences in stress biomarkers between treatment groups following transport. This suggests that there may be practical benefits for the use of long-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), specifically meloxicam, to mitigate the negative effect of transport on cattle physiology.


Introduction Infectious Disease Modeling, Cristina Lanzas 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Introduction Infectious Disease Modeling, Cristina Lanzas

Cristina Lanzas

No abstract provided.


Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius: Population Genetics And Antimicrobial Resistance, Ricardo Videla 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius: Population Genetics And Antimicrobial Resistance, Ricardo Videla

Masters Theses

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a Gram-positive coagulase-negative coccus. It is a normal inhabitant of the skin of dogs. However, clinical disease can be observed in animals that are immunossuppressed or if the skin barrier is altered. This bacterium is recognized as the main cause of canine pyoderma and has also been associated with other conditions such as infection of the urinary tract, the ears, and surgical wounds.

Methicillin resistance and resistance to other antimicrobials regularly used by veterinarians is common among S. pseudintermedius which can complicate treatment. The first report of mecA, gene responsible for methicillin resistance, in S. pseudintermedius is ...


Porcine E. Coli: Virulence-Associated Genes, Resistance Genes And Adhesion And Probiotic Activity Tested By A New Screening Method, Peter Schierack, Stefan Rödiger, Christoph Kuhl, Rico Hiemann, Dirk Roggenbuck, Ganwu Li, Jörg Weinreich, Enrico Berger, Lisa K. Nolan, Bryon A. Nicholson, Antje Römer, Ulrike Frömmel, Lothar H. Wieler, Christian Schröder 2013 Iowa State University

Porcine E. Coli: Virulence-Associated Genes, Resistance Genes And Adhesion And Probiotic Activity Tested By A New Screening Method, Peter Schierack, Stefan Rödiger, Christoph Kuhl, Rico Hiemann, Dirk Roggenbuck, Ganwu Li, Jörg Weinreich, Enrico Berger, Lisa K. Nolan, Bryon A. Nicholson, Antje Römer, Ulrike Frömmel, Lothar H. Wieler, Christian Schröder

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications and Papers

We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia colito intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars.

Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of The Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain Apec O78, Paul M. Mangiamele, Bryon A. Nicholson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Torsten Seemann, Catherine M. Logue, Ganwu Li, Kelly A. Tivendale, Lisa K. Nolan 2013 Iowa State University

Complete Genome Sequence Of The Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain Apec O78, Paul M. Mangiamele, Bryon A. Nicholson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Torsten Seemann, Catherine M. Logue, Ganwu Li, Kelly A. Tivendale, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications and Papers

Colibacillosis, caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), is a significant disease, causing extensive animal and financial losses globally. Because of the significance of this disease, more knowledge is needed regarding APEC's mechanisms of virulence. Here, we present the fully closed genome sequence of a typical avian pathogenic E. coli strain belonging to the serogroup O78.


Comparison Of Multilocus Sequence Analysis And Virulence Genotyping Of Escherichia Coli From Live Birds, Retail Poultry Meat, And Human Extraintestinal Infection, Jessica L. Danzeisen, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Lisa K. Nolan, Timothy J. Johnson 2013 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Multilocus Sequence Analysis And Virulence Genotyping Of Escherichia Coli From Live Birds, Retail Poultry Meat, And Human Extraintestinal Infection, Jessica L. Danzeisen, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Lisa K. Nolan, Timothy J. Johnson

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications and Papers

To examine the correlations between virulence genotyping and multilocus sequence analysis of Escherichia coli from poultry and humans, 88 isolates were examined. The isolates were selected from a population of over 1000 based on their assignment to nine different virulence genotyping clusters. Clustering based on multilocus sequence analysis mostly correlated with virulence genotyping, although multilocus sequence analysis demonstrated higher discriminatory ability and greater reliability related to inferred phylogenetic relationships. No distinct patterns in host source were observed using inferred phylogeny through multilocus sequence analysis, indicating that human, avian, and retail meat isolates are diverse, and some belong to multiple shared ...


