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Small or Companion Animal Medicine Commons

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Vitamin D Status In Cats With Cardiomyopathy, Wendy A. Ware, Lisa M. Freeman, John E. Rush, Jessica L. Ward, Andrew J. Makowski, Min Zhang 2020 Iowa State University

Vitamin D Status In Cats With Cardiomyopathy, Wendy A. Ware, Lisa M. Freeman, John E. Rush, Jessica L. Ward, Andrew J. Makowski, Min Zhang

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background Low vitamin D concentrations have been associated with advanced heart disease and poorer outcomes in people and dogs. Vitamin D status typically is assessed by serum 25(OH)D concentration. However, cats also produce notable amounts of a C‐3 epimer of 25(OH)D (3‐epi).

Hypothesis/Objectives Determine if vitamin D status, estimated by 25(OH)D3 alone or combined with 3‐epi (summation vitD), is lower in cats with cardiomyopathy (CM) compared to clinically normal (N) cats and if indicators of disease severity are associated with vitamin D status.

Animals Privately owned cats, 44 with CM ...


Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade 2020 United States Food and Drug Administration

Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The dog is an important species used in preclinical studies in support of human drug product development. Likewise, because of the many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with therapeutic relevance to both humans and dogs, extrapolation can also occur in the reverse, from human to dog. In either situation, it is important to appreciate species-specific factors influencing drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, disposition, and elimination) and the potential impact of disease on the applicability of these extrapolations. Furthermore, tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models not only enable investigators to extrapolate species-specific data on systemic or organ exposure to the parent ...


Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch 2020 University of California, Davis and Mansoura University

Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a metabolic storage disorder caused by the deficiency of any lysosomal enzyme required for the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. A 15-month-old Boston Terrier presented with clinical signs consistent with lysosomal storage disease including corneal opacities, multifocal central nervous system disease and progressively worsening clinical course. Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy based on histopathologic evaluation of multiple organs demonstrating accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. Whole genome sequencing was used to uncover a frame-shift insertion affecting the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene (c.19_20insCGGCCCCC), a mutation confirmed in another Boston Terrier presented 2 years later with a similar clinical picture. Both dogs were homozygous ...


Development And Management Of Canine Adverse Food Reactions And Its Connections To The Grain-Free Dog Food Movement, Savannah Dunn 2020 Liberty University

Development And Management Of Canine Adverse Food Reactions And Its Connections To The Grain-Free Dog Food Movement, Savannah Dunn

Senior Honors Theses

Canine Adverse Food Reactions include immunologically-mediated food allergies as well as non-immunological food intolerances. Although popular belief holds grains are responsible for AFR, the majority are aggravated by the common protein sources found in commercial dog foods. Elimination diets, a time-intensive method in which suspected allergens are removed from the dog’s diet, are the most effective form of diagnosis, though alternative techniques including patch testing and serum antibody tests have been explored. Presently, avoidance of allergens is the recommended management approach. The erroneous association of grains with AFR has led to the rise of grain-free dog food. However, these ...


The Effect Of Intravenous Maropitant On Blood Pressure In Healthy Awake And Anesthetized Dogs, Ting-Ting Chi, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2020 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Intravenous Maropitant On Blood Pressure In Healthy Awake And Anesthetized Dogs, Ting-Ting Chi, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective To evaluate the effects of intravenous maropitant on arterial blood pressure in healthy dogs while awake and under general anesthesia.

Design Experimental crossover study.

Animals Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs.

Procedure All dogs received maropitant (1 mg kg-1) intravenously under the following conditions: 1) awake with non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwNIBP), 2) awake with invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwIBP), 3) premedication with acepromazine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaAB), and 4) premedication with dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed ...


Albumin Levels In Tear Film Modulate The Bioavailability Of Medically-Relevant Topical Drugs, Lionel Sebbag, Leah M. Moody, Jonathan P. Mochel 2020 Iowa State University

Albumin Levels In Tear Film Modulate The Bioavailability Of Medically-Relevant Topical Drugs, Lionel Sebbag, Leah M. Moody, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

The breakdown of blood-tear barrier that occurs with ocular pathology allows for large amounts of albumin to leak into the tear fluid. This process likely represents an important restriction to drug absorption in ophthalmology, as only the unbound drug is transported across the ocular tissue barriers to exert its pharmacologic effect. We aimed to investigate the effects of albumin levels in tears on the bioavailability of two commonly used ophthalmic drugs: tropicamide, an antimuscarinic that produces mydriasis and cycloplegia, and latanoprost, a PGF2α analog used for the treatment of glaucoma. Eight female beagle dogs underwent a randomized, vehicle-controlled crossover trial ...


