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Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2016 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise von G Jørgensen 2016 The University of Maine

Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise Von G Jørgensen

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious, neurodegenerative disease of deer (white-tailed and mule), elk, moose, sika deer and muntjac caused by a misfolded version of a normally occurring protein. The notion that CWD could be spread indirectly via the environment has been documented and accepted in the scientific community for quite some time. Deer and elk consume soil, inhale dust and lick objects that have infectious material on them, resulting in chronic, low dose exposure. Surface contamination of plants with urine or feces is likely an additional source of exposure via ingestion and has been modeled in the laboratory ...


Exclusion Of The Unfolded Protein Response In Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration In The Canine T4r Rho Model Of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa, Stefania Marsilli, Sem Genini, Raghavi Sudharsan, Jeremy Gingrich, Gustavo Aguirre, William Beltran 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Exclusion Of The Unfolded Protein Response In Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration In The Canine T4r Rho Model Of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa, Stefania Marsilli, Sem Genini, Raghavi Sudharsan, Jeremy Gingrich, Gustavo Aguirre, William Beltran

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

Purpose To examine the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) following acute light damage in the naturally-occurring canine model of RHO-adRP (T4R RHOdog). Methods The left eyes of T4R RHOdogs were briefly light-exposed and retinas collected 3, 6 and 24 hours later. The contra-lateral eyes were shielded and used as controls. To evaluate the time course of cell death, histology and TUNEL assays were performed. Electron microscopy was used to examine ultrastructural alterations in photoreceptors at 15 min, 1 hour, and 6 hours after light exposure. Gene expression of markers of ER stress and ...


Table Of Contents 2016 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Table Of Contents 2016 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

No abstract provided.


Baylisascaris Larva Migrans, Kevin R. Kazacos 2016 Purdue University

Baylisascaris Larva Migrans, Kevin R. Kazacos

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Zoonotic diseases, such as baylisascariasis, are receiving increasing attention as components of disease emergence and resurgence (Kazacos, 2001). Baylisascariasis is caused by the roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis and is one of the more recent zoonotic disease developments. This disease remains one of the least known and poorly understood zoonotic diseases, yet over the past several decades it has become widespread. It originated in wildlife species and is now well established as a human malady. Baylisascariasis is transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated feces, and the role of wildlife (primarily raccoons) in this transmission process is becoming more clearly known and ...


Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating 2016 Otterbein University

Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating

Honors Thesis Projects

With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew Leach, Karl Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John Gluck, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens 2015 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew Leach, Karl Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John Gluck, Andrew Rowan, Martin Stephens

Kathleen Conlee

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Evidence Of Efficient Transovarial Transmission Of Culex Flavivirus By Culex Pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Rungrat Saiyasombat, Bethany Bolling, Aaron Brault, Lyric Bartholomay, Bradley Blitvich 2015 Iowa State University

Evidence Of Efficient Transovarial Transmission Of Culex Flavivirus By Culex Pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Rungrat Saiyasombat, Bethany Bolling, Aaron Brault, Lyric Bartholomay, Bradley Blitvich

Lyric C. Bartholomay

This study determined the transovarial transmission (TOT) potential and tissue tropisms of Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus, in Culex pipiens (L.). Several hundred mosquito egg rafts were collected in the field, transferred to the insectaries, reared to the fourth larval instar, and identified using morphological characteristics. Cx. pipiens were reared to adults, allowed to oviposit in individual containers, and tested for CxFV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. Eighteen CxFV RNA-positive females were identified from 26 females that oviposited viable egg rafts. Thirty F1 adults from each positive female were individually tested by RT-PCR for ...