Genome Analysis And Phylogenetic Relatedness Of Gallibacterium Anatis Strains From Poultry, Timothy J. Johnson, Jessica L. Danzeisen, Darrell W. Trampel, Lisa K. Nolan, Torsten Seemann, Ragnhild J. Bager, Anders M. Bojesen 2013 Iowa State University

Genome Analysis And Phylogenetic Relatedness Of Gallibacterium Anatis Strains From Poultry, Timothy J. Johnson, Jessica L. Danzeisen, Darrell W. Trampel, Lisa K. Nolan, Torsten Seemann, Ragnhild J. Bager, Anders M. Bojesen

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications and Papers

Peritonitis is the major disease problem of laying hens in commercial table egg and parent stock operations. Despite its importance, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease have not been completely clarified. Although avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates have been incriminated as the causative agent of laying hen peritonitis, Gallibacterium anatis are frequently isolated from peritonitis lesions. Despite recent studies suggesting a role for G. anatis in the pathogenesis of peritonitis, little is known about the organism’s virulence mechanisms, genomic composition and population dynamics. Here, we compared the genome sequences of three G. anatis isolates in an effort ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus From Pork Farms And Visiting Veterinary Students, Timothy S. Frana, Aleigh R. Beahm, Blake M. Hanson, Joann M. Kinyon, Lori L. Layman, Locke A. Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Tara C. Smith 2013 Iowa State University

Isolation And Characterization Of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus From Pork Farms And Visiting Veterinary Students, Timothy S. Frana, Aleigh R. Beahm, Blake M. Hanson, Joann M. Kinyon, Lori L. Layman, Locke A. Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Tara C. Smith

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications and Papers

In the last decade livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA) has become a public health concern in many parts of the world. Sequence type 398 (ST398) has been the most commonly reported type of LA-MRSA. While many studies have focused on long-term exposure experienced by swine workers, this study focuses on short-term exposures experienced by veterinary students conducting diagnostic investigations. The objectives were to assess the rate of MRSA acquisition and longevity of carriage in students exposed to pork farms and characterize the recovered MRSA isolates. Student nasal swabs were collected immediately before and after farm visits. Pig nasal swabs and ...


Optimizing The Purification Of Wild Type And Mutant Recombinant Phospholipase D: Approaches To Developing A C. Pseudotuberculosis Vaccine, Utsav M. Patwardhan 2013 Occidental College

Optimizing The Purification Of Wild Type And Mutant Recombinant Phospholipase D: Approaches To Developing A C. Pseudotuberculosis Vaccine, Utsav M. Patwardhan

Biochemistry Student Honors Theses

No abstract provided.


Investigating Effects Of Between- And Within- Host Variability On Escherichia Coli O157 Shedding Pattern And Transmission, Shi Chen, Mike Sanderson, Cristina Lanzas 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating Effects Of Between- And Within- Host Variability On Escherichia Coli O157 Shedding Pattern And Transmission, Shi Chen, Mike Sanderson, Cristina Lanzas

Cristina Lanzas

Healthy cattle and their environment are the reservoir for the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157. In E. coli O157 epidemiology, supershedders have been loosely defined as cattle that shed high concentrations of E. coli O157 (≥104 colony-forming cells (CFU)/g of feces) at a single (or multiple) cross-section in time. Due to the variability in the pathogen shedding level among animals (between-host variability), as well as fluctuations in the level shed by a single animal (within-host variability), it is difficult to interpret fecal bacteria distributions, as well as to parse the relative contribution of between- and within-host variability to the ...


Epidemiology, Geographical Distribution, And Economic Consequences Of Swine Zoonoses: A Narrative Review, Salah Uddin Khan, Kalina R. Atanasova, Whitney S. Krueger, Alejandro Ramirez, Gregory C. Gray 2013 Iowa State University

Epidemiology, Geographical Distribution, And Economic Consequences Of Swine Zoonoses: A Narrative Review, Salah Uddin Khan, Kalina R. Atanasova, Whitney S. Krueger, Alejandro Ramirez, Gregory C. Gray

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications and Papers

We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs ...


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