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Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Jonathan Mochel

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


Development And Implementation Of A Novel Immune Thrombocytopenia Bleeding Score For Dogs, Kelly M. Makielski, Marjory B. Brooks, Chong Wang, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor, Dana N. Levine 2018 Iowa State University

Development And Implementation Of A Novel Immune Thrombocytopenia Bleeding Score For Dogs, Kelly M. Makielski, Marjory B. Brooks, Chong Wang, Jonah N. Cullen, Annette M. O'Connor, Dana N. Levine

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background

A method of quantifying clinical bleeding in dogs with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is needed because ITP patients have variable bleeding tendencies that inconsistently correlate with platelet count. A scoring system will facilitate patient comparisons and allow stratification based on bleeding severity in clinical trials.

Hypothesis/Objectives

To develop and evaluate a bleeding assessment tool for dogs, and a training course for improving its consistent implementation.

Animals

Client‐owned dogs (n = 61) with platelet counts <50,000/μL; 34 classified as primary ITP, 17 as secondary ITP, and 10 as non‐ITP.

Methods

A novel bleeding assessment tool, DOGiBAT, comprising bleeding grades from 0 (none) to 2 (severe) at 9 anatomic sites, was developed. Clinicians and technicians ...


Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. von Borell, S. R. Webb 2017 Iowa State University

Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. Von Borell, S. R. Webb

Annette O'Connor

Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for ...


Anticholinergic Drugs In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2017 Iowa State University

Anticholinergic Drugs In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Bonnie Hay-Kraus

Can I use anticholinergic drugs with dexmedetomidine in dogs?


Anesthesia For Cesarean Section In The Dog, Bonnie Hay Kraus 2017 Iowa State University

Anesthesia For Cesarean Section In The Dog, Bonnie Hay Kraus

Bonnie Hay-Kraus

The major goal in anesthesia for cesarean section (CS) is to minimize fetal effects of anesthetic drugs in order to minimize fetal respiratory, central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and deliver live, vigorous puppies. Of equal importance is to provide adequate analgesia to the dam and prevent anesthesia-related complications such as hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxemia, hemorrhage and hypothermia, which will increase morbidity and mortality in both mother and puppies. The physiochemical properties which allow drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier also facilitate crossing of the placenta, therefore the assumption should be made (with very few exceptions) that anes- thetics, analgesics and ...


Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2017 Iowa State University

Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Bonnie Hay-Kraus

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of orally administered maropitant citrate in preventing vomiting after hydromorphone hydrochloride administration in dogs. Design—Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical study. Animals—40 dogs with American Society of Anesthesiologists status of I or II, > 6 months of age, and weighing between 24 and 58.2 kg (52.8 and 128.04 lb). Procedures—Dogs were randomly selected to receive maropitant (2.0 to 4.0 mg/kg [0.9 to 1.8 mg/lb]) or placebo (lactose monohydrate) orally 2 hours prior to receiving hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM). A blinded ...


Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Bonnie Hay-Kraus

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dosing interval on the efficacy of maropitant for prevention of opioid-induced vomiting and signs of nausea in dogs. Design—Randomized prospective clinical study. Animals—50 client-owned dogs that underwent an elective surgical procedure. Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC), then hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM) at 0 (simultaneously; group 0; n = 10), 15 (group 15; 10), 30 (group 30; 10), 45 (group 45; 10), or 60 (group 60; 10) minutes later. Dogs were monitored for vomiting and signs of ...


Grace Peterson Research Colloquium, Emma Pfeiffer 2017 DePaul University

Grace Peterson Research Colloquium, Emma Pfeiffer

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Mental illness is commonly under-diagnosed, misdiagnosed, or untreated, particularly in the elderly population. An expected population increase for those 65 years and older, increased in health care expenses coupled with the moral and ethical obligation of health care providers to promote quality of life at all ages makes investigation to alternative treatments in this population is worth investigating. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize existing studies to clarify the following questions: What are the effects of pet therapy on those experiencing signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety? Why is pet therapy still lagging in validated studies ...


