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Disease Will Limit Future Food Supply From The Global Crustacean Fishery And Aquaculture Sectors, G. Stentiford, D. Neil, E. Peeler, J. Shields, H. Small, T. Flegel, J. Vlak, B. Jones, F. Morado, S. Moss, J. Lotz, Lyric Bartholomay, D. Behringer, C. Hauton, D. Lightner 2015 Weymouth Laboratory

Disease Will Limit Future Food Supply From The Global Crustacean Fishery And Aquaculture Sectors, G. Stentiford, D. Neil, E. Peeler, J. Shields, H. Small, T. Flegel, J. Vlak, B. Jones, F. Morado, S. Moss, J. Lotz, Lyric Bartholomay, D. Behringer, C. Hauton, D. Lightner

Lyric Bartholomay

Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products ...


Detection Methods And Intestinal Adherence Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Zachary R. Stromberg 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Detection Methods And Intestinal Adherence Of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli, Zachary R. Stromberg

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are enteric pathogens of humans. Cattle serve as a reservoir and harbor STEC in their intestines. Intimin-positive STEC are referred to as enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC). Seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) account for the majority of illness due to STEC and are hereafter referred to as STEC/EHEC-7. To improve detection, enrichment broths were compared for supporting growth of STEC-7 and STEC O104:H4 (STEC-8). In pure culture, STEC enriched in trypticase soy broth (TSB) had significantly greater growth compared to TSB containing antimicrobials. In fecal samples, E. coli broth ...


The Neurobiology Of Circadian Rhythms, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Neurobiology Of Circadian Rhythms, Patricia J. Sollars, Gary E. Pickard

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Daily rhythms in nature, such as the opening and closing of flowers or our patterns of sleep and wakefulness and their association with the perpetual alteration of night and day, were recognized in antiquity although their origins were not questioned until the eighteenth century. The French Astronomer Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de Mairan conducted an investigation into whether the leaves of the Mimosa plant opened in response to light.1 While de Mairan’s experiments were the first to question the origin of such daily rhythms, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle is credited with the first suggestion that they arose through an ...


Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Epidemiology Of Select Species Of Filarial Nematodes In Free-Ranging Moose (Alces Alces) Of North America, Caroline Mae Grunenwald

Doctoral Dissertations

North American moose (Alces alces) are a culturally and economically valued species. Recent population declines raise concern for the survivability of this natural resource. The Minnesota population has experienced the most dramatic decline, with a 60% loss in total numbers since 2006. Nematode parasites, particularly some species of filarids, are important pathogens of moose and could be contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study investigates the eco-epidemiology of two filarial parasites of moose: Rumenfilaria andersoni and Elaeophora schneideri. By surveying cervid species from six U.S. states, we discovered R. andersoni was present in moose from all sample locations with ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2015 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Strong Concordance Between Transcriptomic Patterns Of Spleen And Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Response To Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Infection, Erin E. Sandford, Megan Orr, Xianyao Li, Huaijun Zhou, Timothy J. Johnson, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Peng Liu, Lisa K. Nolan, Susan J. Lamont 2015 Iowa State University

Strong Concordance Between Transcriptomic Patterns Of Spleen And Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Response To Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Infection, Erin E. Sandford, Megan Orr, Xianyao Li, Huaijun Zhou, Timothy J. Johnson, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Peng Liu, Lisa K. Nolan, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes morbidity in chickens and exhibits zoonotic potential. Understanding host transcriptional responses to infection aids the understanding of protective mechanisms and serves to inform future colibacillosis control strategies. Transcriptomes of spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of the same individual birds in response to APEC infection were compared to identify common response patterns and connecting pathways. More than 100 genes in three contrasts examining pathology and infection status were significantly differentially expressed in both tissues and similarly regulated. Tissue-specific differences in catalytic activity, however, appear between birds with mild and severe pathology responses. Early expression ...


Alterations In The Colonic Microbiota Of Pigs Associated With Feeding Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Eric R. Burrough, Bailey L. Arruda, John F. Patience, Paul J. Plummer 2015 Iowa State University

Alterations In The Colonic Microbiota Of Pigs Associated With Feeding Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Eric R. Burrough, Bailey L. Arruda, John F. Patience, Paul J. Plummer

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2015 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


In Vivo Effects Of A Thymosin A1-Containing Colostral Whey Product On N Eutrophils And Lymphocytes From Lactating Cows Without And With Experimentally Induced Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis, Marcus E. Kehrli Jr., Brian J. Nonnecke, Richard L. Wood, James A. Roth 2015 United States Department of Agriculture

In Vivo Effects Of A Thymosin A1-Containing Colostral Whey Product On N Eutrophils And Lymphocytes From Lactating Cows Without And With Experimentally Induced Staphylococcus Aureus Mastitis, Marcus E. Kehrli Jr., Brian J. Nonnecke, Richard L. Wood, James A. Roth

James A. Roth

Two separate experiments evaluated ID-1 (a commercial bovine whey product containing 5200 pg of thymosin α1/ml) as an immunotherapeutic agent in lactating cows. In the first experiment, cows without mastitis were evaluated for blood leukogram, milk production, total and differential milk cell counts, lymphocyte (Lc) blastogenesis, and neutrophil (PMN) functions (random and directed migration under agarose, chemiluminescence, ingestion of bacteria, iodination, cytochrome C reduction, antibody-independent neutrophil-mediated cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) before and after ID-1 therapy. ID-1 treatment resulted in a significant treatment group by time period interaction for the relative proportion of mononuclear cells (MNC) in milk (P ...


