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Focused Ultrasound Of The Caudal Vena Cava In Dogs With Cavitary Effusions Or Congestive Heart Failure: A Prospective, Observational Study, Yen-Yu Chou, Jessica L. Ward, Lara Z. Barron, Shane D. Murphy, Melissa A. Tropf, Gregory R. Lisciandro, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Teresa C. DeFrancesco 2021 Iowa State University

Focused Ultrasound Of The Caudal Vena Cava In Dogs With Cavitary Effusions Or Congestive Heart Failure: A Prospective, Observational Study, Yen-Yu Chou, Jessica L. Ward, Lara Z. Barron, Shane D. Murphy, Melissa A. Tropf, Gregory R. Lisciandro, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Teresa C. Defrancesco

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Introduction: Ultrasonographic indices of the inferior vena cava are useful for predicting right heart filling pressures in people.

Objectives: To determine whether ultrasonographic indices of caudal vena cava (CVC) differ between dogs with right-sided CHF (R-CHF), left-sided CHF (L-CHF), and noncardiac causes of cavitary effusion (NC).

Materials and methods: 113 dogs diagnosed with R-CHF (n = 51), L-CHF (30), or NC effusion (32) were enrolled. Seventeen of the R-CHF dogs had pericardial effusion and tamponade. Focused ultrasound was performed prospectively to obtain 2-dimensional and M-mode subxiphoid measures of CVC maximal and minimal size (CVCmax and CVCmin), CVCmax indexed to aortic dimension ...


Radiation Exposure Associated With Percutaneous Fluoroscopically Guided Lag Screw Fixation For Sacroiliac Luxation In Dogs, Jaron H. Naiman, Eric M. Zellner, Brian L. Petrovsky, Thomas O. Riegel, Elizabeth M. Schmitt, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Karl H. Kraus 2021 Iowa State University

Radiation Exposure Associated With Percutaneous Fluoroscopically Guided Lag Screw Fixation For Sacroiliac Luxation In Dogs, Jaron H. Naiman, Eric M. Zellner, Brian L. Petrovsky, Thomas O. Riegel, Elizabeth M. Schmitt, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Karl H. Kraus

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Objective: To determine radiation exposure to surgical personnel and to evaluate the accuracy of a modified percutaneous lag screw fixation technique for sacroiliac luxation (SIL) under fluoroscopic guidance in dogs.

Study design: Cadaveric experimental study.

Sample population: Seventeen beagle cadavers with iatrogenic SIL.

Methods: Seventeen beagles with iatrogenic SIL underwent reduction and stabilization with 3.5‐mm screws. Hypodermic needles (14 gauge) and fluoroscopy were used to orient two Kirschner wires for temporary stabilization and to guide drilling of glide and pilot holes using cannulated drill bits. Duration of surgery and radiation exposure were recorded. Postoperative computed tomographic evaluation of ...


Short‐Term Outcomes Of 59 Dogs Treated For Ilial Body Fractures With Locking Or Non‐Locking Plates, Brian L. Petrovsky, Taylor Knuth, Cristina Aponte‐Colón, William Hoefle, Karl H. Kraus, Jaron H. Naiman, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Eric Zellner 2021 Iowa State University

Short‐Term Outcomes Of 59 Dogs Treated For Ilial Body Fractures With Locking Or Non‐Locking Plates, Brian L. Petrovsky, Taylor Knuth, Cristina Aponte‐Colón, William Hoefle, Karl H. Kraus, Jaron H. Naiman, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Eric Zellner

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Objective: To determine the influence of plating systems on the clinical outcomes in dogs treated for ilial fractures.

Design: Retrospective study.

Animals: Fifty‐nine dogs (63 hemipelves).

Methods: Radiographs and medical records of dogs with ilial fractures presented to Iowa State University between 2003 and 2019 were reviewed. After fracture reduction, fractures were fixed with a locking plate system (LPS) or non‐locking plate system (NLS). Perioperative, long‐term complications, and follow‐up data were recorded. The frequency of implant failure and pelvic collapse were compared using a logistic and linear regression analysis, respectively. Where the univariate test was statistically ...


Determination Of Ownership Practices And Cytauxzoon Felis Prevalence In Domestic Felines Of Northwest Arkansas, Daniella M. Duran 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determination Of Ownership Practices And Cytauxzoon Felis Prevalence In Domestic Felines Of Northwest Arkansas, Daniella M. Duran

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cytauxzoon felis is a protozoan pathogen that causes the infectious disease, cytauxzoonosis in wild and domestic felines. The natural host of this pathogen is the bobcat (Lynx rufus), which is why this disease is also commonly referred to as “bobcat fever”. The C. felis pathogen infects wild and domestic cats upon transmission by infected ticks. Amblyomma americanum, also known as the Lone Star tick, the primary transmission vector for C. felis. This tick species is largely populated throughout the state of Arkansas, making C. felis a large threat to wild and domestic felines in these areas. Cytauxzoonosis is commonly thought ...


