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Physiologic Effects Of Nasopharyngeal Administration Of Supplemental Oxygen At Various Flow Rates In Healthy Neonatal Foals, David M. Wong, Cody J. Alcott, Chong Wang, Bonnie L. Hay-Kraus, Benjamin R. Buchanan, Charles W. Brockus 2016 Iowa State University

Physiologic Effects Of Nasopharyngeal Administration Of Supplemental Oxygen At Various Flow Rates In Healthy Neonatal Foals, David M. Wong, Cody J. Alcott, Chong Wang, Bonnie L. Hay-Kraus, Benjamin R. Buchanan, Charles W. Brockus

Chong Wang

Objective—To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (Fio2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals—9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals.

Procedures—In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal Fio2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial ...


Evaluation Of Disinfection Protocols To Reduce Virus Transmission Via Livestock Transport Vehicles Using Model Trailers And Experimental Conditions, Peter T. Schneider, Jianqiang Zhang, Alejandro Ramirez, Chong Wang, Derald J. Holtkamp 2016 Innovative Agriculture Solutions

Evaluation Of Disinfection Protocols To Reduce Virus Transmission Via Livestock Transport Vehicles Using Model Trailers And Experimental Conditions, Peter T. Schneider, Jianqiang Zhang, Alejandro Ramirez, Chong Wang, Derald J. Holtkamp

Chong Wang

Objective: To determine the efficacy of accelerated hydrogen peroxide disinfectant and combined glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium disinfectant after a high-pressure wash against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in experimental settings mimicking field conditions commonly experienced on livestock trailers.

Materials and methods: Aluminum model livestock trailers (1:61) were contaminated with PRRSV- and TGEV-spiked feces. Each model trailer underwent a simple washing procedure and an assigned disinfectant application. Four environmental swabs were collected per trailer at five time points and tested by PRRSV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and TGEV polymerase chain reaction (PCR ...


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2016 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Effectiveness Of A Computer-Based Tutorial For Teaching How To Make A Blood Smear., Vanessa Preast, Jared A. Danielson, Holly Bender, Maury Bousson 2016 Iowa State University

Effectiveness Of A Computer-Based Tutorial For Teaching How To Make A Blood Smear., Vanessa Preast, Jared A. Danielson, Holly Bender, Maury Bousson

Holly Bender

BACKGROUND:

Computer-aided instruction (CAI) was developed to teach veterinary students how to make blood smears. This instruction was intended to replace the traditional instructional method in order to promote efficient use of faculty resources while maintaining learning outcomes and student satisfaction.

OBJECTIVES:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a computer-aided blood smear tutorial on 1) instructor's teaching time, 2) students' ability to make blood smears, and 3) students' ability to recognize smear quality.

METHODS:

Three laboratory sessions for senior veterinary students were taught using traditional methods (control group) and 4 sessions were taught using ...


A Novel Educational Tool For Teaching Diagnostic Reasoning And Laboratory Data Interpretation To Veterinary (And Medical) Students., Holly Bender, Jared A. Danielson 2016 Iowa State University

A Novel Educational Tool For Teaching Diagnostic Reasoning And Laboratory Data Interpretation To Veterinary (And Medical) Students., Holly Bender, Jared A. Danielson

Holly Bender

The Diagnostic Pathfinder was designed to help students learn diagnostic problem solving by supporting them in explaining relationships among history and physical examination findings, data abnormalities, and the underlying mechanisms of disease. The Pathfinder has been used to teach diagnostic problem solving to veterinary students since 2001 and is currently in use at 10 colleges of veterinary medicine. This article describes how the Pathfinder works and summarizes results from studies exploring the effect of Pathfinder use on learning and satisfaction. Pathfinder characteristics are described in terms of their influence on cognitive load, and strategies are provided for effective implementation.


Mechanical Transmission Of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli To Weaned Pigs By People, And Biosecurity Procedures That Prevented Such Transmission, Sandra F. Amass, Patrick G. Halbur, Barbara A. Byrne, Jessica L. Schneider, Carol W. Koons, Nancy A. Cornick, Darryl Ragland 2016 Purdue University

Mechanical Transmission Of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli To Weaned Pigs By People, And Biosecurity Procedures That Prevented Such Transmission, Sandra F. Amass, Patrick G. Halbur, Barbara A. Byrne, Jessica L. Schneider, Carol W. Koons, Nancy A. Cornick, Darryl Ragland

Nancy Cornick

Objectives: To determine whether people can mechanically transmit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from infected to susceptible weaned pigs during direct pig contact and to determine biosecurity measures that will prevent such transmissions.

Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-five 19- to 21-day-old weaned pigs, culture-negative fro ETEC M1823B, were randomly allocated to six treatment groups housed in five separate isolation rooms. Inoculated Pigs were offered 1.36 x 1010 to 8.92 X 1010 colony forming units of E coli mixed in strawberry gelatin on two occasions. Pen Sentinels were housed with Inoculated Pigs. A caretaker fed pigs ...


Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise von G Jørgensen 2016 The University of Maine

Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise Von G Jørgensen

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Colonization And Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Swine, Nancy A. Cornick, Dianna M. Jordan, Sheridan L. Booher, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Colonization And Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Swine, Nancy A. Cornick, Dianna M. Jordan, Sheridan L. Booher, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) have emerged over the last several decades as a significant cause of food-borne illness in the United States. Approximately 5-10% of people clinically infected by these bacteria develop a systemic disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome, which has a fatality rate of approximately 5%. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that STEC cause some 110,000 illnesses and 90 deaths annually in the United States (Mead et al. 1999). In addition, the economic consequences of recalling large lots of food for public health reasons are significant. Cattle are considered ...


Persistent Colonization Of Sheep By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Other E. Coli Pathotypes, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, T. A. Casey, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Persistent Colonization Of Sheep By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Other E. Coli Pathotypes, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, T. A. Casey, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness in humans. Ruminants appear to be more frequently colonized by STEC than are other animals, but the reason(s) for this is unknown. We compared the frequency, magnitude, duration, and transmissibility of colonization of sheep by E. coli O157:H7 to that by other pathotypes of E. coli. Young adult sheep were simultaneously inoculated with a cocktail consisting of two strains of E. coliO157:H7, two strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and one strain of enteropathogenic E. coli. Both STEC strains and ETEC 2041 were given at ...


Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho 2016 Iowa State University

Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho

Nancy Cornick

Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater (P < 0.10) proportions of applied precipitation and amounts of sediment and P transported in runoff from bare sites than from vegetated sites across grazing treatments. Similar differences were observed comparing vegetated sites in CSU and RS pastures with vegetated sites in CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, andEscherichia coli O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces ...


Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Po157 Genes In Biofilm Development In Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Edl933, Supraja Puttamreddy, Nancy A. Cornick, F. Chris Minion 2016 Iowa State University

Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Po157 Genes In Biofilm Development In Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Edl933, Supraja Puttamreddy, Nancy A. Cornick, F. Chris Minion

Nancy Cornick

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, a world-wide human food-borne pathogen, causes mild to severe diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The ability of this pathogen to persist in the environment contributes to its dissemination to a wide range of foods and food processing surfaces. Biofilms are thought to be involved in persistence, but the process of biofilm formation is complex and poorly understood in E. coli O157:H7. To better understand the genetics of this process, a mini-Tn5 transposon insertion library was constructed in strain EDL933 and screened for biofilm-negative mutants using a microtiter plate assay. Ninety-five of 11 ...


Intervention With Shiga Toxin (Stx) Antibody After Infection By Stx-Producing Escherichia Coli, Ilze Matise, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Intervention With Shiga Toxin (Stx) Antibody After Infection By Stx-Producing Escherichia Coli, Ilze Matise, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Shiga toxins (Stxs) produced by Escherichia coli (STEC) cause systemic vascular damage, manifested as hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and as edema disease in pigs. Edema disease, a naturally occurring disease of pigs, was used to determine whether Stx antibodies, administered after infection and after the onset of Stx production, could prevent the systemic vascular damage and clinical disease caused by Stxs. A total of 119 STEC-infected pigs were treated with low, medium, or high doses of Stx antibody or with placebo. After inoculation with STEC, antibodies or placebo was injected intraperitoneally at 2 days postinoculation (DPI; low dose) or ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2016 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Nancy Cornick

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and ...


