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Control Or Eradication: Problems In The Management Of Invasive Birds, Michael L. Avery, Chris J. Feare 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Control Or Eradication: Problems In The Management Of Invasive Birds, Michael L. Avery, Chris J. Feare

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Humans have captured, transported and intentionally released wild birds for centuries (Blackburn et al., 2009). Motivations for such purposeful introductions include food (West and Zhou, 2007), religion (Agoramoorthy and Hsu, 2007), sport (McDowall, 1994), biocontrol (Bennett and Hughes, 1959; Kurdila, 1995) and aesthetics (Ryan, 1906; Thomson, 1922). Many purposeful bird introductions were the work of acclimatization societies, particularly in North America, New Zealand and Australia. These societies were formed in the 19th century by European settlers to transport bird species from their homelands in efforts to establish them in the newly settled regions (Thomson, 1922; Dunlap, 1997). As a result ...


Repellent Surface Applications For Pest Birds, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, James C. Carlson, Hailey E. McLean, Caroline S. Olson, Scott J. Werner 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS/NationalWildlife Research Center

Repellent Surface Applications For Pest Birds, Shelagh T. Deliberto, James C. Carlson, Hailey E. Mclean, Caroline S. Olson, Scott J. Werner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Common pest birds in the United States include the non-native European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), as well as native birds including Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and gull species (Laridae). Large concentrations of pest birds can create human health hazards and monetary losses due to consumption of crops, depredation, and fecal contamination and accumulation. Fecal contamination hazards include the potential spread of zoonotic diseases including antimicrobial-resistant zoonoses and human injury due to the accumulation of fecal material on walking surfaces. Additionally, fecal accumulation causes structural and aesthetic damage due to the accelerated ...


Serum Chemistry Values In Wild Black Vultures In Mississippi, Usa, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherman W. Jack, Amanda R. Deese, Eric R. Wengert, Kyle Van Why, Carla L. Huston, Scott Lemmons, Richard B. Minnis 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Mississippi Field Station

Serum Chemistry Values In Wild Black Vultures In Mississippi, Usa, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherman W. Jack, Amanda R. Deese, Eric R. Wengert, Kyle Van Why, Carla L. Huston, Scott Lemmons, Richard B. Minnis

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Vultures (Cathartidae and Accipitridae) play an important role in ecosystem balance by rapidly disposing animal carcasses and thus preventing the potential spread of pathogens. Blood chemistry values provide a means of assessing the health of wildlife and wild animal populations; however, there are significant differences in chemistries among species and when comparing captive and free-living New and Old World vultures. In 2007, we collected blood serum from 30 female and 14 male wild, healthy black vultures (Coragyps atratus) live-trapped by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services from a power substation in Lowndes ...


Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg 2020 NWRC, Gainesville

Black Vulture Conflict And Management In The United States: Damage Trends, Management Overview, And Research Needs, Bryan M. Kluever, Morgan Pfeiffer, Scott C. Barras, Brett Dunlap, Lee A. Humberg

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Contrary to rapid declines of many vulture (Accipitridae, Cathartidea) species worldwide, black vulture (Coragyps atratus) populations are increasing and expanding their range in North America. Vultures exhibit complex behaviors and can adapt to any human-dominated landscape or land use. These traits, combined with population growth and range expansion, have contributed to increased human–vulture conflicts. Our goal was to summarize the current status and trends in human–black vulture conflicts (hereafter human– vulture conflicts), review available management strategies, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to enhance management and understanding of this species and the associated conflicts. We found human–vulture ...


The Changing Triad Of Plague In Uganda: Invasive Black Rats (Rattus Rattus), Indigenous Small Mammals, And Their Fleas, Russell E. Enscore, Nackson Babi, Gerald Amatre, Linda Atiku, Rebecca J. Eisen, Kim M. Pepin, Rommelle Vera-Tudela, Christopher Sexton, Kenneth L. Gage 2020 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins

The Changing Triad Of Plague In Uganda: Invasive Black Rats (Rattus Rattus), Indigenous Small Mammals, And Their Fleas, Russell E. Enscore, Nackson Babi, Gerald Amatre, Linda Atiku, Rebecca J. Eisen, Kim M. Pepin, Rommelle Vera-Tudela, Christopher Sexton, Kenneth L. Gage

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Rattus rattus was first reported from the West Nile Region of Uganda in 1961, an event that preceded the appearance of the first documented human plague outbreak in 1970. We investigated how invasive R. rattus and native small mammal populations, as well as their fleas, have changed in recent decades. Over an 18-month period, a total of 2,959 small mammals were captured, sampled, and examined for fleas, resulting in the identification of 20 small mammal taxa that were hosts to 5,109 fleas (nine species). Over three-fourths (75.8%) of captured mammals belonged to four taxa: R. rattus, which ...