Use Of Terbinafine In The Treatment Protocol Of Intestinal Cryptococcus Neoformans In A Dog, Gavin L. Olsen, Krysta L. Deitz, Heather A. Flaherty, Shawn R. Lockhart, Steven F. Hurst, Joseph S. Haynes 2017 Iowa State University

Use Of Terbinafine In The Treatment Protocol Of Intestinal Cryptococcus Neoformans In A Dog, Gavin L. Olsen, Krysta L. Deitz, Heather A. Flaherty, Shawn R. Lockhart, Steven F. Hurst, Joseph S. Haynes

Joseph Haynes

A 2.5 yr old sexually intact male vizsla was admitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for persistent diarrhea, weight loss, and panhypoproteinemia. Examination revealed an emaciated condition and melena. Two masses were palpated in the cranial abdomen. Hematology and serum biochemistry exhibited a regenerative anemia and confirmed the presence of panhypoproteinemia, suggestive of a protein-losing eneteropathy. Distinct areas of thickened intestinal wall and enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were found on abdominal ultrasound. Cytology from those nodes showed the presence of suspected Cryptococcus spp., and infection was confirmed utilizing a cryptococcal antigen titer. Medical therapy with lipid-complexed ...


Peritoneal Fibrosarcomatous Mesothelioma In A Cat, Tammy M-J Heerkens, Jodi D. Smith, Leslie Fox, Jesse M. Hostetter 2017 Iowa State University

Peritoneal Fibrosarcomatous Mesothelioma In A Cat, Tammy M-J Heerkens, Jodi D. Smith, Leslie Fox, Jesse M. Hostetter

Jodi Smith

Primary tumors of serosal surfaces are uncommon in veterinary medicine. Mesothelial neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and are classified as predominantly epitheloid, mixed (biphasic), or fibrous (spindle cell, fibrosarcomatous), with fibrous mesotheliomas reported least in domestic species. A 9-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat presented on emergency with a brief history of weakness and lethargy. On presentation, the cat was semicomatose, hypothermic, and hypotensive with a markedly distended abdomen. Approximately 1 liter of serosanguineous fluid was removed via abdominocentesis. Diagnostic imaging and cytologic evaluation of fine-needle aspirates were suggestive of neoplasia, and the cat was subsequently euthanized. At necropsy, the omentum ...


Spotlight On The Perioperative Use Of Maropitant Citrate, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2017 Iowa State University

Spotlight On The Perioperative Use Of Maropitant Citrate, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors are present in both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Substance P (SP) is the major ligand and is involved in multiple processes including pain transmission, vasodilation, modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the sensory neuronal transmission involved in stress, anxiety, and emesis. The involvement of NK-1 and SP in the vomiting reflex has led to the development of NK-1 antagonists to prevent and treat vomiting in human and veterinary medicine. Maropitant is a potent, selective neurokinin (NK-1) receptor antagonist that blocks the pharmacologic action of SP in the central nervous system. Maropitant is ...


Early-Onset Progressive Retinal Atrophy Associated With An Iqcb1 Variant In African Black-Footed Cats (Felis Nigripes), Annie Oh, Jacqueline W. Pearce, Barbara Gandolfi, Erica K. Creighton, William K. Suedmeyer, Michael Selig, Ann P. Bosiack, Leilani J. Castaner, Rebecca E. H. Whiting, Ellen B. Belknap, Leslie A. Lyons, N. Matthew Ellinwood, Dorian J. Garrick, Max F. Rothschild, 99 Lives Consortium 2017 University of Missouri

Early-Onset Progressive Retinal Atrophy Associated With An Iqcb1 Variant In African Black-Footed Cats (Felis Nigripes), Annie Oh, Jacqueline W. Pearce, Barbara Gandolfi, Erica K. Creighton, William K. Suedmeyer, Michael Selig, Ann P. Bosiack, Leilani J. Castaner, Rebecca E. H. Whiting, Ellen B. Belknap, Leslie A. Lyons, N. Matthew Ellinwood, Dorian J. Garrick, Max F. Rothschild, 99 Lives Consortium