Indirect Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Occurs Readily Among Swine But Not Among Sheep, Nancy A. Cornick, Hung VuKhac 2016 Iowa State University

Indirect Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Occurs Readily Among Swine But Not Among Sheep, Nancy A. Cornick, Hung Vukhac

Nancy Cornick

Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 among reservoir animals is generally thought to occur either by direct contact between a naïve animal and an infected animal or by consumption of food or water containing the organism. Although ruminants are considered the major reservoir, there are two reports of human infections caused by E. coli O157:H7 linked to the consumption of pork products or to the contamination of fresh produce by swine manure. The objective of this study was to determine whether E. coli O157:H7 could be transmitted to naïve animals, both sheep and swine, that did not have ...


Cattle Lack Vascular Receptors For Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Shiga Toxins, Ingrid M. Pruimboom-Brees, Tim W. Morgan, Mark R. Ackermann, Evelyn D. Nystrom, James E. Samuel, Nancy A. Cornick, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Cattle Lack Vascular Receptors For Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Shiga Toxins, Ingrid M. Pruimboom-Brees, Tim W. Morgan, Mark R. Ackermann, Evelyn D. Nystrom, James E. Samuel, Nancy A. Cornick, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes Shiga toxin (Stx)-mediated vascular damage, resulting in hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. These infections are often foodborne, and healthy carrier cattle are a major reservoir of E. coli O157:H7. We were interested in knowing why cattle are tolerant to infection with E. coli O157:H7. Cattle tissues were examined for the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), for receptivity to Stx binding in vitro, and for susceptibility to the enterotoxic effects of Stx in vivo. TLC was used to detect Gb3 in tissues from a newborn calf. Gb3 was detected by ...


Cattle Lack Vascular Receptors For Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Shiga Toxins, Ingrid M. Pruimboom-Brees, Tim W. Morgan, Mark R. Ackermann, Evelyn D. Nystrom, James E. Samuel, Nancy A. Cornick, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Cattle Lack Vascular Receptors For Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Shiga Toxins, Ingrid M. Pruimboom-Brees, Tim W. Morgan, Mark R. Ackermann, Evelyn D. Nystrom, James E. Samuel, Nancy A. Cornick, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes Shiga toxin (Stx)-mediated vascular damage, resulting in hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. These infections are often foodborne, and healthy carrier cattle are a major reservoir of E. coli O157:H7. We were interested in knowing why cattle are tolerant to infection with E. coli O157:H7. Cattle tissues were examined for the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), for receptivity to Stx binding in vitro, and for susceptibility to the enterotoxic effects of Stx in vivo. TLC was used to detect Gb3 in tissues from a newborn calf. Gb3 was detected by ...


Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious, neurodegenerative disease of deer (white-tailed and mule), elk, moose, sika deer and muntjac caused by a misfolded version of a normally occurring protein. The notion that CWD could be spread indirectly via the environment has been documented and accepted in the scientific community for quite some time. Deer and elk consume soil, inhale dust and lick objects that have infectious material on them, resulting in chronic, low dose exposure. Surface contamination of plants with urine or feces is likely an additional source of exposure via ingestion and has been modeled in the laboratory ...


Exclusion Of The Unfolded Protein Response In Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration In The Canine T4r Rho Model Of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa, Stefania Marsilli, Sem Genini, Raghavi Sudharsan, Jeremy Gingrich, Gustavo Aguirre, William Beltran 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Exclusion Of The Unfolded Protein Response In Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration In The Canine T4r Rho Model Of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa, Stefania Marsilli, Sem Genini, Raghavi Sudharsan, Jeremy Gingrich, Gustavo Aguirre, William Beltran

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose To examine the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) following acute light damage in the naturally-occurring canine model of RHO-adRP (T4R RHOdog). Methods The left eyes of T4R RHOdogs were briefly light-exposed and retinas collected 3, 6 and 24 hours later. The contra-lateral eyes were shielded and used as controls. To evaluate the time course of cell death, histology and TUNEL assays were performed. Electron microscopy was used to examine ultrastructural alterations in photoreceptors at 15 min, 1 hour, and 6 hours after light exposure. Gene expression of markers of ER stress and ...


Table Of Contents 2016 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Table Of Contents 2016 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

No abstract provided.


Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating 2016 Otterbein University

Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating

Honors Thesis Projects

With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...


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