Tissue Tropisms Of Avian Influenza A Viruses Affect Their Spillovers From Wild Birds To Pigs, Xiaojian Zhang, Fred L. Cunningham, Lei Li, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Liyuan Liu, Kaitlyn Waters, Minhui Guan, Alicia K. Olivier, Brandon S. Schmit, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Andrew S. Bowman, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan 2020 University of Missouri, Columbia

Tissue Tropisms Of Avian Influenza A Viruses Affect Their Spillovers From Wild Birds To Pigs, Xiaojian Zhang, Fred L. Cunningham, Lei Li, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Liyuan Liu, Kaitlyn Waters, Minhui Guan, Alicia K. Olivier, Brandon S. Schmit, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Andrew S. Bowman, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto, Xiu-Feng Wan

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wild aquatic birds maintain a large, genetically diverse pool of influenza A viruses (IAVs), which can be transmitted to lower mammals and, ultimately, humans. Through phenotypic analyses of viral replication efficiency, only a small set of avian IAVs were found to replicate well in epithelial cells of the swine upper respiratory tract, and these viruses were shown to infect and cause virus shedding in pigs. Such a phenotypic trait of the viral replication efficiency appears to emerge randomly and is distributed among IAVs across multiple avian species and geographic and temporal orders. It is not determined by receptor binding preference ...


Population Increases Of Large Birds In North America Pose Challenges For Aviation Safety, Richard A. Dolbeer 2020 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, Sandusky, OH

Population Increases Of Large Birds In North America Pose Challenges For Aviation Safety, Richard A. Dolbeer

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

There is a strong correlation between bird mass and the likelihood of aircraft damage during a bird–aircraft collision. Thus, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established airworthiness standards related to bird mass for engines, airframes, and windshields. Most standards use large (1.8 kg) and medium (1.1 kg) birds as benchmarks (the empennage and certain large turbofan engines use a 3.6-kg bird). There are 20 large (≥1.8 kg) and 16 medium (1.1–1.7 kg) bird species in North America with ≥20 strikes reported for civil aircraft (FAA National Wildlife Strike Database), 1990 ...


Mixed Ancestry From Wild And Domestic Lineages Contributes To The Rapid Expansion Of Invasive Feral Swine, Timothy J. Smyser, Michael A. Tabak, Chris Slootmaker, Michael S. Robeson II, Ryan S. Miller, Mirte Bosse, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Martien A.M. Groenen, Samuel Rezende Paiva, Danielle Assis de Faria, Harvey D. Blackburn, Brandon S. Schmit, Antoinette J. Piaggio 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Mixed Ancestry From Wild And Domestic Lineages Contributes To The Rapid Expansion Of Invasive Feral Swine, Timothy J. Smyser, Michael A. Tabak, Chris Slootmaker, Michael S. Robeson Ii, Ryan S. Miller, Mirte Bosse, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Martien A.M. Groenen, Samuel Rezende Paiva, Danielle Assis De Faria, Harvey D. Blackburn, Brandon S. Schmit, Antoinette J. Piaggio

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive alien species are a significant threat to both economic and ecological systems. Identifying the processes that give rise to invasive populations is essential for implementing effective control strategies. We conducted an ancestry analysis of invasive feral swine (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus, 1758), a highly destructive ungulate that is widely distributed throughout the contiguous United States, to describe introduction pathways, sources of newly emergent populations and processes contributing to an ongoing invasion. Comparisons of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes for 6,566 invasive feral swine to a comprehensive reference set of S. scrofa revealed that the vast majority of feral swine ...