Investigating Media Influence On Canine Breed Popularity And Increasing Prevalence Of Genetic Linked Disorders, Callie Anderson 2021 Murray State University

Investigating Media Influence On Canine Breed Popularity And Increasing Prevalence Of Genetic Linked Disorders, Callie Anderson

Honors College Theses

This study is focused on influence of social media on dog breed popularity, and if an increase in popularity leads to an increase in the prevalence of genetic-linked disorders observed in specified breeds in a clinical setting. This study was conducted by comparing an in-depth analysis of past research investigating the influence of popular culture on the trends of dog breed popularity as it relates to trends in media and fashion, with the results of a survey of clinical observations by veterinarians practicing in the area surrounding Murray, Kentucky. The results of the literary analysis revealed that humans are greatly ...


Comparison Of Canine And Human Physiological Factors: Understanding Interspecies Differences That Impact Drug Pharmacokinetics, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Sibylle Neuhoff, Devendra Pade 2021 United States Food and Drug Administration

Comparison Of Canine And Human Physiological Factors: Understanding Interspecies Differences That Impact Drug Pharmacokinetics, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Sibylle Neuhoff, Devendra Pade

Biomedical Sciences Publications

This review is a summary of factors affecting the drug pharmacokinetics (PK) of dogs versus humans. Identifying these interspecies differences can facilitate canine-human PK extrapolations while providing mechanistic insights into species-specific drug in vivo behavior. Such a cross-cutting perspective can be particularly useful when developing therapeutics targeting diseases shared between the two species such as cancer, diabetes, cognitive dysfunction, and inflammatory bowel disease. Furthermore, recognizing these differences also supports a reverse PK extrapolations from humans to dogs. To appreciate the canine-human differences that can affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination, this review provides a comparison of the physiology, drug ...


Use Of Ultrasounds And Cystotomies In Diagnosing And Resolving Bladder Stones, Kirsten Cline 2021 Ursinus College

Use Of Ultrasounds And Cystotomies In Diagnosing And Resolving Bladder Stones, Kirsten Cline

Biology Presentations

The use of ultrasounds are the most safe and effective way to detect bladder stones. Bladder stones are easy to detect with acoustic shadowing, a white bright twinkle effect, and heaviness. Cystotomies are one of the most common procedures to solve bladder stones with one of the lowest mortality and morbidity rates. Kiara, a one year old feline presented with UTI symptoms and was diagnosed with bladder stones. An ultrasound was used and a cystotomy was performed.


Differentiation Of The Can F 1 Allergen In Hypoallergenic Dog Saliva Compared To Shedding Dog Saliva, Rose Miller 2021 Murray State University

Differentiation Of The Can F 1 Allergen In Hypoallergenic Dog Saliva Compared To Shedding Dog Saliva, Rose Miller

Honors College Theses

Dog saliva contains a large variety of proteins, each with specific functions throughout the body. While some aid in digestion, others provide immune support for the body. In the case of human dog allergies, dog skin dander has been proven to cause allergic reactions to those who are sensitive to the allergens in the dogs. However, past studies have shown a difference in allergic reaction to specific breeds, breaking dog breeds into two main categories: hypoallergenic and non-hypoallergenic. Within these groups, there are different hypoallergenicity levels, but overall, the hypoallergenic dog group does not cause an allergic reaction, whereas non-hypoallergenic ...


Letter To The Editor Regarding “Efficacy Of Adding Ramipril (Vasotop) To The Combination Of Furosemide (Lasix) And Pimobendan (Vetmedin) In Dogs With Mitral Valve Degeneration: The Valve Trial”, Clarke Atkins, Bruce Keene, Teresa C. DeFrancesco, Sandra Tou, Valérie Chetboul, Étienne Côté, Stephen Ettinger, Philip R. Fox, Robert L. Hamlin, Jonathan P. Mochel, Jean‐Louis Pouchelon, Rebecca L. Stepien 2021 North Carolina State University

Letter To The Editor Regarding “Efficacy Of Adding Ramipril (Vasotop) To The Combination Of Furosemide (Lasix) And Pimobendan (Vetmedin) In Dogs With Mitral Valve Degeneration: The Valve Trial”, Clarke Atkins, Bruce Keene, Teresa C. Defrancesco, Sandra Tou, Valérie Chetboul, Étienne Côté, Stephen Ettinger, Philip R. Fox, Robert L. Hamlin, Jonathan P. Mochel, Jean‐Louis Pouchelon, Rebecca L. Stepien