A Case Of A Linear Foreign Body Removal In A Miniature Companion Pig, Alison Cain, Jordan Kirkpatrick, Ryan Breuer, Robin White, Joe Smith 2020 Iowa State University

A Case Of A Linear Foreign Body Removal In A Miniature Companion Pig, Alison Cain, Jordan Kirkpatrick, Ryan Breuer, Robin White, Joe Smith

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Despite the recent rise in popularity of miniature pigs as companion animals, there are few published reports available regarding gastrointestinal surgery in these animals. This case report describes a 4-year-old castrated male companion potbellied pig who was diagnosed with a small bowel linear foreign body and associated pyloric outflow obstruction. A gastrotomy and three enterotomies involving the proximal and mid-jejunum and proximal centripetal loop of the spiral colon were performed to remove the linear foreign body. The surgical techniques and post-operative care described in this case report provided effective treatment of the linear foreign body and adequately prevented clinical evidence ...


Diagnosis And Treatment Of Ocular Proptosis, Braidee C. Foote, Lionel Sebbag 2020 Iowa State University

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Ocular Proptosis, Braidee C. Foote, Lionel Sebbag

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Proptosis, or traumatic forward displacement of the globe out of the orbit, is a serious ocular emergency that requires immediate attention to minimize discomfort and damage to the eye (Figure 1). With proptosis, the eyelid margins are trapped behind the equator of the globe and, together with profound tissue swelling in the orbit, prevent the eyeball from returning to a normal position.


Glucocorticoid And Dietary Effects On Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Todd Atherly, Giacomo Rossi, Robin White, Yeon-Jung Seo, Chong Wang, Mark Ackermann, Mary Breuer, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens 2019 Iowa State University

Glucocorticoid And Dietary Effects On Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Todd Atherly, Giacomo Rossi, Robin White, Yeon-Jung Seo, Chong Wang, Mark Ackermann, Mary Breuer, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The pathogenesis of canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves complex interactions between mucosal immunity and the intestinal microbiota. Glucocorticoids are commonly administered to reduce mucosal inflammation and gastrointestinal signs. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of diet and oral prednisone on the spatial distribution of mucosal bacteria in IBD dogs. Eight dogs diagnosed with IBD were treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisone. The mucosal microbiota from endoscopic biopsies of IBD dogs and healthy controls (HC; n = 15 dogs) was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting the 16S rRNA genes of total bacteria and bacterial species relevant ...


In Vitro Cytotoxicity And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Pharmacological Ascorbate In Dogs, Margaret L. Musser, Alyssa L. Mahaffey, Melissa A. Fath, Garry R. Buettner, Brett A. Wagner, Benjamin K. Schneider, Yeon-Jung Seo, Jonathan P. Mochel, Chad M. Johannes 2019 Iowa State University

In Vitro Cytotoxicity And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Pharmacological Ascorbate In Dogs, Margaret L. Musser, Alyssa L. Mahaffey, Melissa A. Fath, Garry R. Buettner, Brett A. Wagner, Benjamin K. Schneider, Yeon-Jung Seo, Jonathan P. Mochel, Chad M. Johannes

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Background: High-dose, pharmacological ascorbate (P-AscH−) is preferentially cytotoxic to human cancer cells in vitro. Investigations on the efficacy of P-AscH− as an adjuvant treatment for multiple human cancers are on-going, but has yet to be formally investigated in dogs. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of P-AscH− in healthy Beagle dogs and the effects of P-AscH− on canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro.

Methods: Eight purpose-bred, healthy, spayed female Beagle dogs, between 20 and 21 months old, and 8–10 kg were administered two doses of P-AscH− (550 or 2,200 mg/kg) via ...


Assessment Of Dog Owner Concern Regarding Peri-Operative Nausea And Vomiting And Willingness To Pay For Anti-Emetic Treatment, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Callie Cazlan 2019 Iowa State University

Assessment Of Dog Owner Concern Regarding Peri-Operative Nausea And Vomiting And Willingness To Pay For Anti-Emetic Treatment, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Callie Cazlan

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dog owners' concern regarding peri-operative nausea and vomiting, and their willingness to pay for treatment.

Design: Descriptive survey.

Sample: A survey was administered to 104 dog owning clients with non-emergent surgical (52) or non-surgical (52) appointments at a University teaching hospital.

Procedure: Descriptive statistics were calculated. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to detect differences between clients expecting their pet to undergo elective general anesthesia and those that did not. A Spearman's Rank Co-efficient was used to correlate predictive data.

Results: Ninety-seven (93%) dog owners had at least some worry ...


