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Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Steven M. Lonergan

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Molecular Evidence For Zoonotic Transmission Of An Emergent, Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter Jejuni Clone In The United States, Orhan Sahin, Collette Fitzgerald, Steven Stroika, Shaohua Zhao, Rachel Sippy, Patrick Kwan, Paul J. Plummer, Jing Han, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Molecular Evidence For Zoonotic Transmission Of An Emergent, Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter Jejuni Clone In The United States, Orhan Sahin, Collette Fitzgerald, Steven Stroika, Shaohua Zhao, Rachel Sippy, Patrick Kwan, Paul J. Plummer, Jing Han, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those ...


Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Background Bacterial lipoproteins have important functions in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. In Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the majority of lipoproteins have not been functionally characterized. Previously, we showed by DNA microarray that CmeR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC, modulates the expression of a three-gene operon (cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091) encoding a cluster of lipoproteins in C. jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we characterized the function and regulation of the cj0089-cj0090-cj0091 operon. In contrast to the repression of cmeABC, CmeR activates the expression of the lipoprotein ...


Preliminary Structural Studies Of The Transcriptional Regulator Cmer From Campylobacter Jejuni, Chih-chia Su, Feng Shi, Ruoyu Gu, Ming Li, Gerry McDermott, Edward Yu, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Preliminary Structural Studies Of The Transcriptional Regulator Cmer From Campylobacter Jejuni, Chih-Chia Su, Feng Shi, Ruoyu Gu, Ming Li, Gerry Mcdermott, Edward Yu, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

In Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the CmeR regulatory protein controls transcription of the multidrug transporter gene operon cmeABC. CmeR belongs to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The 210-residue CmeR consists of two functional motifs: an N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain. It is predicted that the DNA-binding domain interacts directly with target promoters, while the C-terminal motif interacts with inducing ligands (such as bile salts). As an initial step towards confirming this structural model, recombinant CmeR protein containing a 6×His tag at the N-terminus was crystallized. Crystals of ligand-free CmeR ...


Genetic Diversity And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates Associated With Sheep Abortion In The United States And Great Britain, Zuowei Wu, Rachel Sippy, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Ana Vidal, Diane Newell, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Diversity And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates Associated With Sheep Abortion In The United States And Great Britain, Zuowei Wu, Rachel Sippy, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Ana Vidal, Diane Newell, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejunistrains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuniisolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep ...


Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacterreadily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes ...


Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Identification Of New Delhi Metallo-Β-Lactamase 1 In Acinetobacter Lwoffii Of Food Animal Origin, Yang Wang, Conming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Jing Qi, Hebing Liu, Yu Wang, Tao He, Licai Ma, Jing Lai, Zhangqi Shen, Yuqing Liu, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Background

To investigate the presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) genes and the genetic environment of the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene blaNDM-1 in bacteria of food animal origin.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Gram-negative bacteria with low susceptibility to imipenem (MIC>8 µg/mL) were isolated from swab samples collected from 15 animal farms and one slaughterhouse in eastern China. These bacteria were selected for phenotypic and molecular detection of known MBL genes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For the blaNDM-1 positive isolate, conjugation and transformation experiments were carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaNDM-1 genes, and DNA ...


Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina 2017 University of Ljubljana

Antibiotic Resistance Modulation And Modes Of Action Of (-)-Α-Pinene In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jasna Kovač, Katarina Šimunović, Zuowei Wu, Anja Klančnik, Franz Bucar, Qijing Zhang, Sonja Smole Možina

Qijing Zhang

The aim of the study was to investigate the mode of action of (-)-α-pinene in terms of its modulation of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni. Broth microdilution and ethidium bromide accumulation assays were used to evaluate the (-)-α-pinene antimicrobial activity, modulation of antimicrobial resistance, and inhibition of antimicrobial efflux. The target antimicrobial efflux systems were identified using an insertion mutagenesis approach, and C.jejuni adaptation to (-)-α-pinene was evaluated using DNA microarrays. Knock-out mutants of the key up-regulated transcriptional regulators hspR and hrcA were constructed to investigate their roles in C. jejuni adaptation to several stress factors, including osmolytes, and ...