Dynamic Ubiquitination Drives Herpesvirus Neuroinvasion, Nicholas J. Huffmaster, Patricia J. Sollars, Alexsia L. Richards, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith 2015 Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Dynamic Ubiquitination Drives Herpesvirus Neuroinvasion, Nicholas J. Huffmaster, Patricia J. Sollars, Alexsia L. Richards, Gary E. Pickard, Gregory A. Smith

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Neuroinvasive herpesviruses display a remarkable propensity to enter the nervous system of healthy individuals in the absence of obvious trauma at the site of inoculation. We document a repurposing of cellular ubiquitin during infection to switch the virus between two invasive states. The states act sequentially to defeat consecutive host barriers of the peripheral nervous system and together promote the potent neuroinvasive phenotype. The first state directs virus access to nerve endings in peripheral tissue, whereas the second delivers virus particles within nerve fibers to the neural ganglia. Mutant viruses locked in either state remain competent to overcome the corresponding ...


Emergence Of Extensively Drug-Resistant Proteus Mirabilis Harboring A Conjugative Ndm-1 Plasmid And A Novel Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variant, Sgi1-Z, Shangshang Qin, Hui Qi, Qijing Zhang, Di Zhao, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Hao Tian, Lijuan Xu, Hui Xu, Mengmeng Zhou, Xianju Feng, Hong-Min Liu 2015 Zhengzhou University

Emergence Of Extensively Drug-Resistant Proteus Mirabilis Harboring A Conjugative Ndm-1 Plasmid And A Novel Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variant, Sgi1-Z, Shangshang Qin, Hui Qi, Qijing Zhang, Di Zhao, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Hao Tian, Lijuan Xu, Hui Xu, Mengmeng Zhou, Xianju Feng, Hong-Min Liu

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Acquisition of blaNDM-1 in bacterial species, such as Proteus mirabilis that is intrinsically resistant to tetracycline, tigecycline and colistin, will make clinical treatment extremely difficult. Here, we characterized an NDM-1-producing clinical isolate of P. mirabilis (PM58) that displayed an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype, susceptible only to aztreonam. Molecular analysis revealed that PM58 harbored both a conjugative NDM-1 plasmid and a novel Salmonella genomic island 1 variant on chromosome.


Constitutive And Inducible Expression Of The Rrna Methylase Gene Erm(B) In Campylobacter, Fengru Deng, Jianzhong Shen, Maojun Zhang, Congming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang 2015 Iowa State University

Constitutive And Inducible Expression Of The Rrna Methylase Gene Erm(B) In Campylobacter, Fengru Deng, Jianzhong Shen, Maojun Zhang, Congming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Macrolides are the antimicrobials of choice for treating human campylobacteriosis. The recent emergence of erm(B) in Campylobacter bacteria threatens the utility of this class of antibiotics. Here we report the constitutive and inducible expression of erm(B) in Campylobacter isolates derived from diarrheal patients and food-producing animals. Constitutive expression of erm(B) was associated with insertion and deletion in the regulatory region of the gene, providing the first documentation of the differential expression of erm(B) in Campylobacter bacteria.


Trim21 Regulates Nmi-Ifi35 Complex-Mediated Inhibition Of Innate Antiviral Response, Anshuman Das, Phat X. Dinh, Asit K. Pattnaik 2015 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Trim21 Regulates Nmi-Ifi35 Complex-Mediated Inhibition Of Innate Antiviral Response, Anshuman Das, Phat X. Dinh, Asit K. Pattnaik

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

In this study, using an immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry approach, we have identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim21 as an interacting partner of IFI35 and Nmi. We found that this interaction leads to K63-linked ubiquitination on K22 residue of Nmi, but not IFI35. Using domain deletion analysis, we found that the interaction is mediated via the coiled-coil domain of Nmi and the carboxyl-terminal SPRY domain of Trim21. Furthermore, we show that depletion of Trim21 leads to significantly reduced interaction of Nmi with IFI35, which results in the abrogation of the negative regulatory function of the Nmi-IFI35 complex on innate ...


