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Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle

Theses and Dissertations

Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...


Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo

Dissertations

Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...


Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...


Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2018 Iowa State University

Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Statistics Publications

The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7 days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection ...


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2018 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Michael J. Kimber

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and incidence of seroconversion in alpacas in the United States during 2006 to 2007 and to evaluate associations between BVDV seropositive status and potential risk factors for exposure to BVDV.

Design—Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.

Sample—Blood samples from 192 alpacas > 6 months old in 39 herds from 20 states; 40 owners who completed questionnaires.

Procedures—550 US alpaca owners, stratified by state and randomly selected from a list of approximately 4,300 owners, were mailed a study description, voluntary participation request, and questionnaire. Thirty-nine owners submitted ...


A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang 2018 Iowa State University

A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OXR) in C. jejuni. We further demonstrated ...


Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2018 Iowa State University

Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This “reverse translational” approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.


Impact Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae And Lawsonia Intracellularis On The Performance Of Pigs Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, E. T. Helm, A. C. Outhouse, K. J. Schwartz, J. C. M. Dekkers, S. M. Lonergan, W. M. Rauw, N. K. Gabler 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae And Lawsonia Intracellularis On The Performance Of Pigs Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, E. T. Helm, A. C. Outhouse, K. J. Schwartz, J. C. M. Dekkers, S. M. Lonergan, W. M. Rauw, N. K. Gabler

Animal Science Publications

Feed efficiency (FE) is a valuable trait, yet how genetic selection for enhanced FE affects other processes such as response to disease is unknown. Disease from endemic respiratory and enteric pathogens such as Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) are common in swine production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if pigs selected for high versus low FE based on residual feed intake (RFI) respond differently to a dual respiratory and enteric challenge. Pigs selected for low RFI (LRFI, high feed efficiency) pigs are considered more FE compared to their high RFI (HRFI, low feed efficiency ...


Impact Of Intake On Methane Production In Growing Steers, Tom M. Winders, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Samodha C. Fernando, Richard Stowell, Galen E. Erickson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Intake On Methane Production In Growing Steers, Tom M. Winders, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Samodha C. Fernando, Richard Stowell, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A study was conducted to evaluate the impact that level of intake has on methane and carbon dioxide production by growing steers. Two treatments were evaluated that included ad-libitum intake compared to limit-fed steers. The ad-libitum fed cattle had greater gains, similar feed efficiency and produced more methane and carbon dioxide per day, while the limit fed cattle produced more methane and carbon dioxide per pound of intake than the ad-libitum fed cattle.


Effects Of Movement And Activity Behavior In A Pasture System Compared To Time, Jace R. Stott, Mitchell B. Stephenson, Kathryn J. Hanford 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Movement And Activity Behavior In A Pasture System Compared To Time, Jace R. Stott, Mitchell B. Stephenson, Kathryn J. Hanford

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

During the summer of 2016 seventeen cows were fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking collars to evaluate activity characteristics of cattle on rangelands. Data collected included daily distance traveled, average distance from water, daily time spent at water, daily area covered, and percent of day spent active (traveling or grazing). These variables were analyzed weekly to assess changes in behavior as time within pastures increased during three time periods of the growing season. Based on data collected from mid-May to mid-September, cattle showed little changes throughout the grazing season as to levels of activity through different periods of a ...


Supplementing Rumen Undegradable Protein To Grazing Cattle, Braden C. Troyer, Bradley M. Boyd, Andrea K. Watson, Terry J. Klopfenstein 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplementing Rumen Undegradable Protein To Grazing Cattle, Braden C. Troyer, Bradley M. Boyd, Andrea K. Watson, Terry J. Klopfenstein

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A pooled-analysis of previous Nebraska Beef Report Articles examined the impact of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) supplementation for cattle grazing different types of forage. Each lb of RUP supplement increased ADG by 0.63 lb/d when cattle were grazing smooth brome and 0.43 lb/d when grazing warm season grasses. Cattle did not respond to RUP when grazing summer annuals which were high (18.2%) in CP.


Statistics Used In The Nebraska Beef Report And Their Purpose, 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Statistics Used In The Nebraska Beef Report And Their Purpose

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The purpose of beef cattle and beef product research at UNL is to provide reference information that represents the various populations (cows, calves, heifers, feeders, carcasses, retail products, etc) of beef production. Obviously, the researcher cannot apply treatments to every member of a population; therefore he/ she must sample the population. The use of statistics allows the researcher and readers of the Nebraska Beef report the opportunity to evaluate separation of random (chance) occurrences and real biological effects of a treatment. Following is a brief description of the major statistics used in the beef report. For a more detailed description ...