Predator Scent And Visual Cue Applied To Nest Boxes Fail To Dissuade European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris) From Nesting, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Predator Scent And Visual Cue Applied To Nest Boxes Fail To Dissuade European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris) From Nesting, Bradley Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bruce N. Buckingham

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Indirect predator cues have been shown to enhance perceived nest predation risk in both open-cup and cavity-nesting birds. We hypothesized that scent from the raccoon (Procyon lotor) inside nest boxes, supplemented with raccoon hair as a visual cue on the outside of the box, would enhance perceived risk to the European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), resulting in reduced use of treated nest boxes and negative effects on reproduction. The starling is recognized, outside its native range, as a competitor with indigenous cavity nesters and a pest species, and efforts to deter its nesting have generally been unsuccessful. Our objectives were to ...


Effects Of Brodifacoum And Diphacinone Exposure On Four Species Of Reptiles: Tissue Residue Levels And Survivorship, Richard E. Mauldin, Gary W. Witmer, S. A. Shriner, Rachael S. Moulton, Katherine E. Horak 2020 United States Department of Agriculture,

Effects Of Brodifacoum And Diphacinone Exposure On Four Species Of Reptiles: Tissue Residue Levels And Survivorship, Richard E. Mauldin, Gary W. Witmer, S. A. Shriner, Rachael S. Moulton, Katherine E. Horak

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant rodenticides are used worldwide to control pest rodent species. However, the risks posed to nontarget reptiles have not been well characterized. In this study, 46 giant ameivas (Ameiva ameiva), 39 boa constrictors (Boa constrictor), 33 wood turtles (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima), and 47 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) were orally dosed with one of two levels of either diphacinone or brodifacoum anticoagulant in propylene glycol solutions. Dosages were derived using daily food intake (DFI) equations, converting DFI to an equivalent anticoagulant bait amount and gavaging the solution volume needed to deliver the quantity of anticoagulant in that amount of bait. Animals ...


Cattle Egrets Regurgitate House Mouse Carcasses Onto A Mouse-Free Island: Implications For Rodent Eradications, Aaron B. Shiels, Mele Khalsa, Doreen L. Griffin, Clay K. Chow, Sheri S. Mann, Antoinette J. Piaggio 2020 USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services’ National Wildlife Research Center

Cattle Egrets Regurgitate House Mouse Carcasses Onto A Mouse-Free Island: Implications For Rodent Eradications, Aaron B. Shiels, Mele Khalsa, Doreen L. Griffin, Clay K. Chow, Sheri S. Mann, Antoinette J. Piaggio

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Eradication of invasive rodents on islands typically results in positive conservation gains, and maintaining a rodent-free island requires elevated biosecurity, including prevention of assisted rodent arrival via watercraft, aircraft and animals such as birds. Cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) are widespread, and often fly several kilometres daily to roost and forage. They frequently swallow insects and vertebrates (including rodents) whole, and some regurgitate prey. Cattle egrets have been regularly observed flying between the Hawaiian Islands of Ni’ihau (where non-native mice and rats are established) and Lehua (where one species of non-native rat is established and was targeted during a ...


Multi-Isotopic (Δ2h, Δ13c, Δ15n) Tracing Of Molt Origin For European Starlings Associated With U.S. Dairies And Feedlots, Scott Werner, J. W. Fischer, Keith A. Hobson 2020 United States Department of Agriculture

Multi-Isotopic (Δ2h, Δ13c, Δ15n) Tracing Of Molt Origin For European Starlings Associated With U.S. Dairies And Feedlots, Scott Werner, J. W. Fischer, Keith A. Hobson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Introduced bird species can become invasive in agroecosystems and their management is inhibited if their origin and movements are not well understood. Stable isotope measurements of feathers can be used to infer molt origins and interstate movements in North America. We analyzed stable-hydrogen (δ2H), carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) isotope ratios in feathers to better understand the molt origin of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) collected at dairies and feedlots throughout the United States. Primary feathers were used from 596 adult and 90 juvenile starlings collected during winter at dairies and feedlots that experience starling ...


