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Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2018 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Michael J. Kimber

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and incidence of seroconversion in alpacas in the United States during 2006 to 2007 and to evaluate associations between BVDV seropositive status and potential risk factors for exposure to BVDV.

Design—Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.

Sample—Blood samples from 192 alpacas > 6 months old in 39 herds from 20 states; 40 owners who completed questionnaires.

Procedures—550 US alpaca owners, stratified by state and randomly selected from a list of approximately 4,300 owners, were mailed a study description, voluntary participation request, and questionnaire. Thirty-nine owners submitted ...


A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang 2018 Iowa State University

A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OXR) in C. jejuni. We further demonstrated ...


Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2018 Iowa State University

Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This “reverse translational” approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.


2018 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report (Complete), 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

2018 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report (Complete)

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Contents

Cow/Calf: Analyses of Birthdate and Growth in Beef Heifers Categorized by Puberty and Pregnancy Status • Letrozole: A Steroid-Free Estrous Synchronization Method • Comparison of Two Alternate Prostaglandin Products in Yearling Beef Heifers • Impact of Pre-and Postpartum Nutrition on March-calving Cow and Progeny Productivity • Effects of Late Gestation Supplementation, Synchronization, and Creep Feeding in a Spring Calving Beef Herd in the Nebraska Sandhills • Effect of Supplementation during the Breeding Season on a May-calving Herd in the Nebraska Sandhills • Impact of Winter Supplementation of May Calving Cows and Heifer Development System in Two Different Breeding Seasons on Subsequent Growth and Reproduction ...


Impact Of Intake On Methane Production In Growing Steers, Tom M. Winders, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Samodha C. Fernando, Richard Stowell, Galen E. Erickson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Intake On Methane Production In Growing Steers, Tom M. Winders, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Samodha C. Fernando, Richard Stowell, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A study was conducted to evaluate the impact that level of intake has on methane and carbon dioxide production by growing steers. Two treatments were evaluated that included ad-libitum intake compared to limit-fed steers. The ad-libitum fed cattle had greater gains, similar feed efficiency and produced more methane and carbon dioxide per day, while the limit fed cattle produced more methane and carbon dioxide per pound of intake than the ad-libitum fed cattle.


Impact Of Ramaekers Immune Primer On Finishing Beef Cattle Performance And Liver Abscess Rate, Hannah C. Wilson, F. Henry Hilscher, Bradley M. Boyd, Jim C. MacDonald, Galen E. Erickson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Ramaekers Immune Primer On Finishing Beef Cattle Performance And Liver Abscess Rate, Hannah C. Wilson, F. Henry Hilscher, Bradley M. Boyd, Jim C. Macdonald, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A feedlot study was conducted comparing a natural feed additive (Ramaekers Immune Primer) to Tylan or nothing on receiving and finishing performance. There were no differences for final BW, ADG, F:G, HCW, marbling, LM area, or fat thickness due to treatment. Liver abscess incidence and severity were reduced in steers fed Tylan, no differences were noted between Ramaekers Immune Primer and no additive. There was no difference in number of cattle treated for respiratory illness. Steers on the Ramaekers Immune Primer treatment had lower feed intake during the receiving period but had similar ADG and numerically better F:G ...


Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. MacDonald 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Five summer management strategies were compared following grazing corn residue through winter. Cattle were assigned to be 1) summer finished, 2) graze bromegrass, 3) graze bromegrass and fed distillers grains at 0.6% of BW, 4) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 1.70 lb/d, or 5) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 2.35 lb/d. Results differed by year, however, in general as backgrounding ADG increased, days required on feed to reach an equal fat endpoint decreased. In year 1, ADG of cattle grazing bromegrass was less than cattle backgrounded in pens. There was no ...


Supplementing Rumen Undegradable Protein To Grazing Cattle, Braden C. Troyer, Bradley M. Boyd, Andrea K. Watson, Terry J. Klopfenstein 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplementing Rumen Undegradable Protein To Grazing Cattle, Braden C. Troyer, Bradley M. Boyd, Andrea K. Watson, Terry J. Klopfenstein

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A pooled-analysis of previous Nebraska Beef Report Articles examined the impact of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) supplementation for cattle grazing different types of forage. Each lb of RUP supplement increased ADG by 0.63 lb/d when cattle were grazing smooth brome and 0.43 lb/d when grazing warm season grasses. Cattle did not respond to RUP when grazing summer annuals which were high (18.2%) in CP.