Animal Science Publications

African black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) are endangered wild felids. One male and full-sibling female African black-footed cat developed vision deficits and mydriasis as early as 3 months of age. The diagnosis of early-onset progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) was supported by reduced direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes, phenotypic presence of retinal degeneration, and a non-recordable electroretinogram with negligible amplitudes in both eyes. Whole genome sequencing, conducted on two unaffected parents and one affected offspring was compared to a variant database from 51 domestic cats and a Pallas cat, revealed 50 candidate variants that segregated concordantly with the PRA phenotype. Testing ...


Precision Medicine In Cats: Novel Niemann-Pick Type C1 Diagnosed By Whole-Genome Sequencing, D. A. Mauler, B. Gandolfi, C. R. Reinero, D. P. O'Brien, J. L. Spooner, L. A. Lyons, N. Matthew Ellinwood, Max F. Rothschild, 99 Lives Consortium 2017 University of Missouri

Precision Medicine In Cats: Novel Niemann-Pick Type C1 Diagnosed By Whole-Genome Sequencing, D. A. Mauler, B. Gandolfi, C. R. Reinero, D. P. O'Brien, J. L. Spooner, L. A. Lyons, N. Matthew Ellinwood, Max F. Rothschild, 99 Lives Consortium

Animal Science Publications

State-of-the-art health care includes genome sequencing of the patient to identify genetic variants that contribute to either the cause of their malady or variants that can be targeted to improve treatment. The goal was to introduce state-of-the-art health care to cats using genomics and a precision medicine approach. To test the feasibility of a precision medicine approach in domestic cats, a single cat that presented to the University of Missouri, Veterinary Health Center with an undiagnosed neurologic disease was whole-genome sequenced. The DNA variants from the cat were compared to the DNA variant database produced by the 99 Lives Cat ...


The Effects Of Reward-Based Training On The Behavioral Assessment Of The Domestic Dog, Shelby Vandergraff, Shelby K. Vandergraff 2017 Murray State University

The Effects Of Reward-Based Training On The Behavioral Assessment Of The Domestic Dog, Shelby Vandergraff, Shelby K. Vandergraff

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Contrary to popular belief, pet overpopulation is caused more by owners failing to keep their dog than with accidental or intentional breeding (Moulton et al., 1991). Factors related to relinquishment have been researched, and concluded that behavioral problems are the most reoccurring reasons observed (Bailey, 1992; Miller at al., 1996; Patronek et al., 1996; Serpell, 1966; Salman et al., 1998, 2000; Scarlett et al, 1999; New et al., 2000; Shore et al., 2003, 2005; Mondelli 2004, Blackwell et al., 2008). When animals are relinquished to the shelter, the likelihood of the animal being euthanized increases. The purpose of this research ...


Canine Emotions As Seen Through Human Social Cognition, Miiamaaria V. Kujala 2017 University of Helsinki

Canine Emotions As Seen Through Human Social Cognition, Miiamaaria V. Kujala

Animal Sentience

It is not possible to demonstrate that dogs (Canis familiaris) feel emotions, but the same is true for all other species, including our own. The issue must therefore be approached indirectly, using premises similar to those used with humans. Recent methodological advances in canine research reveal what dogs experience and what they derive from the emotions perceptible in others. Dogs attend to social cues, they respond appropriately to the valence of human and dog facial expressions and vocalizations of emotion, and their limbic reward regions respond to the odor of their caretakers. They behave differently according to the emotional situation ...


