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Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor 2020 Iowa State University

Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The causal effect of an exposure on an outcome of interest in an observational study cannot be estimated directly if the confounding variables are not controlled. Many approaches are available for estimating the causal effect of an exposure. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the advantages associated with using inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust estimation of the odds ratio in terms of reduced bias. IPW approach can be used to adjust for confounding variables and provide unbiased estimates of the exposure’s causal effect. For cluster-structured data, as is common in animal populations, inverse conditional probability weighting (ICPW) approach ...


A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee 2020 Iowa State University

A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background

Flunixin meglumine (FM) was investigated for the effectiveness of plasma, oral fluid, and urine concentrations to predict tissue residue depletion profiles in finishing-age swine, along with the potential for untreated pigs to acquire tissue residues following commingled housing with FM-treated pigs. Twenty pigs were housed in groups of three treated and one untreated control. Treated pigs received one 2.2 mg/kg dose of FM intramuscularly. Before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h (h) after treatment, plasma samples were taken. At 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days (d) post-treatment, necropsy and collection ...


Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher 2020 USDA, APHIS, WS, National Wildlife Research Center

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Use of toxic baits or other tools for managing nuisance species must ensure that the species of interest is adequately targeted while exposure to nontarget species is minimized. Nontarget takes of acetaminophen‐laced baits for control of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam may put those animals at risk of lethal intoxication and render the bait unavailable to the intended target species. We used wildlife cameras to identify species removing toxic and nontoxic baits from brown treesnake bait stations designed to exclude nontarget taxa in 2015 and 2016. Throughout various sites and habitat types, and balanced by season (wet ...


Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton 2020 USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center

Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Introduced rats (Rattus spp.) can pose a serious threat to native flora and fauna, especially on islands where most species have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators. Effective detection and eradication methods for introduced rats are essential to the maintenance of insular ecosystem integrity. Thus, it is important to better understand the behaviour of rats when they first arrive in a new setting.

Aims. To determine whether rats would find some novel stimuli to be significantly more attractive than other novel stimuli.

Methods. An eight-arm radial maze was used to study the behaviour of three species of Rattus ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center & Nelson Mandela University

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Influence Of Provider Characteristics On Opioid Prescribing Behavior Among Idaho Veterinarians, Tara A. Jones 2020 Boise State University

Influence Of Provider Characteristics On Opioid Prescribing Behavior Among Idaho Veterinarians, Tara A. Jones

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Opioid addiction and misuse have become widespread in the U.S. over the past decade, causing a rise in opioid related mortality. High opioid prescribing rates have led public health agencies to examine provider prescribing practices. Research has identified provider characteristics such as gender, age, and years of experience are predictive of opioid prescribing in human medical providers. Veterinarians are frequently licensed to prescribe opioids, yet less is known about the prescribing practices of veterinarians. From a public health perspective, it is important to explore the potential connection between veterinary medicine and the opioid epidemic. The current study assessed whether ...


Drowning Of Pet Owners During Attempted Animal Rescues: The Avir-A Syndrome, John Pearn, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin 2020 The University of Queensland, Royal Life Saving Society - Australia

Drowning Of Pet Owners During Attempted Animal Rescues: The Avir-A Syndrome, John Pearn, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The rescuer who drowns can result from the attempted rescue of a human or an animal. We report here a total population analysis of all drowning fatalities for the 14-year period 1–July-2002 to 30-June-2016 which involved an attempted rescue of an animal. Cases were drawn from the Royal Life Saving National Fatal Drowning Database, which in turn, derived its data primarily from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). Eight people drowned, all adults (ranging in age from 19-74 years), in the attempted rescue of an animal. Seven of the animals were domestic pet dogs, and in two cases farm ...


Development And Management Of Canine Adverse Food Reactions And Its Connections To The Grain-Free Dog Food Movement, Savannah Dunn 2020 Liberty University

Development And Management Of Canine Adverse Food Reactions And Its Connections To The Grain-Free Dog Food Movement, Savannah Dunn

Senior Honors Theses

Canine Adverse Food Reactions include immunologically-mediated food allergies as well as non-immunological food intolerances. Although popular belief holds grains are responsible for AFR, the majority are aggravated by the common protein sources found in commercial dog foods. Elimination diets, a time-intensive method in which suspected allergens are removed from the dog’s diet, are the most effective form of diagnosis, though alternative techniques including patch testing and serum antibody tests have been explored. Presently, avoidance of allergens is the recommended management approach. The erroneous association of grains with AFR has led to the rise of grain-free dog food. However, these ...


(-)-Α-Pinene Reduces Quorum Sensing And Campylobacter Jejuni Colonization In Broiler Chickens, Katarina Šimunović, Orhan Sahin, Jasna Kovač, Zhangqi Shen, Anja Klančnik, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina 2020 University of Ljubljana

(-)-Α-Pinene Reduces Quorum Sensing And Campylobacter Jejuni Colonization In Broiler Chickens, Katarina Šimunović, Orhan Sahin, Jasna Kovač, Zhangqi Shen, Anja Klančnik, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most prevalent causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is largely associated with consumption of contaminated poultry. Current Campylobacter control measures at the poultry production level remain insufficient, and hence there is the need for alternative control strategies. We evaluated the potential of the monoterpene (-)-α-pinene for control of C. jejuni in poultry. The antibacterial and resistance-modulatory activities of (-)-α-pinene were also determined against 57 C. jejuni strains. In addition, the anti-quorum-sensing activity of (-)-α-pinene against C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was determined for three subinhibitory concentrations (125, 62.5, 31.25 mg/L) over ...


