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Photography-Based Method For Assessing Fluorescein Clearance Test In Dogs, Arianne Pontes Oriá, Miriam Flores Rebouças, Emanoel Martins Filho, Francisco de Assis Dórea Neto, Ana Cláudia Raposo, Lionel Sebbag 2018 Federal University of Bahia

Photography-Based Method For Assessing Fluorescein Clearance Test In Dogs, Arianne Pontes Oriá, Miriam Flores Rebouças, Emanoel Martins Filho, Francisco De Assis Dórea Neto, Ana Cláudia Raposo, Lionel Sebbag

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background: The fluorescein clearance test (FCT) provides insight into the tear film dynamics. The purpose of this study was to describe an inexpensive and practical method for assessing FCT in dogs, using photography and software analysis, and to assess the retention time of 1 vs. 2 eye drops on the canine ocular surface.

Methods: (i) In vivo - Eight healthy German Shepherd dogs were recruited. Following topical anesthesia with 0.5% proxymetacaine, each eye sequentially received (1 week apart) either 1 drop (35 μL) or 2 drops (70 μL) of 0.5% fluorescein. A Schirmer strip was inserted in the ventral ...


The Effect Of The Nematode Trapping Fungus Duddingtonia Flagrans Against Gastronintestinal Nematodes Of Exotic Ruminant Hoofstock At Disney's(R) Animal Kingdom Lodge, Kristen Renee Young 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Effect Of The Nematode Trapping Fungus Duddingtonia Flagrans Against Gastronintestinal Nematodes Of Exotic Ruminant Hoofstock At Disney's(R) Animal Kingdom Lodge, Kristen Renee Young

LSU Master's Theses

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can severely affect the performance of ruminant animals and may lead to an animal’s death in a severe, untreated infection. Zoological parks, which have used anthelmintic drugs for treatment of GIN, are now seeing evidence of drug resistant parasites (Garretson et al., 2009). Duddingtonia flagrans, a nematophagous fungus, has shown a reduction in larvae of coprocultures of exotic ruminants through feed administration at Disney's® Animal Kingdom Lodge (DAKL) and has potential to biologically control forage larvae (Terry, 2013). This study evaluated the effectiveness of Duddingtonia flagrans, administered to exotic ruminant hoofstock at a daily dose ...


Relationship Of The Mucosal Microbiota To Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Small Cell Intestinal Lymphoma In Cats, Kayode Garraway, Chad M. Johannes, Angela Bryan, John Peauroi, Giacomo Rossi, Min Zhang, Chong Wang, Karin Allenspach, Albert E. Jergens 2018 Iowa State University

Relationship Of The Mucosal Microbiota To Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Small Cell Intestinal Lymphoma In Cats, Kayode Garraway, Chad M. Johannes, Angela Bryan, John Peauroi, Giacomo Rossi, Min Zhang, Chong Wang, Karin Allenspach, Albert E. Jergens

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background: The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in healthy cats is altered in IBD. Little research has been performed to identify whether specific bacterial groups are associated with small cell GI lymphoma (LSA).

Hypothesis: Mucosal bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae and Fusobacterium spp., are abundant in intestinal biopsies of cats with small cell GI LSA compared to cats with IBD.

Animals: Fourteen cats with IBD and 14 cats with small cell GI LSA.

Methods: Retrospective case control study. A search of the medical records was performed to identify cats diagnosed with IBD and with GI LSA. Bacterial groups identified by FISH in GI biopsies ...


Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

The World Health Organization, estimated that 22.9% of children under the age of 5 are stunted. The etiology of stunting is multifactorial and is associated with poor linear growth, villous atrophy, dysbiosis, and increased intestinal permeability. Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces nutrient deficiencies and increases intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and decreases growth rates. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if chickens consuming a rye based diet exhibited a similar pathophysiology of stunted children to develop a relevant animal model. Therefore, early or late phase malnutrition was induced determine the effects of malnutrition on performance, bone mineralization ...