Effects Of Movement And Activity Behavior In A Pasture System Compared To Time, Jace R. Stott, Mitchell B. Stephenson, Kathryn J. Hanford 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Movement And Activity Behavior In A Pasture System Compared To Time, Jace R. Stott, Mitchell B. Stephenson, Kathryn J. Hanford

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

During the summer of 2016 seventeen cows were fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking collars to evaluate activity characteristics of cattle on rangelands. Data collected included daily distance traveled, average distance from water, daily time spent at water, daily area covered, and percent of day spent active (traveling or grazing). These variables were analyzed weekly to assess changes in behavior as time within pastures increased during three time periods of the growing season. Based on data collected from mid-May to mid-September, cattle showed little changes throughout the grazing season as to levels of activity through different periods of a ...


Statistics Used In The Nebraska Beef Report And Their Purpose, 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Statistics Used In The Nebraska Beef Report And Their Purpose

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The purpose of beef cattle and beef product research at UNL is to provide reference information that represents the various populations (cows, calves, heifers, feeders, carcasses, retail products, etc) of beef production. Obviously, the researcher cannot apply treatments to every member of a population; therefore he/ she must sample the population. The use of statistics allows the researcher and readers of the Nebraska Beef report the opportunity to evaluate separation of random (chance) occurrences and real biological effects of a treatment. Following is a brief description of the major statistics used in the beef report. For a more detailed description ...


Effect Of Injectable Trace Mineral On Reproductive Performance In Beef Heifers, Shelby A. Springman, John Maddux, Mary E. Drewnoski, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Injectable Trace Mineral On Reproductive Performance In Beef Heifers, Shelby A. Springman, John Maddux, Mary E. Drewnoski, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Trace minerals serve an essential role in regulating reproduction. Free-choice trace mineral supplementation is often provided to grazing beef cattle. An injectable trace-mineral solution used with free-choice trace minerals may be beneficial before breeding to improve mineral status. Therefore, Red Angus-based, May-born heifers were utilized to determine the effects of an injectable trace mineral on reproductive performance. Pregnancy rates did not differ between heifers injected with a trace mineral and heifers that received no injection. Injectable trace mineral at CIDR insertion 33 d before artificial insemination did not influence reproductive performance in heifers with adequate trace mineral status.


Impact Of Winter Supplementation Of May Calving Cows And Heifer Development System In Two Different Breeding Seasons On Subsequent Growth And Reproduction, Shelby A. Springman, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacqueline A. Musgrave, John Nollette, Andy Applegarth, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impact Of Winter Supplementation Of May Calving Cows And Heifer Development System In Two Different Breeding Seasons On Subsequent Growth And Reproduction, Shelby A. Springman, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacqueline A. Musgrave, John Nollette, Andy Applegarth, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

In Exp. 1, May-calving cows were utilized to evaluate the effects of winter supplementation on heifer progeny. Cows grazed either dormant upland winter range with or without a protein supplement or grazed dormant meadow with or without a protein supplement. In Exp. 2, replacement heifers from March and May calving herds were offered ad libitum meadow hay and 4 lb/d supplement or grazed meadow and offered 1 lb/d supplement from mid-January to mid-April. Calf weaning BW and ADG from birth to weaning was less for calves from cows grazing winter range with no supplement compared with all other ...


Evaluating Methods Of Estimating Forage Intake By Grazing Cattle, Aaron J. Shropshire, Walter H. Schacht, Jerry D. Volesky 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluating Methods Of Estimating Forage Intake By Grazing Cattle, Aaron J. Shropshire, Walter H. Schacht, Jerry D. Volesky

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Two methods of estimating forage intake of grazing cattle were compared to clipped estimates in 4-pasture rotational grazing systems on Sandhills subirrigated meadow from mid-May through early August over a 4-year period. Clipping standing vegetation samples within a pasture before and after cattle grazing provides for an accurate estimate of forage removal during a grazing period. A less laborious method of intake estimation commonly used is based on a percentage of an animal’s liveweight. University Extension and some federal agencies use a 2.3% factor and others such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service use a 2.7% factor ...