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The manuscript entitled Efficacy of adding ramipril (VAsotop) to the combination of furosemide (Lasix) and pimobendan (VEtmedin) in dogs with mitral valve degeneration: The VALVE trial1 reports a study which sought to answer the question “could pimobendan be all that is needed beyond loop diuretics to manage congestive heart failure (CHF) in myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD)?” This was done by prospectively comparing the efficacy of pimobendan + ramipril + furosemide (triple treatment) to pimobendan + furosemide (double treatment) to treat new‐onset CHF caused by MMVD.


Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs 2021 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of California-Davis, and Iowa State University

Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Metaherpetic disease is recognized in humans affected by herpes simplex virus-1 but is not reported in cats affected by feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) despite the high prevalence of herpetic disease in this species and strong similarities in viral biology between alphaherpesviruses of humans and cats. This preliminary work evaluated cats naïve to FHV-1 (n = 9 cats, 18 eyes; control population) and cats naturally exposed to FHV-1 (n = 4 cats, 7 eyes), as confirmed by serologic testing and review of medical records. Antemortem assessment included clinical scoring, blink rate, corneal aesthesiometry, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) with ...


Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon 2021 Murray State University

Dirofilaria Immitis Prevalence In Canis Latrans In Kentucky, Melanie Ann Brandon

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) was found in forty-two (42) of the two hundred seventy-five (275) Canis latrans (coyote) necropsied in the state of Kentucky from November 27, 2019 through March 3, 2021. Thirty-five (35) of the positive cases were from western Kentucky region with the other seven spread across the state. With this group of coyotes, one hundred fifty-eight (158) were male and the other one hundred six-teen (116) were female. The estimated age ranged from a pup to senior dogs. A little over forty percent of the dogs were obtained through coyote/predator tournaments; the remaining were acquired from ...


A Novel Multi-Layered Epitopes And Genetic Sequence Network For Predicting Antigenic Phenotype Of H1 Influenza A Virus In Swine, Anugrah Saxena 2021 Iowa State University

A Novel Multi-Layered Epitopes And Genetic Sequence Network For Predicting Antigenic Phenotype Of H1 Influenza A Virus In Swine, Anugrah Saxena

Creative Components

Influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine constitute a major economic burden to an important global agricultural sector, impacts food security, and is a public health threat. Despite significant improvement in surveillance for IAV in swine over the past 10 years, sequence data have not been integrated into a systematic vaccine strain selection process for predicting antigenic phenotype and identifying determinants of antigenic drift. We propose a novel pipeline that incorporates both the genetic sequence and the antigenic data of the hemagglutinin protein, identifies immune epitopes within the protein, and creates a multi-layered network that allows inference of antigenic drift. This ...


Utility Of Point‐Of‐Care Lung Ultrasound For Monitoring Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema In Dogs, Shane D. Murphy, Jessica L. Ward, Austin K. Viall, Melissa A. Tropf, Rebecca A. Walton, Jennifer L. Fowler, Wendy A. Ware, Teresa C. DeFrancesco 2020 Iowa State University

Utility Of Point‐Of‐Care Lung Ultrasound For Monitoring Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema In Dogs, Shane D. Murphy, Jessica L. Ward, Austin K. Viall, Melissa A. Tropf, Rebecca A. Walton, Jennifer L. Fowler, Wendy A. Ware, Teresa C. Defrancesco

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background Point‐of‐care lung ultrasound (LUS) is an effective tool to diagnose left‐sided congestive heart failure (L‐CHF) in dogs via detection of ultrasound artifacts (B‐lines) caused by increased lung water.

Hypothesis/Objectives To determine whether LUS can be used to monitor resolution of cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs, and to compare LUS to other indicators of L‐CHF control.

Animals Twenty‐five client‐owned dogs hospitalized for treatment of first‐onset L‐CHF.

Methods Protocolized LUS, thoracic radiographs (TXR), and plasma N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide were performed at hospital admission, hospital discharge, and ...


Retrospective Evaluation Of The Safety And Tolerability Of Pimobendan In Cats With Obstructive Vs Nonobstructive Cardiomyopathy, Jessica Ward, Efrem Z. Kussin, Melissa A. Tropf, Sandra P. Tou, Teresa C. DeFrancesco, Bruce W. Keene 2020 Iowa State University

Retrospective Evaluation Of The Safety And Tolerability Of Pimobendan In Cats With Obstructive Vs Nonobstructive Cardiomyopathy, Jessica Ward, Efrem Z. Kussin, Melissa A. Tropf, Sandra P. Tou, Teresa C. Defrancesco, Bruce W. Keene

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background Pimobendan is frequently used off‐label for treatments of cats with congestive heart failure (CHF). Concern exists regarding the safety of pimobendan in cats with outflow tract obstruction (OTO).