The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert 2018 Iowa State University

The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Systematic reviews are increasingly using data from preclinical animal experiments in evidence networks. Further, there are ever-increasing efforts to automate aspects of the systematic review process. When assessing systematic bias and unit-of-analysis errors in preclinical experiments, it is critical to understand the study design elements employed by investigators. Such information can also inform prioritization of automation efforts that allow the identification of the most common issues. The aim of this study was to identify the design elements used by investigators in preclinical research in order to inform unique aspects of assessment of bias and error in preclinical research. Using 100 ...


Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle

Theses and Dissertations

Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...


Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Understanding how disease affects commercial production is imperative for pig producers to quantify its full impact on pig performance, carcass quality, and net returns. The objective of this experiment was to assess the productivity and economic importance of naturally occurring health challenges (HC) under commercial conditions. Three 1,000 pig grow-finish facilities received 936 pigs each. The experimental period started approximately 34 d post placement at an average start BW of 13.1 ± 0.2 kg. Barns were characterized based on the relative HC, determined by diagnostic assessments as the main characterization tool, along with other health indicators. Barns were ...


Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo

Dissertations

Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...


Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...


Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2018 Iowa State University

Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Statistics Publications

The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7 days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection ...


Impact Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae And Lawsonia Intracellularis On The Performance Of Pigs Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, E. T. Helm, A. C. Outhouse, K. J. Schwartz, J. C. M. Dekkers, S. M. Lonergan, W. M. Rauw, N. K. Gabler 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae And Lawsonia Intracellularis On The Performance Of Pigs Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, E. T. Helm, A. C. Outhouse, K. J. Schwartz, J. C. M. Dekkers, S. M. Lonergan, W. M. Rauw, N. K. Gabler

Animal Science Publications

Feed efficiency (FE) is a valuable trait, yet how genetic selection for enhanced FE affects other processes such as response to disease is unknown. Disease from endemic respiratory and enteric pathogens such as Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) are common in swine production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if pigs selected for high versus low FE based on residual feed intake (RFI) respond differently to a dual respiratory and enteric challenge. Pigs selected for low RFI (LRFI, high feed efficiency) pigs are considered more FE compared to their high RFI (HRFI, low feed efficiency ...


The Efficacy Of Antibiotic Treatments In Dairy Cows At Dry-Off To Prevent New Intramammary Infections During The Dry-Period Or Clinical Mastitis During Early Lactation: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville, David F. Kelton, Stephen LeBlanc, Todd Duffield 2018 Universty of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Antibiotic Treatments In Dairy Cows At Dry-Off To Prevent New Intramammary Infections During The Dry-Period Or Clinical Mastitis During Early Lactation: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville, David F. Kelton, Stephen Leblanc, Todd Duffield

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Rationale: The majority of antibiotic use in the dairy industry is for the treatment and prevention of intramammary infections (IMI); in the Netherlands, approximately 60 % of all antimicrobial use in dairy is for this purpose, with two-thirds being dry cow therapy (Lam et al., 2012). In the United States, over 90 % of dairy cows receive dry cow therapy after every lactation (USDA-APHIS, 2016), with the goal of treating or preventing IMI during the dry period. These infections are strongly associated with risk of development of clinical mastitis in the first two weeks post-calving, which represents the highest risk period for ...


A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, limits production and weight gain in pre-weaned calves, resulting in significant economic loss each year. IBK is one of the most common diseases in pre-weaned calves which leads to clinical signs from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness [4]. Due to large economic losses and limits in production and weaning weight, use of effective vaccines to prevent IBK is imperative.

Moraxella bovis is the primary causal organism of IBK [4, 5]. However, available evidence does not suggest that vaccination is effective for preventing naturally occurring IBK. Although individual studies and ...


What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville 2018 Iowa State University

What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically significant disease of feedlot cattle[4]. Putative causal organisms include Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus[5].

Vaccination against the putative causal organisms is a frequently used approach to aid in the prevention of BRD. With a more significant concern for prudent antibiotic use in the beef industry, it is vital that decision making with regards BRDC management be based on an understanding of the efficacy of vaccination programs and management factors that might ...