Adaptive Mechanisms Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Erythromycin Treatment, Qingqing Xia, Wayne T. Muraoka, Zhangqi Shen, Orhan Sahin, Hongning Wang, Zuowei Wu, Peng Liu, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Adaptive Mechanisms Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Erythromycin Treatment, Qingqing Xia, Wayne T. Muraoka, Zhangqi Shen, Orhan Sahin, Hongning Wang, Zuowei Wu, Peng Liu, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Background Macrolide is the drug of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis, but Campylobacter resistance to this antibiotic is rising. The mechanisms employed by Campylobacter jejuni to adapt to erythromycin treatment remain unknown and are examined in this study. The transcriptomic response of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 to erythromycin (Ery) treatment was determined by competitive microarray hybridizations. Representative genes identified to be differentially expressed were further characterized by constructing mutants and assessing their involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility, oxidative stress tolerance, and chicken colonization. ResultsFollowing the treatment with an inhibitory dose of Ery, 139 genes were up-regulated and 119 were down-regulated. Many ...


Campylobacter In Poultry: Ecology And Potential Interventions, Orhan Sahin, Issmat I. Kassem, Zhangqi Shen, Jun Lin, Gireesh Rajashekara, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Campylobacter In Poultry: Ecology And Potential Interventions, Orhan Sahin, Issmat I. Kassem, Zhangqi Shen, Jun Lin, Gireesh Rajashekara, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacterspecies, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization,Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source ...


Use Of Alivecor Heart Monitor For Heart Rate And Rhythm Evaluation In Dairy Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalis Bubalis), Joe Smith, Jessica Ward, Tara Urbano, Mikaela Mueller 2017 Iowa State University

Use Of Alivecor Heart Monitor For Heart Rate And Rhythm Evaluation In Dairy Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalis Bubalis), Joe Smith, Jessica Ward, Tara Urbano, Mikaela Mueller

Jessica Ward

Smartphone-based ECG recording devices are a promising new diagnostic in veterinary medicine. However, these devices have not yet been demonstrated to work in water buffalo. A commercial, non-invasive, smartphone-based ECG (AliveCor Vet TM) monitoring device was field tested on water buffalo calves. Six neonatal water buffalo calves had an ECG simultaneously recorded with a standard medical ECG recorder and the AliveCor Vet device. A correlation of 0.75053 was observed between average heart rates obtained between AliveCor recordings when compared to those from the 6 lead ECG. 100% Rhythm agreement was met for all 12 recordings. The recordings of 4 ...


Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez de León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats 2017 Iowa State University

Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez De León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick. We have developed a heterologous expression system that stably expresses the cattle tick's tyramine receptor with a G-protein chimera, producing a system that is amenable to high-throughput screening ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

James A. Roth

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


Descriptions Of Recent Incursions Of Exotic Animal Diseases, Anna R. Spickler, Jane Galyon, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Descriptions Of Recent Incursions Of Exotic Animal Diseases, Anna R. Spickler, Jane Galyon, James A. Roth

James A. Roth

Historically, livestock and poultry diseases have been introduced into new areas by the uncontrolled importation of animals and trade (including smuggling), through the movements of people and wildlife, and by vectors. Some diseases spread widely in the past. Rinderpest or “cattle plague,” for example, devastated farms as it was transported across continents by invading armies and their cattle, as well as by trade, the development of railways, and other factors. Other pathogens remained fairly localized for various reasons. Most of the parasites that cause African animal trypanosomiasis, for instance, must be transmitted by tsetse flies, and these insects have not ...


