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Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

The World Health Organization, estimated that 22.9% of children under the age of 5 are stunted. The etiology of stunting is multifactorial and is associated with poor linear growth, villous atrophy, dysbiosis, and increased intestinal permeability. Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces nutrient deficiencies and increases intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and decreases growth rates. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if chickens consuming a rye based diet exhibited a similar pathophysiology of stunted children to develop a relevant animal model. Therefore, early or late phase malnutrition was induced determine the effects of malnutrition on performance, bone mineralization ...


The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert 2018 Iowa State University

The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Systematic reviews are increasingly using data from preclinical animal experiments in evidence networks. Further, there are ever-increasing efforts to automate aspects of the systematic review process. When assessing systematic bias and unit-of-analysis errors in preclinical experiments, it is critical to understand the study design elements employed by investigators. Such information can also inform prioritization of automation efforts that allow the identification of the most common issues. The aim of this study was to identify the design elements used by investigators in preclinical research in order to inform unique aspects of assessment of bias and error in preclinical research. Using 100 ...


Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle

Theses and Dissertations

Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...


Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo

Dissertations

Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...


Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Understanding how disease affects commercial production is imperative for pig producers to quantify its full impact on pig performance, carcass quality, and net returns. The objective of this experiment was to assess the productivity and economic importance of naturally occurring health challenges (HC) under commercial conditions. Three 1,000 pig grow-finish facilities received 936 pigs each. The experimental period started approximately 34 d post placement at an average start BW of 13.1 ± 0.2 kg. Barns were characterized based on the relative HC, determined by diagnostic assessments as the main characterization tool, along with other health indicators. Barns were ...


Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...


Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2018 Iowa State University

Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Statistics Publications

The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7 days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection ...


A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, limits production and weight gain in pre-weaned calves, resulting in significant economic loss each year. IBK is one of the most common diseases in pre-weaned calves which leads to clinical signs from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness [4]. Due to large economic losses and limits in production and weaning weight, use of effective vaccines to prevent IBK is imperative.

Moraxella bovis is the primary causal organism of IBK [4, 5]. However, available evidence does not suggest that vaccination is effective for preventing naturally occurring IBK. Although individual studies and ...


What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville 2018 Iowa State University

What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically significant disease of feedlot cattle[4]. Putative causal organisms include Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus[5].

Vaccination against the putative causal organisms is a frequently used approach to aid in the prevention of BRD. With a more significant concern for prudent antibiotic use in the beef industry, it is vital that decision making with regards BRDC management be based on an understanding of the efficacy of vaccination programs and management factors that might ...


Evaluating Methods Of Estimating Forage Intake By Grazing Cattle, Aaron J. Shropshire, Walter H. Schacht, Jerry D. Volesky 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluating Methods Of Estimating Forage Intake By Grazing Cattle, Aaron J. Shropshire, Walter H. Schacht, Jerry D. Volesky

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Two methods of estimating forage intake of grazing cattle were compared to clipped estimates in 4-pasture rotational grazing systems on Sandhills subirrigated meadow from mid-May through early August over a 4-year period. Clipping standing vegetation samples within a pasture before and after cattle grazing provides for an accurate estimate of forage removal during a grazing period. A less laborious method of intake estimation commonly used is based on a percentage of an animal’s liveweight. University Extension and some federal agencies use a 2.3% factor and others such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service use a 2.7% factor ...


Using A Cured Meat Model System To Investigate Factors That Influence Cured Color Development, Jennifer A. Posthuma, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using A Cured Meat Model System To Investigate Factors That Influence Cured Color Development, Jennifer A. Posthuma, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Producing cured meats manufactured with natural ingredients could impact cured meat characteristics, including color. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nitrite source (sodium nitrite or cultured celery juice powder), reducing agents (no reducing compound or sodium erythorbate/ ascorbic acid), and holding times prior to cooking on cured color development in a meat model system. The addition of reducing compounds had the largest impact on cured color development and reduced residual nitrite in a cured meat model system. Treatments cured with sodium nitrite had slightly greater cured color development than treatments cured with celery juice powder ...


Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Changes in temperament in heifers when handled either frequently or infrequently were evaluated subjectively based on their behavior when restrained in (chute score) and exiting from (exit score) a squeeze chute. Chute scores decreased over time–a favorable direction–with more dramatic declines in heifers handled more frequently. Heifers with higher chute scores on the first day of handling had the largest reduction in score. Exit scores changed less over time. Chute score therefore may be more indicative of acclimation to a novel environment than exit score. Both scores appear to offer a fast, easy and inexpensive way to quantify ...


Experience Improves The Reliability Of Subjective Measurements Of Temperament In Beef Cattle, Jaime T. Praham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Experience Improves The Reliability Of Subjective Measurements Of Temperament In Beef Cattle, Jaime T. Praham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Reliability of experienced and inexperienced observers when assessing the behavior of cattle when restrained in a squeeze chute (chute score), and when exiting the chute (exit score), was compared. Overall, experienced observers had higher reliability than inexperienced observers. Increasing the number of individuals scoring an animal decreased the degree of agreement. However, within an acceptable tolerance for difference in scores, such disagreement may be beneficial; it allows for subtlety in interpretations of temperament, which when averaged, may better reflect docility. Reliabilities were higher for exit score than chute score. This may reflect the complexity of the trait being evaluated, with ...


Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. MacDonald 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Five summer management strategies were compared following grazing corn residue through winter. Cattle were assigned to be 1) summer finished, 2) graze bromegrass, 3) graze bromegrass and fed distillers grains at 0.6% of BW, 4) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 1.70 lb/d, or 5) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 2.35 lb/d. Results differed by year, however, in general as backgrounding ADG increased, days required on feed to reach an equal fat endpoint decreased. In year 1, ADG of cattle grazing bromegrass was less than cattle backgrounded in pens. There was no ...


Impact Of Pre-And Postpartum Nutrition On March-Calving Cow And Progeny Productivity, Jacki A. Musgrave, Devin L. Broadhead, L. A. Stalker, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impact Of Pre-And Postpartum Nutrition On March-Calving Cow And Progeny Productivity, Jacki A. Musgrave, Devin L. Broadhead, L. A. Stalker, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

March-calving cows were fed hay or grazed corn residue prepartum, and then either fed hay or grazed subirrigated meadow postpartum. Combinations of these different feeding strategies impacted body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) during the pre-and postpartum period; however, resulted in similar pregnancy rates. Although differences were not observed in cow pregnancy rates, a benefit in pre-weaning growth was observed for calves from the dams in postpartum meadow treatment. A tendency for an improvement in marbling score was observed for steers born to cows fed hay prepartum, perhaps indicating a higher plane of nutrition prepartum may improve quality ...


Antimicrobial Interventions And Application Time Effects On Ground Beef Quality, Ashley R. McCoy, Dennis E. Burson, Gary A. Sullivan 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Antimicrobial Interventions And Application Time Effects On Ground Beef Quality, Ashley R. Mccoy, Dennis E. Burson, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Small business meat processors can use organic acid antimicrobial interventions to control Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) when producing ground beef; however, many small producers are concerned about the impact on ground beef quality. The effects of two commonly used organic acids, lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid, were evaluated at short (15 seconds) or extended (3 minutes) raw material dip times on ground beef quality parameters. Beef trim dipped in lactic acid for 3 minutes had a reduction in total aerobic bacteria plate count, but also increased ground beef discoloration and lipid oxidation during retail display. Use of a shorter ...


Effect Of Supplementation During The Breeding Season On A May-Calving Herd In The Nebraska Sandhills, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effect Of Supplementation During The Breeding Season On A May-Calving Herd In The Nebraska Sandhills, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacki A. Musgrave, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Females in their first and second breeding season received either a 32% crude protein (DM) supplement or no supplement throughout the breeding season. Supplementation did not affect heifer BW, BCS, and pregnancy rate at pregnancy diagnosis. Supplementation impacted primiparous cow BW and BCS at pregnancy diagnosis, but did not affect pregnancy rates. Calf birth weight and dystocia rates were unaffected by supplementation for both heifers and primiparous cow. Calves nursing supplemented dams were heavier at weaning. Greater supplementation may be needed to affect pregnancy rate.


Steer Performance Grazing Corn Residue And Supplemented With Modified Distillers Grains Plus Solubles With Or Without Urea, Robert M. Jones, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Jim C. MacDonald 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Steer Performance Grazing Corn Residue And Supplemented With Modified Distillers Grains Plus Solubles With Or Without Urea, Robert M. Jones, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Jim C. Macdonald

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A growing study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing growing calves grazing corn residue with modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS; 3 or 5 lb/d) and with or without urea on growth performance. There were no significant MDGS × urea inclusion interactions observed. Urea inclusion level (0 and 0.12 lb/d) did not affect supplemental intake, ADG, or ending BW. Steers fed 5 lb of MDGS had an increased ADG and a heavier ending BW compared to steers fed 3 lb MDGS daily. Supplemental urea is not necessary when supplementing at least 3 lb MDGS to steers ...


Impact Of Syngenta Enogen Feed Corn On Finishing Cattle Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Curtis J. Bittner, F. Henry Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, James C. MacDonald, Matt K. Luebbe 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impact Of Syngenta Enogen Feed Corn On Finishing Cattle Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Curtis J. Bittner, F. Henry Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, James C. Macdonald, Matt K. Luebbe

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Two finishing experiments were conducted to evaluate Syngenta Enogen Feed Corn containing an alpha amylase enzyme trait compared to the near negative isoline control corn at two locations on cattle performance and carcass characteristics. No statistical differences were observed for final BW, DMI, ADG, or F:G for steers fed Syngenta Enogen Feed Corn versus the near negative isoline control corn. Fat depth and calculated yield grade were greater for steers fed Syngenta Enogen Feed Corn; however, HCW and marbling scores were not different. Previous research has observed a 2.6% to 16.4% decrease in F:G when Syngenta ...


Chopped Sugar Beets As A Component Of Beef Cow Diets, Karla H. Jenkins, Jacob A. Hansen 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chopped Sugar Beets As A Component Of Beef Cow Diets, Karla H. Jenkins, Jacob A. Hansen

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Sugar beets not accepted for human consumption were evaluated as an energy source in a limit fed ration for confined beef cows. Initial and final body weight and body condition score were not different between wheat straw based diets containing wet distillers grains and either chopped sugar beets or corn. Body condition score change tended to be greater for the diet containing corn. However, cows on both treatments finished the study with a body condition score of 5.7. Chopped sugar beets mixed with wheat straw and stored in an agricultural bag underwent ensiling and did not result in choking ...


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