Fluorophotometric Assessment Of Tear Volume And Turnover Rate In Healthy Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Rita F. Wehrman, Lisa Uhl, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Chen, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Fluorophotometric Assessment Of Tear Volume And Turnover Rate In Healthy Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Rita F. Wehrman, Lisa Uhl, Gil Ben-Shlomo, Thomas Chen, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Purpose: The study establishes normative data of tear volume (TV) and tear turnover rate (TTR) in healthy dogs and cats, 2 species commonly used for translational research in ophthalmology.

Methods: Thirty-six dogs and 24 cats were enrolled, encompassing a variety of breeds with diverse skull conformations (brachycephalic, mesocephalic, and dolichocephalic). Two microliters of 10% fluorescein were instilled onto the upper bulbar conjunctiva of both eyes, followed by tear collection with 2-μL capillary tubes at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 min. Fluorescein concentrations were measured with a computerized scanning ocular fluorophotometer. The TV and TTR were estimated based ...


Release Kinetics Of Methylene Blue In Pluronic F-127 Hydrogel, Meredith Hayden 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Release Kinetics Of Methylene Blue In Pluronic F-127 Hydrogel, Meredith Hayden

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

“Between January 1998 and March 2000, veterinarians at the ASPCA National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) consulted on more than 1,050 cases of accidental exposures to acetaminophen and 1,100 cases of ibuprofen ingestion in dogs and cats” (Richardson, 2000).

NSAID toxicity has become an increasingly common occurrence in small companion animals within the last decade due to widespread usage (Zhou, Boudreau, & Freedman, 2014). Depending on the specific drug, treatment is centered around early decontamination and prevention of kidney and hepatic damage, and methemoglobanemia. Currently, methemoglobanemia is treated with intravenous delivery of methylene blue and less commonly through oral ...


Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Ceftiofur Sodium Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects In Healthy Beagle Dogs, Jianzhong Wang, Benjamin K. Schneider, Jiao Xue, Pan Sun, Jicheng Qiu, Jonathan P. Mochel, Xingyuan Cao 2019 Iowa State University and China Agricultural University

Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Ceftiofur Sodium Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects In Healthy Beagle Dogs, Jianzhong Wang, Benjamin K. Schneider, Jiao Xue, Pan Sun, Jicheng Qiu, Jonathan P. Mochel, Xingyuan Cao

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Ceftiofur (CEF) sodium is a third-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporin commonly used in an extra-label manner in dogs for the treatment of respiratory and urinary system infections. To contribute to the literature supporting CEF use in companion animals, we have developed a compartmental, nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) model of CEF pharmacokinetics in dogs (PK). We then used the mathematical model to predict (via Monte Carlo simulation) the duration of time for which plasma concentrations of CEF and its pharmacologically active metabolites remained above minimum inhibitory concentrations (respiratory tract Escherichia coli spp). Twelve healthy beagle dogs were administered either 2.2 mg/kg ceftiofur-sodium ...


Canine Dystocia In 50 Uk First-Opinion Emergency Care Veterinary Practices: Clinical Management And Outcomes, Dan G. O'Neill, Aoife M. O'Sullivan, Erin A. Manson, David B. Church, Paul McGreevy, Amanda K. Boag, Dave C. Brodbelt 2019 The Royal Veterinary College

Canine Dystocia In 50 Uk First-Opinion Emergency Care Veterinary Practices: Clinical Management And Outcomes, Dan G. O'Neill, Aoife M. O'Sullivan, Erin A. Manson, David B. Church, Paul Mcgreevy, Amanda K. Boag, Dave C. Brodbelt

Paul McGreevy, PhD

Canine dystocia is a relatively common veterinary presentation. First opinion emergency care clinical data from 50 Vets Now clinics across the UK were used to explore dystocia management and outcomes in bitches. Caesarean section (CS) was performed on 341/701 (48.6 per cent (95 per cent CI 44.9 to 52.4)) of dystocia cases. The bulldog (OR 7.60, 95 per cent CI 1.51 to 38.26, P=0.014), Border terrier (OR 4.89, 95 per cent CI 0.92 to 25.97, P=0.063) and golden retriever (OR 4.07, 95 per cent CI ...


Histamine-Induced Conjunctivitis And Breakdown Of Blood–Tear Barrier In Dogs: A Model For Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Amanda Weaver, Yeon-Jung Seo, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Histamine-Induced Conjunctivitis And Breakdown Of Blood–Tear Barrier In Dogs: A Model For Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics, Lionel Sebbag, Rachel A. Allbaugh, Amanda Weaver, Yeon-Jung Seo, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Conjunctival inflammation disturbs the blood–tear barrier and thus affects the tear film stability and composition. We aimed to develop a non-invasive and reliable method to induce conjunctivitis in dogs, a large animal model for translational work on ocular surface disease in humans. Six beagle dogs underwent a randomized, vehicle-controlled, balanced crossover trial—on six separate days, one eye received topical artificial tears (vehicle), while the other eye received one of six concentrations of histamine solution (0.005–500 mg/ml). At sequential times after eyedrop administration, a conjunctivitis score was given to each eye based on the degree of ...