Protocol For A Scoping Review Of Influenza A Viruses Infecting Swine Or Directly Related To Swine, Sheila Keay, Zvonimir Poljak, Annette O'Connor, Robert Friendship, Terri O'Sullivan, Jan Sargeant 2018 University of Guelph

Protocol For A Scoping Review Of Influenza A Viruses Infecting Swine Or Directly Related To Swine, Sheila Keay, Zvonimir Poljak, Annette O'Connor, Robert Friendship, Terri O'Sullivan, Jan Sargeant

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Influenza A viruses are endemic in swine populations, a global zoonotic concern, and associated with economically significant disease in food animal production. Global partnerships (Star-IDAZ 2014, USDA 2014, European Food Safety Authority 2015, WHO 2017) have conducted gap analyses on Animal Influenza Research and set research agendas for various species. To date, however, an explicit inventory of the broad areas of accumulated research on Influenza A viruses in swine or directly related to swine (IAV-S), constructed in compliance with syntheses standards for literature mapping (Arksey and O’Malley 2005), is not available.

In particular, a baseline descriptive categorization of the ...


The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Prevent Respiratory Diseases In Swine: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Terri O’Sullivan 2018 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Prevent Respiratory Diseases In Swine: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Terri O’Sullivan

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

The treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in pigs is an important aspect of swine production worldwide. The prudent use of antimicrobials and other therapeutic drugs is a primary responsibility of swine producers and veterinarians and decisions surrounding the use of drug therapy include considerations such as cost, efficacy, and food safety. The World Health Organization has published numerous reports urging all stakeholders concerned with both food-producing animals and humans to establish recommended steps to enhance the prudent use of antimicrobials (WHO, 2015). Similarly, the Organization for Animal Health has also published recommendations and position statements regarding prudent use and ...


Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important health challenges that currently exists in the global swine industry. PRRSV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to genus Arterivirus. A PRRSV infection is clinically characterized by reproductive failure in sows and/or respiratory disease in growing pigs, causing significant economic losses (Zimmerman et al., 2012). RNA viruses have relatively high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, mainly due to the low fidelity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Arnold et al., 2005; Vignuzzi et al., 2008). This rapid high mutation rate usually leads to ...


Comparative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Fraction Of Conditioned Media Derived From Starvation-Dormant And Anaerobically-Dormant Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, Marina Buciuc 2018 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Comparative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Fraction Of Conditioned Media Derived From Starvation-Dormant And Anaerobically-Dormant Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, Marina Buciuc

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a contagious chronic enteritis affecting all ruminants and causing economic loss of at least $250 million annually in the US dairy industry. One of the major limitations in the diagnosis of JD is the low sensitivity of fecal culture in animals with no clinical signs of the disease, but who are actively shedding MAP. Persistence of MAP in the host with no apparent signs of infection is attributed to its ability to enter a dormant state wherein the bacterium is viable, but is not able to replicate until ...


2018 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report (Complete), 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

2018 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report (Complete)

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Contents

Cow/Calf: Analyses of Birthdate and Growth in Beef Heifers Categorized by Puberty and Pregnancy Status • Letrozole: A Steroid-Free Estrous Synchronization Method • Comparison of Two Alternate Prostaglandin Products in Yearling Beef Heifers • Impact of Pre-and Postpartum Nutrition on March-calving Cow and Progeny Productivity • Effects of Late Gestation Supplementation, Synchronization, and Creep Feeding in a Spring Calving Beef Herd in the Nebraska Sandhills • Effect of Supplementation during the Breeding Season on a May-calving Herd in the Nebraska Sandhills • Impact of Winter Supplementation of May Calving Cows and Heifer Development System in Two Different Breeding Seasons on Subsequent Growth and Reproduction ...


Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Changes in temperament in heifers when handled either frequently or infrequently were evaluated subjectively based on their behavior when restrained in (chute score) and exiting from (exit score) a squeeze chute. Chute scores decreased over time–a favorable direction–with more dramatic declines in heifers handled more frequently. Heifers with higher chute scores on the first day of handling had the largest reduction in score. Exit scores changed less over time. Chute score therefore may be more indicative of acclimation to a novel environment than exit score. Both scores appear to offer a fast, easy and inexpensive way to quantify ...


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