Letrozole: A Steroid-Free Estrous Synchronization Method, Sarah M. Romereim, Sarah C. Tenley, Mohamed A. Abedal-Majed, Jeffrey W. Bergman, Scott G. Kurz, John S. Davis, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Letrozole: A Steroid-Free Estrous Synchronization Method, Sarah M. Romereim, Sarah C. Tenley, Mohamed A. Abedal-Majed, Jeffrey W. Bergman, Scott G. Kurz, John S. Davis, Jennifer R. Wood, Andrea S. Cupp

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Most bovine estrous synchronization protocols utilize progesterone plus estrogen to control ovulation timing. A drug that inhibits estrogen production (Letrozole) may be an alternative, steroid-free synchronization method (not yet commercially available). However, low estrogen can negatively affect the health of follicles/oocytes and impact fertility. To determine its effects, Letrozole was administered intramuscularly while tracking follicle growth and circulating hormones. Letrozole response was variable. Two of three cows experienced delayed luteolysis/ovulation and extended progesterone production. This preliminary data indicates that Letrozole treatment allows normal follicle progression but drug response may vary and little is known about effects on oocyte ...


Impact Of Dietary Fat Source On Beef Display Life, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Katherine I. Domenech-Perez, Emery K. Wilkerson, Hope Voegele, Nicolas J. Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Chris R. Calkins 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Dietary Fat Source On Beef Display Life, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Katherine I. Domenech-Perez, Emery K. Wilkerson, Hope Voegele, Nicolas J. Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Chris R. Calkins

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source with modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) on beef display life. Steers were fed either a corn control, full-fat MDGS, de-oiled MDGS, or de-oiled MDGS plus corn oil diet. Strip loins were aged for 2, 9, 16 and 23 days and placed under retail conditions for 7 days. Results suggest that feeding MDGS to cattle increases polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef and has the potential to reduce beef color and lipid stability in comparison to corn diets. These data indicate that feeding MDGS to cattle may decrease ...


Shelf Life Of Ground Beef From Cattle Fed Distillers Grains Containing Different Amounts Of Oil, Faith D. Rasmussen, Chad G. Bower, Gary A. Sullivan 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Shelf Life Of Ground Beef From Cattle Fed Distillers Grains Containing Different Amounts Of Oil, Faith D. Rasmussen, Chad G. Bower, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Beef shoulder clods were collected from steers fed one of four finishing diets: no distillers grains and three with distillers grains containing different amounts of oil. Raw ground beef patties were evaluated for changes in objective color, discoloration, and lipid oxidation during simulated retail display (7 days). Cooked beef links in refrigerated (18 days) and frozen storage (198 days) were analyzed for lipid oxidation throughout shelf life. Fatty acid profiles were evaluated in lean, subcutaneous fat, and ground composite samples. All distillers grain diets increased C18:2 and polyunsaturated fatty acids in beef. There were no dietary differences in lipid ...


Using A Cured Meat Model System To Investigate Factors That Influence Cured Color Development, Jennifer A. Posthuma, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Using A Cured Meat Model System To Investigate Factors That Influence Cured Color Development, Jennifer A. Posthuma, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Producing cured meats manufactured with natural ingredients could impact cured meat characteristics, including color. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nitrite source (sodium nitrite or cultured celery juice powder), reducing agents (no reducing compound or sodium erythorbate/ ascorbic acid), and holding times prior to cooking on cured color development in a meat model system. The addition of reducing compounds had the largest impact on cured color development and reduced residual nitrite in a cured meat model system. Treatments cured with sodium nitrite had slightly greater cured color development than treatments cured with celery juice powder ...


Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Changes in temperament in heifers when handled either frequently or infrequently were evaluated subjectively based on their behavior when restrained in (chute score) and exiting from (exit score) a squeeze chute. Chute scores decreased over time–a favorable direction–with more dramatic declines in heifers handled more frequently. Heifers with higher chute scores on the first day of handling had the largest reduction in score. Exit scores changed less over time. Chute score therefore may be more indicative of acclimation to a novel environment than exit score. Both scores appear to offer a fast, easy and inexpensive way to quantify ...


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