Optimal Spatial Prioritization Of Control Resources For Elimination Of Invasive Species Under Demographic Uncertainty, Kim M. Pepin, Timothy J. Smyser, Amy J. Davis, Ryan S. Miller, Sophie McKee, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William Kendall, Chris Slootmaker 2020 USDA-APHIS, Fort Collins

Optimal Spatial Prioritization Of Control Resources For Elimination Of Invasive Species Under Demographic Uncertainty, Kim M. Pepin, Timothy J. Smyser, Amy J. Davis, Ryan S. Miller, Sophie Mckee, Kurt C. Vercauteren, William Kendall, Chris Slootmaker

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Populations of invasive species often spread heterogeneously across a landscape, consisting of local populations that cluster in space but are connected by dispersal. A fundamental dilemma for invasive species control is how to optimally allocate limited fiscal resources across local populations. Theoretical work based on perfect knowledge of demographic connectivity suggests that targeting local populations from which migrants originate (sources) can be optimal. However, demographic processes such as abundance and dispersal can be highly uncertain, and the relationship between local population density and damage costs (damage function) is rarely known. We used a metapopulation model to understand how budget and ...


Piscivorous Bird Use Of Aquaculture And Natural Water Bodies In Mississippi, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy I. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr 2020 Mississippi State University

Piscivorous Bird Use Of Aquaculture And Natural Water Bodies In Mississippi, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy I. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and great egrets (Ardea alba) have an extensive history of human wildlife conflict with the aquaculture industry of western Mississippi, USA, due to

their depredation of cultured catfish (Ictalurus spp.). Although aquaculture is abundant, western Mississippi also contains naturally occurring water bodies that offer alternative forage opportunities to these species. How cormorants or egrets distribute themselves among these 2 foraging options is unknown, but it has been generally assumed each species uses aquaculture disproportionately more because of the high density of available prey. To test this assumption, we surveyed these species on aquaculture and naturally ...


Additive And Non-Additive Responses Of Seedlings To Simulated Herbivory And Drought, Kasey Barton, Aaron B. Shiels 2020 University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

Additive And Non-Additive Responses Of Seedlings To Simulated Herbivory And Drought, Kasey Barton, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Drought is a global threat, increasing in severity and frequency throughout tropical ecosystems. Although plants often face drought in conjunction with biotic stressors, such as herbivory or disease, experimental studies infrequently test the simultaneous effects of drought and biotic stress. Because multiple simultaneous stressors may have non-additive and complex effects on plant performance, it is difficult to predict plant responses to multiple threats from research examining one stress at a time. Using an experimental approach in the greenhouse, we investigated potential non-additivity in seedling growth and survival to simulated drought and herbivory across a phylogenetically diverse pool of ten Hawaiian ...


Improving The Accessibility And Transferability Of Machine Learning Algorithms For Identification Of Animals In Camera Trap Images: Mlwic2, Michael A. Tabak, Mohammad S. Norouzzadeh, David W. Wolfson, Erica J. Newton, Raoul K. Boughton, Jacob S. Ivan, Eric Odell, Eric S. Newkirk, Reesa Y. Conrey, Jennifer Stenglein, Fabiola Iannarilli, John Erb, Ryan K. Brook, Amy J. Davis, Jesse Lewis, Daniel P. Walsh, James C. Beasley, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jeff Clune, Ryan S. Miller 2020 Quantitative Science Consulting, LLC, Laramie, WY

Improving The Accessibility And Transferability Of Machine Learning Algorithms For Identification Of Animals In Camera Trap Images: Mlwic2, Michael A. Tabak, Mohammad S. Norouzzadeh, David W. Wolfson, Erica J. Newton, Raoul K. Boughton, Jacob S. Ivan, Eric Odell, Eric S. Newkirk, Reesa Y. Conrey, Jennifer Stenglein, Fabiola Iannarilli, John Erb, Ryan K. Brook, Amy J. Davis, Jesse Lewis, Daniel P. Walsh, James C. Beasley, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jeff Clune, Ryan S. Miller

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Motion-activated wildlife cameras (or “camera traps”) are frequently used to remotely and noninvasively observe animals. The vast number of images collected from camera trap projects has prompted some biologists to employ machine learning algorithms to automatically recognize species in these images, or at least filter-out images that do not contain animals. These approaches are often limited by model transferability, as a model trained to recognize species from one location might not work as well for the same species in different locations. Furthermore, these methods often require advanced computational skills, making them inaccessible to many biologists. We used 3 million camera ...