Evidence Of Efficient Transovarial Transmission Of Culex Flavivirus By Culex Pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Rungrat Saiyasombat, Bethany Bolling, Aaron Brault, Lyric Bartholomay, Bradley Blitvich 2015 Iowa State University

Evidence Of Efficient Transovarial Transmission Of Culex Flavivirus By Culex Pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), Rungrat Saiyasombat, Bethany Bolling, Aaron Brault, Lyric Bartholomay, Bradley Blitvich

Lyric Bartholomay

This study determined the transovarial transmission (TOT) potential and tissue tropisms of Culex flavivirus (CxFV), an insect-specific flavivirus, in Culex pipiens (L.). Several hundred mosquito egg rafts were collected in the field, transferred to the insectaries, reared to the fourth larval instar, and identified using morphological characteristics. Cx. pipiens were reared to adults, allowed to oviposit in individual containers, and tested for CxFV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. Eighteen CxFV RNA-positive females were identified from 26 females that oviposited viable egg rafts. Thirty F1 adults from each positive female were individually tested by RT-PCR for ...


Prevalence Of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Small Mammals And White-Tailed Deer In Southeast Nebraska, Tim Hotaling 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Prevalence Of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Small Mammals And White-Tailed Deer In Southeast Nebraska, Tim Hotaling

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

The prevalence of tick-borne diseases has been increasing in the United States for the past couple decades. Studies have been conducted throughout the US identifying tick-borne disease pathogens as well as their hosts and prevalence. Research was conducted in Nebraska to determine the presence of some tick-borne disease pathogens, their vectors, and their hosts, with emphasis made on Borrelia spp., Rickettsia rickettsii, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

Small rodents in southeast Nebraska were trapped and sampled at eight study sites using live capture traps. Captured rodents were assessed for active parasitism by ticks which were collected and placed in alcohol. Tissue samples ...


How Microbiomes Can Feed The World: A Look Into Bovine Reproduction, Hannah Noel McDonald 2015 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

How Microbiomes Can Feed The World: A Look Into Bovine Reproduction, Hannah Noel Mcdonald

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Determining The Minimum Infectious Dose Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) In A Feed Matrix, L. L. Schumacher, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, R. A. Hesse, Rodger G. Main, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach 2015 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Determining The Minimum Infectious Dose Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (Pedv) In A Feed Matrix, L. L. Schumacher, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, C. K. Jones, R. A. Hesse, Rodger G. Main, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Understanding the magnitude of transmissible risk Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV)-infected feed imposes and establishing the minimum infectious dose of PEDV in a feed matrix are important components in strengthening virus prevention and control methods. In this study, an experiment was performed involving 30 crossbred, 10-d-old pigs that were used as a bioassay model for the minimum infectious dose of PEDV in feed. The PEDV was first diluted using tissue culture media to form 8 serial 10-fold dilutions. An aliquot of the original stock virus at 5.6 x 105 tissue culture infectious dose/ml (TCID50/ml ...


Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul Midtlyng, Coenraad Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne Sneddon 2015 Center for Veterinary Biologics

Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul Midtlyng, Coenraad Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fish vaccine testing; and c) to discuss the way forward and set out how the Three Rs may be implemented without jeopardizing the quality of the vaccines. The workshop participants -- experts from academia, regulatory authorities, a scientific animal welfare organization, and the fish vaccine industry ...


Nahems Guidelines: Vaccination For Contagious Diseases, Appendix C: Vaccination For High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth 2015 Iowa State University

Nahems Guidelines: Vaccination For Contagious Diseases, Appendix C: Vaccination For High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Reports

This Appendix is intended to provide relevant information for federal and state officials and other interested parties who will participate in making decisions related to vaccination as an aid in controlling an HPAI outbreak in the U.S. The following topics are presented and discussed: Important characteristics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI); Characteristics of vaccines; Strategies for vaccine use; Various factors that must be considered when designing an effective vaccination program. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) has a separate document, HPAI Response Plan: The Red Book that ...


Free-Roaming Dogs In Developing Countries: The Benefits Of Capture, Neuter, And Return Programs, Jennifer Jackman, Andrew Rowan 2015 Humane Society University

Free-Roaming Dogs In Developing Countries: The Benefits Of Capture, Neuter, And Return Programs, Jennifer Jackman, Andrew Rowan

Jennifer Jackman, Ph.D.