Microbiota-Related Changes In Unconjugated Fecal Bile Acids Are Associated With Naturally Occurring, Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs, Albert E. Jergens, Blake C. Guard, Alana Redfern, Giacomo Rossi, Jonathan P. Mochel, Rachel Pilla, Lawrance Chandra, Yeon-Jung Seo, Joerg M. Steiner, Jonathan Lidbury, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski 2019 Iowa State University

Microbiota-Related Changes In Unconjugated Fecal Bile Acids Are Associated With Naturally Occurring, Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs, Albert E. Jergens, Blake C. Guard, Alana Redfern, Giacomo Rossi, Jonathan P. Mochel, Rachel Pilla, Lawrance Chandra, Yeon-Jung Seo, Joerg M. Steiner, Jonathan Lidbury, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans has recently been associated with altered intestinal microbiota. The consequences of intestinal dysbiosis, such as increased intestinal permeability and altered microbial metabolites, are suspected to contribute to the host inflammatory state and peripheral insulin resistance. Human diabetics have been shown to have changes in bile acid (BA) metabolism which may be detrimental to glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to examine BA metabolism in dogs with naturally-occurring, insulin-dependent DM and to relate these findings to changes in the intestinal microbiota. A prospective observational study of adult dogs with a clinical diagnosis of DM ...


The Gut-Brain Axis In Neurodegenerative Diseases And Relevance Of The Canine Model: A Review, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Dana Borcherding, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Hyun Jung Kim, Auriel A. Willette, Albert E. Jergens, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

The Gut-Brain Axis In Neurodegenerative Diseases And Relevance Of The Canine Model: A Review, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Dana Borcherding, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Hyun Jung Kim, Auriel A. Willette, Albert E. Jergens, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Identifying appropriate animal models is critical in developing translatable in vitro and in vivo systems for therapeutic drug development and investigating disease pathophysiology. These animal models should have direct biological and translational relevance to the underlying disease they are supposed to mimic. Aging dogs not only naturally develop a cognitive decline in many aspects including learning and memory deficits, but they also exhibit human-like individual variability in the aging process. Neurodegenerative processes that can be observed in both human and canine brains include the progressive accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) found as diffuse plaques in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), including the ...


Neurostimulator With Waveforms Inspired By Nature For Wearable Electro-Acupuncture, Jose Aquiles Parodi Amaya 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Neurostimulator With Waveforms Inspired By Nature For Wearable Electro-Acupuncture, Jose Aquiles Parodi Amaya

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The work presented here has 3 goals: establish the need for novel neurostimulation waveform solutions through a literature review, develop a neurostimulation pulse generator, and verify the operation of the device for neurostimulation applications.

The literature review discusses the importance of stimulation waveforms on the outcomes of neurostimulation, and proposes new directions for neurostimulation research that would help in improving the reproducibility and comparability between studies.

The pulse generator circuit is then described that generates signals inspired by the shape of excitatory or inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP, IPSP). The circuit analytical equations are presented, and the effects of the circuit ...


Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3-Dioxygenase-1 (Ido-1) Mrna Is Over-Expressed In The Duodenal Mucosa And Is Negatively Correlated With Serum Tryptophan Concentrations In Dogs With Protein-Losing Enteropathy, Aarti Kathrani, Victor Lezcano, Edward J. Hall, Albert E. Jergens, Yeon-Jung Seo, Jonathan P. Mochel, Todd Atherly, Karin Allenspach 2019 Royal Veterinary College

Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3-Dioxygenase-1 (Ido-1) Mrna Is Over-Expressed In The Duodenal Mucosa And Is Negatively Correlated With Serum Tryptophan Concentrations In Dogs With Protein-Losing Enteropathy, Aarti Kathrani, Victor Lezcano, Edward J. Hall, Albert E. Jergens, Yeon-Jung Seo, Jonathan P. Mochel, Todd Atherly, Karin Allenspach

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Introduction Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) have decreased serum tryptophan concentrations, which may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) expression is associated with low serum tryptophan concentrations and is increased in the gastrointestinal tract of humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine if the mRNA expression of IDO-1 is increased in the duodenal mucosa of dogs with PLE as compared to dogs with chronic enteropathy (CE) and healthy dogs, and whether this expression is correlated with changes in serum tryptophan concentration.

Methods Our study was a retrospective study using archived ...


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