Review Of Ospreys: The Revival Of A Global Raptor, By Alan F. Poole. 2019., Lisa Fields, Brian E. Washburn 2020 California State Parks

Review Of Ospreys: The Revival Of A Global Raptor, By Alan F. Poole. 2019., Lisa Fields, Brian E. Washburn

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

For the past three decades, Alan Poole’s (1989) Ospreys: A Natural and Unnatural History has provided a solid foundation for those seeking a primer on the basic biology and ecology of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus). Poole’s summary of knowledge about Ospreys was written at a time when these amazing birds were recovering from their DDTinduced population crash, but this important book has long been out of print. In the intervening decades, much has been learned regarding Ospreys. In his new book, Ospreys: The Revival of a Global Raptor, Poole guides the reader through a tour of Ospreys’ worldwide distribution ...


Comparison Of Intestinal Permeability, Morphology, And Ileal Microbial Communities Of Commercial Hens Housed In Conventional Cages And Cage-Free Housing Systems, Maddison L. Wiersema, Lucas Koester, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Dawn A. Koltes 2020 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Intestinal Permeability, Morphology, And Ileal Microbial Communities Of Commercial Hens Housed In Conventional Cages And Cage-Free Housing Systems, Maddison L. Wiersema, Lucas Koester, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Dawn A. Koltes

Animal Science Publications

The gastrointestinal health of poultry can be impacted by a variety of factors including their environment. As egg production moves from conventional cage housing (CC) towards cage-free housing (CF), it is important to understand this impact on intestinal health. This study was conducted to determine if housing type impacted intestinal permeability, morphology, and microbial communities in commercial hens across housing systems. Hens were randomly selected from 2 rooms of CC (n = 25) and CF (n = 25) at a commercial facility. Birds were given fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) by oral gavage to measure intestinal permeability. Jejunal and ileal samples were collected ...


Development Of A Subcutaneous Ear Implant To Deliver An Anaplasmosis Vaccine To Dairy Steers, Andrew K. Curtis, Kathryn E. Reif, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Miriam S. Martin, Brandt Skinner, Sean M. Kelly, Douglas E. Jones, Emily J. Reppert, Shawnee R. Montgomery, Balaji Narasimhan, Tippawan Anantatat, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Johann F. Coetzee 2019 Kansas State University

Development Of A Subcutaneous Ear Implant To Deliver An Anaplasmosis Vaccine To Dairy Steers, Andrew K. Curtis, Kathryn E. Reif, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Miriam S. Martin, Brandt Skinner, Sean M. Kelly, Douglas E. Jones, Emily J. Reppert, Shawnee R. Montgomery, Balaji Narasimhan, Tippawan Anantatat, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Johann F. Coetzee

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Bovine anaplasmosis is the most prevalent tick-transmitted disease of cattle worldwide and a major obstacle to profitable beef production. Use of chlortetracycline-medicated feed to control active anaplasmosis infections during the vector season has raised concerns about the potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that may pose a risk to human health. Furthermore, the absence of effectiveness data for a commercially available, conditionally licensed anaplasmosis vaccine is a major impediment to implementing anaplasmosis control programs. The primary objective of this study was to develop a single-dose vaccine delivery platform to produce long-lasting protective immunity against anaplasmosis infections. Twelve Holstein steers ...


A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler 2019 USDA/APHIS/WS,National Wildlife Research Center & St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to agricultural production and public health. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated predicting antimicrobial sensitive/resistant (S/R) phenotypes and host sources of Escherichia coli (n = 128) based on differential fatty acid abundance. Myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic acid (15:0), palmitic (16:0), elaidic (18:19) and steric acid (18:0) were significantly different (α = 0.05) using a two-way ANOVA for predicting nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, cefatoxime, and ceftazidime S/R phenotypes. Additionally, analyses of palmitoleic (16:1), palmitic acid (16:0), methyl palmitate (i-17:0), and cis-9,10-methyleneoctadecanoic acid (19:0Δ) showed these ...


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