Modeling Of Large Pharmacokinetic Data Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects: A Paradigm Shift In Veterinary Pharmacology. A Case Study With Robenacoxib In Cats, L Pelligand, A Soubret, J N King, J Elliot, J P Mochel 2016 Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom

Modeling Of Large Pharmacokinetic Data Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects: A Paradigm Shift In Veterinary Pharmacology. A Case Study With Robenacoxib In Cats, L Pelligand, A Soubret, J N King, J Elliot, J P Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

The objective of this study was to model the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of robenacoxib in cats using a nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) approach, leveraging all available information collected from cats receiving robenacoxib s.c. and/or i.v.: 47 densely sampled laboratory cats and 36 clinical cats sparsely sampled preoperatively. Data from both routes were modeled sequentially using Monolix 4.3.2. Influence of parameter correlations and available covariates (age, gender, bodyweight, and anesthesia) on population parameter estimates were evaluated by using multiple samples from the posterior distribution of the random effects. A bicompartmental disposition model with simultaneous zero and first-order absorption ...


Endoscopic Assessment Of The Duodenum In Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease, J. E. Slovak, Chong Wang, J. A. Morrison, K. L. Deitz, Dana N. Levine, C. Otoni, R. R. King, L. E. Gerber, K. R. Hanson, A. P. Lundberg, Albert E. Jergens 2016 Iowa State University

Endoscopic Assessment Of The Duodenum In Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease, J. E. Slovak, Chong Wang, J. A. Morrison, K. L. Deitz, Dana N. Levine, C. Otoni, R. R. King, L. E. Gerber, K. R. Hanson, A. P. Lundberg, Albert E. Jergens

Chong Wang

Background: Endoscopy is performed for direct inspection of the mucosa and acquisition of biopsies in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim: To evaluate the interobserver agreement in the endoscopic assessment of duodenal mucosa in dogs with IBD. Methods: Thirty-five archived endoscopic images of grossly normal (n = 6) and inflamed (n = 29) duodenal mucosa were displayed to 3 expert and 5 trainee endoscopists. Each image was assessed independently by endoscopists for mucosal abnormalities using established indices (of hyperemia, granularity, friability, lymphatic dilatation, and erosions) or interpreted as normal mucosa (trial 1). A repeated trial (trial 2) was performed with the ...


Alterations Of The Ileal And Colonic Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Chronic Enteropathies, Eric Cassmann, Robin White, Todd Atherly, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun, Samir Khoda, Curtis L. Mosher, Mark R. Ackermann, Albert Jergens 2016 Iowa State University

Alterations Of The Ileal And Colonic Mucosal Microbiota In Canine Chronic Enteropathies, Eric Cassmann, Robin White, Todd Atherly, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun, Samir Khoda, Curtis L. Mosher, Mark R. Ackermann, Albert Jergens

Chong Wang

Background The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of chronic enteropathies (CE) in dogs. While imbalances in duodenal and fecal microbial communities have been associated with mucosal inflammation, relatively little is known about alterations in mucosal bacteria seen with CE involving the ileum and colon. Aim To investigate the composition and spatial organization of mucosal microbiota in dogs with CE and controls. Methods Tissue sections from endoscopic biopsies of the ileum and colon from 19 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 6 dogs with granulomatous colitis (GC), 12 dogs with intestinal neoplasia, and 15 controls were studied by ...


Effect Of Cold Compression Therapy On Postoperative Pain, Swelling, Range Of Motion, And Lameness After Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy In Dogs, Kevin A. Drygas, Scott R. McClure, Robert L. Goring, Antonio Pozzi, Sheilah A. Robertson, Chong Wang 2016 Affiliated Veterinary Specialists

Effect Of Cold Compression Therapy On Postoperative Pain, Swelling, Range Of Motion, And Lameness After Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy In Dogs, Kevin A. Drygas, Scott R. Mcclure, Robert L. Goring, Antonio Pozzi, Sheilah A. Robertson, Chong Wang

Chong Wang

Objective—To evaluate the effect of cold compression therapy (CCT) on postoperative pain, lameness, range of motion of the stifle joint, and swelling following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs. Design—Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Animals—34 client-owned dogs with unilateral deficiency of a cranial cruciate ligament undergoing TPLO. Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 17 dogs) received CCT in the 24-hour period following TPLO. Group 2 (n = 17 dogs) received no CCT. Degree of lameness, range of motion, and circumference of the stifle joint were measured before surgery and 1,14, and 28 ...


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