Risk Assessment For Food Safety: Application And Evaluation Of Haccp In Hog Slaughter And Processing, Helen H. Jensen, George W. Beran, Terry Proescholdt, Laurian Unnevehr, James S. Dickson, Patricia Batres-Marquez 2015 Iowa State University

Risk Assessment For Food Safety: Application And Evaluation Of Haccp In Hog Slaughter And Processing, Helen H. Jensen, George W. Beran, Terry Proescholdt, Laurian Unnevehr, James S. Dickson, Patricia Batres-Marquez

Iowa Ag Review

New federal regulations focus control at the processing plant level. The project described in this article is designed to evaluate the microbial reductions and costs associated with the use of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system in large pork slaughter and processing plants. The objectives are to measure the efficiency of HACCP systems in achieving lower microbial counts in pork processing, to measure the marginal costs associated with different levels of pathogen reduction in pork processing and to determine implications for mandated HACCP adoption on industry costs. The study considers specific control points or technologies that are ...


Development Of An Indirect Elisa, Blocking Elisa, Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay And Fluorescent Focus Neutralization Assay For Serologic Evaluation Of Exposure To North American Strains Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Faten Okda, Xiaodong Liu, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric A. Nelson, Steven Lawson 2015 South Dakota State University

Development Of An Indirect Elisa, Blocking Elisa, Fluorescent Microsphere Immunoassay And Fluorescent Focus Neutralization Assay For Serologic Evaluation Of Exposure To North American Strains Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Faten Okda, Xiaodong Liu, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Julie Nelson, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric A. Nelson, Steven Lawson

Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications

Recent, severe outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Asia and North America highlight the need for well-validated diagnostic tests for the identification of PEDV infected animals and evaluation of their immune status to this virus. PEDV was first detected in the U.S. in May 2013 and spread rapidly across the country. Some serological assays for PEDV have been previously described, but few were readily available in the U.S. Several U.S. laboratories quickly developed indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays for the detection of antibodies to PEDV in swine serum, indicating prior exposure. However, the IFA has ...


Nahems Guidelines: Vaccination For Contagious Diseases, Appendix C: Vaccination For High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth 2015 Iowa State University

Nahems Guidelines: Vaccination For Contagious Diseases, Appendix C: Vaccination For High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Reports

This Appendix is intended to provide relevant information for federal and state officials and other interested parties who will participate in making decisions related to vaccination as an aid in controlling an HPAI outbreak in the U.S. The following topics are presented and discussed: Important characteristics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI); Characteristics of vaccines; Strategies for vaccine use; Various factors that must be considered when designing an effective vaccination program. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) has a separate document, HPAI Response Plan: The Red Book that ...


Digital Dermatitis In Cow/Calf And Feedlot Cattle, J. K. Shearer, P. J. Plummer 2015 Iowa State University

Digital Dermatitis In Cow/Calf And Feedlot Cattle, J. K. Shearer, P. J. Plummer

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Our lameness research team at Iowa State University, comprised of faculty members Drs. Paul Plummer, Pat Gorden and Jan Shearer, and graduate students Drs. Adam Krull and John Coatney, has been actively studying digital dermatitis for the past six years. Our work has been focused on identifying causative agents for the purpose of developing better strategies for its treatment and control. In the following article, we review current understanding of this disease and highlight some of our research findings.


An Evaluation Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Survival In Individual Feed Ingredients In The Presence Or Absence Of A Liquid Antimicrobial, Scott Dee, Casey Neill, Travis Clement, Aaron Singrey, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric A. Nelson 2015 South Dakota State University

An Evaluation Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Survival In Individual Feed Ingredients In The Presence Or Absence Of A Liquid Antimicrobial, Scott Dee, Casey Neill, Travis Clement, Aaron Singrey, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric A. Nelson

Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Contaminated complete feed and porcine plasma are risk factors for PEDV introduction to farms and a liquid antimicrobial has been proven useful for reducing risk. This study provides information on the survivability of PEDV across common swine feed ingredients in the presence or absence of the liquid antimicrobial.
Results: Eighteen ingredients commonly included in commercial swine diets were selected, including 3 grain sources (corn, soybean meal (SBM), dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)), 5 porcine by-products (spray-dried plasma, purified plasma, intestinal mucosa, meat and bone meal and red blood cells (RBCs)), 3 vitamin/trace mineral (VTM) mixes (sow, nursery ...


Genetic Basis And Functional Consequences Of Differential Expression Of The Cmeabc Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Qijing Zhang 2015 Iowa State University

Genetic Basis And Functional Consequences Of Differential Expression Of The Cmeabc Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The CmeABC multidrug efflux transporter of Campylobacter jejuni plays a key role in antimicrobial resistance and is suppressed by CmeR, a transcriptional regulator of the TetR family. Overexpression of CmeABC has been observed in laboratory-generated mutants, but it is unknown if this phenotype occurs naturally in C. jejuni isolates and if it has any functional consequences. To answer these questions, expression of cmeABC in natural isolates obtained from broiler chickens, turkeys and humans was examined, and the genetic mechanisms and role of cmeABC differential expression in antimicrobial resistance was determined. Among the 64 C. jejuni isolates examined in this study ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2015 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


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