Trap-Neuter-Return Programs And The Importance Of Associated Public Awareness, Nicolette Sliwa 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Trap-Neuter-Return Programs And The Importance Of Associated Public Awareness, Nicolette Sliwa

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

The focus of this paper is to describe a typical Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) program and highlight the major pros and cons surrounding this somewhat controversial method of managing the overwhelming free-roaming cat population. The effects of the species’ overabundance on the environment and human health are also discussed. Citing studies completed on TNR programs around the globe as well as mathematical models, the effectiveness of this method is compared to other, currently used alternatives. Finally, it has been suggested that the general awareness level a neighborhood possesses about the true goals of TNR programs has a potentially significant impact on the ...


Analysis Of The Eiav Rev-Responsive Element (Rre) Reveals A Conserved Rna Motif Required For High Affinity Rev Binding In Both Hiv-1 And Eiav, Jae-Hyung Lee, Gloria Culver, Susan Carpenter, Drena Dobbs 2017 Iowa State University

Analysis Of The Eiav Rev-Responsive Element (Rre) Reveals A Conserved Rna Motif Required For High Affinity Rev Binding In Both Hiv-1 And Eiav, Jae-Hyung Lee, Gloria Culver, Susan Carpenter, Drena Dobbs

Drena Dobbs

A cis-acting RNA regulatory element, the Rev-responsive element (RRE), has essential roles in replication of lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and equine infection anemia virus (EIAV). The RRE binds the viral trans-acting regulatory protein, Rev, to mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport of incompletely spliced mRNAs encoding viral structural genes and genomic RNA. Because of its potential as a clinical target, RRE-Rev interactions have been well studied in HIV-1; however, detailed molecular structures of Rev-RRE complexes in other lentiviruses are still lacking. In this study, we investigate the secondary structure of the EIAV RRE and interrogate regulatory protein-RNA interactions in EIAV Rev-RRE ...


Arca Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, And Motility Contributing To The Pathogenicity Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Fengwei Jiang, Chunxia An, Yinli Bao, Xuefeng Zhao, Robert L. Jernigan, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li, Eve S. Wurtele, Lisa K. Nolan, Chengping Lu, Ganwu Li 2017 Nanjing Agricultural University

Arca Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, And Motility Contributing To The Pathogenicity Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Fengwei Jiang, Chunxia An, Yinli Bao, Xuefeng Zhao, Robert L. Jernigan, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li, Eve S. Wurtele, Lisa K. Nolan, Chengping Lu, Ganwu Li

Eve Wurtele

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause one of the three most significant infectious diseases in the poultry industry and are also potential food-borne pathogens threating human health. In this study, we showed that ArcA (aerobic respiratory control), a global regulator important for E. coli's adaptation from anaerobic to aerobic conditions and control of that bacterium's enzymatic defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS), is involved in the virulence of APEC. Deletion of arcA significantly attenuates the virulence of APEC in the duck model. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses comparing the APEC wild type and the arcA mutant indicate that ...


Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez de León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats 2017 Iowa State University

Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez De León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick. We have developed a heterologous expression system that stably expresses the cattle tick's tyramine receptor with a G-protein chimera, producing a system that is amenable to high-throughput screening ...


Economic Impact Of A Ban On The Use Of Over-The-Counter Antibiotics, Dermot J. Hayes, Helen H. Jensen, Lennart Backstrom, Jay Fabiosa 2016 Iowa State University

Economic Impact Of A Ban On The Use Of Over-The-Counter Antibiotics, Dermot J. Hayes, Helen H. Jensen, Lennart Backstrom, Jay Fabiosa

Dermot J. Hayes

Because antibiotic drugs are widely used in starter, grower, finishing, and sow feeds, a ban on their use would impact pork production processes and practices, and therefore would have an economic impact on the U.S. pork industry and pork market. This study considers the economic effects of a ban in pork production, with no change of regulation on other meats. The authors examine the evidence from a range of cases from Sweden to describe what is most likely to occur if a ban on antibiotic drugs in pork production were to be implemented in the United States.


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