Impact Of Winter Supplementation Of May Calving Cows And Heifer Development System In Two Different Breeding Seasons On Subsequent Growth And Reproduction, Shelby A. Springman, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacqueline A. Musgrave, John Nollette, Andy Applegarth, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impact Of Winter Supplementation Of May Calving Cows And Heifer Development System In Two Different Breeding Seasons On Subsequent Growth And Reproduction, Shelby A. Springman, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacqueline A. Musgrave, John Nollette, Andy Applegarth, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

In Exp. 1, May-calving cows were utilized to evaluate the effects of winter supplementation on heifer progeny. Cows grazed either dormant upland winter range with or without a protein supplement or grazed dormant meadow with or without a protein supplement. In Exp. 2, replacement heifers from March and May calving herds were offered ad libitum meadow hay and 4 lb/d supplement or grazed meadow and offered 1 lb/d supplement from mid-January to mid-April. Calf weaning BW and ADG from birth to weaning was less for calves from cows grazing winter range with no supplement compared with all other ...


Effect Of Injectable Trace Mineral On Reproductive Performance In Beef Heifers, Shelby A. Springman, John Maddux, Mary E. Drewnoski, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Injectable Trace Mineral On Reproductive Performance In Beef Heifers, Shelby A. Springman, John Maddux, Mary E. Drewnoski, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Trace minerals serve an essential role in regulating reproduction. Free-choice trace mineral supplementation is often provided to grazing beef cattle. An injectable trace-mineral solution used with free-choice trace minerals may be beneficial before breeding to improve mineral status. Therefore, Red Angus-based, May-born heifers were utilized to determine the effects of an injectable trace mineral on reproductive performance. Pregnancy rates did not differ between heifers injected with a trace mineral and heifers that received no injection. Injectable trace mineral at CIDR insertion 33 d before artificial insemination did not influence reproductive performance in heifers with adequate trace mineral status.


Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Changes in temperament in heifers when handled either frequently or infrequently were evaluated subjectively based on their behavior when restrained in (chute score) and exiting from (exit score) a squeeze chute. Chute scores decreased over time–a favorable direction–with more dramatic declines in heifers handled more frequently. Heifers with higher chute scores on the first day of handling had the largest reduction in score. Exit scores changed less over time. Chute score therefore may be more indicative of acclimation to a novel environment than exit score. Both scores appear to offer a fast, easy and inexpensive way to quantify ...


Evaluation Of Corn Distillers Solubles On Finishing Steer Performance, Benjamin H. Hansen, Curtis J. Bittner, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Jim C. MacDonald, Galen E. Erickson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Corn Distillers Solubles On Finishing Steer Performance, Benjamin H. Hansen, Curtis J. Bittner, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Jim C. Macdonald, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A finishing study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding 0, 8, 16, or 20% corn distillers solubles (CDS), as well as the effects of feeding a combination of 16% CDS and 20% wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) to replace a blend of dry-rolled and high-moisture corn on finishing steer performance. As inclusions of CDS increased, ADG linearly increased and F:G linearly decreased. Feeding value of CDS at 20% inclusion was determined to be 147% compared to the corn blend. The addition of WDGS resulted in a decrease in DMI with similar ADG, resulting in a decrease ...


Effects Of Production System And Post-Weaning Management On Finishing Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Steer And Heifer Calves, Shelby E. Gardine, Bradley M. Boyd, Curtis J. Bittner, F. Henry Hilscher, Karla H. Jenkins, Galen E. Erickson, Terry J. Klopfenstein 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Production System And Post-Weaning Management On Finishing Performance And Carcass Characteristics Of Steer And Heifer Calves, Shelby E. Gardine, Bradley M. Boyd, Curtis J. Bittner, F. Henry Hilscher, Karla H. Jenkins, Galen E. Erickson, Terry J. Klopfenstein

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

This study evaluated the effects of cow-calf production system and post-weaning management on finishing performance and carcass characteristics of steer and heifer calves. Calves that were wintered on cornstalks prior to weaning had lighter initial BW compared to calves that were wintered in the dry-lot; however, final BW and carcass weight were similar between treatments. Post-weaning management was either adapting calves to a finishing diet following weaning or feeding a grower diet prior to the finishing phase. When harvested at similar back fat, calves that were fed a grower diet for 76 days prior to the finishing phase had 71 ...


The Effect Of Harvest Method And Ammoniation Of Corn Residue On Growing Calf Performance, Ashley C. Conway, Robert G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, James C. MacDonald, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Mary Drewnoski 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Effect Of Harvest Method And Ammoniation Of Corn Residue On Growing Calf Performance, Ashley C. Conway, Robert G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, James C. Macdonald, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Mary Drewnoski

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A growing trial was conducted to determine the effect of feeding baled corn residue harvested using three different methods, with and without ammoniation of the residue. Residue harvested with the New Holland Cornrower™ with two rows of chopped stem added to the windrow resulted in a 9% increase in ADG compared to conventional rake and bale harvest or turning off the combine spreader and baling tailing. Ammoniation of residue increased ADG 67% (increase of 1.1 lb/d) over non-ammoniated residue. Feed efficiency was not affected by harvest method, but ammoniation decreased F:G by 13% compared to cattle fed ...


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