This chapter provides an overview of animal welfare and public health problems associated with free-roaming dog populations and strategies to resolve these problems. Placing CNR programs in the context of earlier dog and rabies control methods, the chapter explores CNR’s potential to overcome some of the shortcomings of earlier approaches and to improve animal welfare, reduce dog population growth, and prevent the spread of rabies and other canine-transmitted diseases. Constraints and current debates on current implementation of CNR programs are also examined.


Perspectives On The Treatment Of Claw Lesions In Cattle, Jan K. Shearer, Paul Joseph Plummer, Jennifer A. Schleining 2015 Iowa State University

Perspectives On The Treatment Of Claw Lesions In Cattle, Jan K. Shearer, Paul Joseph Plummer, Jennifer A. Schleining

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Lameness is a leading cause of welfare and culling issues in cattle, with claw lesions accounting for the majority of these issues. Although the treatment of claw lesions in cattle is a daily activity for hoof trimmers, veterinarians, and livestock producers, there is surprisingly little information in the peer-reviewed literature on which to base strong evidence-based conclusions. As a consequence, many treatment modalities used are empirical and, in some cases, may be counterproductive to rapid lesion healing. Furthermore, many of these empirical treatment modalities fail to fully consider the underlying pathogenesis of the disease process and the implications that it ...


Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles From White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) As Indicators Of Mycobacterium Bovis Exposure Or Mycobacterium Bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (Bcg) Vaccination, Randal S. Stahl, Christine K. Ellis, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2015 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles From White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) As Indicators Of Mycobacterium Bovis Exposure Or Mycobacterium Bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (Bcg) Vaccination, Randal S. Stahl, Christine K. Ellis, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) serve as a reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and can be a source of infection in cattle. Vaccination with M. bovis Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) is being considered for management of bovine tuberculosis in deer. Presently, no method exists to non-invasively monitor the presence of bovine tuberculosis in deer. In this study, volatile organic compound profiles of BCG-vaccinated and non-vaccinated deer, before and after experimental challenge with M. bovis strain 95–1315, were generated using solid phase microextraction fiber head-space sampling over suspended fecal pellets with analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatograms ...


Nahems Guidelines: Vaccination For Contagious Diseases, Appendix A: Foot-And-Mouth Disease, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth 2015 Iowa State University

Nahems Guidelines: Vaccination For Contagious Diseases, Appendix A: Foot-And-Mouth Disease, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Reports

This Appendix is intended to provide relevant information for federal and state officials and other interested parties who will participate in making decisions related to use of vaccine as an aid to control an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the U.S. The following topics are presented and discussed:  Important characteristics of FMD: Characteristics of vaccines; Strategies for vaccine use; Various factors that must be considered when designing an effective vaccination program. The USDA-APHIS has a separate document, FMD Response Plan: The Red Book, which identifies the capabilities needed to respond to an FMD outbreak in the ...


Development Of An In Vivo Exsheathment Assay Of Infective L3 Haemonchus Contortus Larvae In Fistualated Sheep, Holly N. Williams, Katherine Petersson, Carly Barone 2015 University of Rhode Island

Development Of An In Vivo Exsheathment Assay Of Infective L3 Haemonchus Contortus Larvae In Fistualated Sheep, Holly N. Williams, Katherine Petersson, Carly Barone

Senior Honors Projects

Purpose: Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) hinder the sustainable production of small ruminants on pasture and parasite resistance to chemical dewormers is becoming a growing concern. Condensed tannin containing legume forages are being tested to evaluate their anti-parasitic properties and potential contribution to an overall parasite control program for small ruminants such as sheep and goats. One of the most pathogenic GIN of small ruminants is Haemonchus contortus. The final step to full infectivity of H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) is exsheathment in the rumen. The objective of this study was to establish an in-vivo exsheathment assay in fistulated sheep as ...


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