Swine Disease Reporting: Report #25, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thrun, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob McGaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings 2020 Iowa State University

Swine Disease Reporting: Report #25, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thrun, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregates data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America, and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers to make informed decisions on disease prevention, detection and management. After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent is to provide interpretation of the data observed, and ...


Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente 2020 US Department of Agriculture , Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Wildlife Research Center

Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The wild pig population on Molokai, Hawaii, USA is a possible reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and has been implicated in decades past as the source of disease for the island’s domestic cattle. Heat-inactivated vaccines have been effective for reducing disease prevalence in wild boar in Spain and could prove useful for managing M. bovis in Molokai wild pigs. We designed an experiment to test this vaccine in wild pigs of Molokai genetics. Fifteen 3–4-month-old pigs were orally administered 106–107 colony forming units (cfu) of heat-inactivated M. bovis (Vaccinates; n = 8; 0 ...


Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie McKee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie Mckee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa L.) damage and control in 12 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas). The crops chosen for this study represent the “second-tier” in terms of economic importance after the six crops that were the subject of Anderson et al. (2016). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) in the summer of 2019 to a sample of producers in each of the states (except California) of the following six crops: hay, pecans (Carya ...


Swine Disease Reporting: Report #24, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob McGaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings 2020 Iowa State University

Swine Disease Reporting: Report #24, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Phillip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregates data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America, and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers to make informed decisions on disease prevention, detection and management. After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent is to provide interpretation of the data observed, and ...


Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner 2020 USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center

Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Impacts of large-scale oil spills on avian species are far-reaching.While media attention often focuses on lethal impacts, sub-lethal effects and the impacts of rehabilitation receive less attention. The objective of our study was to characterize effects of moderate external oiling and subsequent rehabilitation on feather structure and thermoregulation in gulls. We captured 30 wild ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and randomly assigned each individual to an experimental group: 1) controls, 2) rehabilitated birds (externally oiled, rehabilitated by washing), or 3) oiled birds (externally oiled, not rehabilitated). We externally oiled birds with weathered MC252 Deepwater Horizon oil (water for controls) and ...


Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2020 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Oral baiting is a fundamental method for delivering toxicants to pest species. Planning baiting strategies is challenging because bait-consumption rates depend on dynamic processes including space use and demographics of the target species. To determine cost-effective strategies for optimizing baiting, we developed a spatially explicit model of population dynamics using field-based measures of wild-pig (Sus scrofa) space use, bait consumption, and mortality probabilities. The most cost-effective baiting strategy depended strongly on the population reduction objective and initial density. A wide range of baiting strategies were cost-effective when the objective was 80% population reduction. In contrast, only a narrow range of ...


Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt 2020 USDA, APHIS, WS, National Wildlife Research Center

Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rats are known to threaten natural resources and human health and safety. Island-wide rat eradication attempts have been increasing in number and scale during the past several decades, as has the frequency of eradication success. The most common method to remove all rats from an island is to broadcast anticoagulant rodenticide bait into every rat’s home range on the island. Broadcast of toxicants can put humans and other nontarget species in marine and terrestrial environments at risk of exposure. The persistence of anticoagulant residues is somewhat unknown, particularly in marine environments. Three years after ~ 18,000 kg of ...


Swine Disease Reporting: Report #23, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Philip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob McGaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings 2020 Iowa State University

Swine Disease Reporting: Report #23, Giovani Trevisan, Daniel Linhares, Edison Magalhaes, Leticia Linhares, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Kent Schwartz, Eric Burrough, Philip Gauger, Rodger Main, Mary Thurn, Paulo Lages, Cesar Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Rob Mcgaughey, Eric Herrman, Giselle Cino, Jamie Henningson, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane C. Hennings

Swine Disease Reporting System

SDRS includes multiple projects that aggregates data from participating veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) in the United States of America, and reports the major findings to the swine industry. Our goal is to share information on endemic and emerging diseases affecting the swine population in the USA, assisting veterinarians and producers to make informed decisions on disease prevention, detection and management. After aggregating information from participating VDLs and summarizing the data, we ask the input of our advisory group, which consists of veterinarians and producers across the USA swine industry. The intent is to provide interpretation of the data observed, and ...


Evaluation Of Commercial Genomic Tests For Maternal Traits In Crossbred Beef Cattle, McKay R. Erickson, J.R. Tait, R. A. Funston 2020 University of Nebraska– Lincoln

Evaluation Of Commercial Genomic Tests For Maternal Traits In Crossbred Beef Cattle, Mckay R. Erickson, J.R. Tait, R. A. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

DNA samples were collected from beef heifers born at the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory and analyzed with a genomic test. Phenotypic data from these females were compiled and used in a regression analysis to evaluate the utility of these genomic scores as predictors for phenotypic outcomes. Th e genomic score for birth body weight (BW) was signifi cantly associated with animal birth BW. Th e genomic score for heifer pregnancy was not a statistically significant predictor of actual pregnancy. Neither dam age or the genomic score for stayability were significant predictors of actual reproductive longevity.


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