Objectives In cats treated with pimobendan, incidence of adverse effects will not differ between cats with OTO vs cats with nonobstructive cardiomyopathy.

Animals Two‐hundred sixty cats with CHF (57 with OTO, 203 with nonobstructive disease).

Methods Retrospective medical record review. Groups were compared using 2‐sample t‐tests, Wilcoxon rank‐sum tests, and Fisher exact tests.

Results Compared to cats with nonobstructive cardiomyopathy, cats with OTO were younger (8 ...


Afoxolaner As A Treatment For A Novel Sarcoptes Scabiei Infestation In A Juvenile Potbelly Pig, Joe S. Smith, Darren J. Berger, Sarah E. Hoff, Jeba R. J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Afoxolaner As A Treatment For A Novel Sarcoptes Scabiei Infestation In A Juvenile Potbelly Pig, Joe S. Smith, Darren J. Berger, Sarah E. Hoff, Jeba R. J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

A 2 months old female Vietnamese potbellied pig presented to a veterinary teaching hospital with a referring complaint of pruritus. A human caretaker of the pig had recently been diagnosed with a Sarcoptes spp. dermatitis. Microscopic examination of the skin scrape samples and BLAST analysis confirmed the species of the mite as most closely related to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (AY493391). The pig was treated with afoxolaner as previous treatment with ivermectin was not efficacious. Recheck examinations and follow up revealed the pig to be non-pruritic and resolving. Afoxolaner may be a therapeutic option when treating Sarcoptes spp. infections in ...


Laboratory Assays Reveal Diverse Phenotypes Among Microfilariae Of Dirofilaria Immitis Isolates With Known Macrocyclic Lactone Susceptibility Status, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Krystal Chinchilla-Vargas, Pablo D. Jimenez Castro, Ray M. Kaplan, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Laboratory Assays Reveal Diverse Phenotypes Among Microfilariae Of Dirofilaria Immitis Isolates With Known Macrocyclic Lactone Susceptibility Status, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Krystal Chinchilla-Vargas, Pablo D. Jimenez Castro, Ray M. Kaplan, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Prevention of canine heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis relies on chemoprophylaxis with macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. Alarmingly, there are increased reports of D. immitis isolates with resistance to macrocyclic lactones and the ability to break through prophylaxis. Yet, there is not a well-established laboratory assay that can utilize biochemical phenotypes of microfilariae to predict drug resistance status. In this study we evaluated laboratory assays measuring cell permeability, metabolism, and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. Our assays revealed that trypan blue, propidium iodide staining, and resazurin metabolism could detect differences among D. immitis isolates but none of these approaches could accurately predict drug susceptibility ...


Vitamin D Status In Cats With Cardiomyopathy, Wendy A. Ware, Lisa M. Freeman, John E. Rush, Jessica L. Ward, Andrew J. Makowski, Min Zhang 2020 Iowa State University

Vitamin D Status In Cats With Cardiomyopathy, Wendy A. Ware, Lisa M. Freeman, John E. Rush, Jessica L. Ward, Andrew J. Makowski, Min Zhang

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background Low vitamin D concentrations have been associated with advanced heart disease and poorer outcomes in people and dogs. Vitamin D status typically is assessed by serum 25(OH)D concentration. However, cats also produce notable amounts of a C‐3 epimer of 25(OH)D (3‐epi).

Hypothesis/Objectives Determine if vitamin D status, estimated by 25(OH)D3 alone or combined with 3‐epi (summation vitD), is lower in cats with cardiomyopathy (CM) compared to clinically normal (N) cats and if indicators of disease severity are associated with vitamin D status.

Animals Privately owned cats, 44 with CM ...


Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade 2020 United States Food and Drug Administration

Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The dog is an important species used in preclinical studies in support of human drug product development. Likewise, because of the many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with therapeutic relevance to both humans and dogs, extrapolation can also occur in the reverse, from human to dog. In either situation, it is important to appreciate species-specific factors influencing drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, disposition, and elimination) and the potential impact of disease on the applicability of these extrapolations. Furthermore, tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models not only enable investigators to extrapolate species-specific data on systemic or organ exposure to the parent ...


Effects Of The Estrous Cycle And Pregnancy Status On Cardiovascular Variables In Healthy Bitches, Jessica Ward, Jonathan P. Mochel, Yeon-Jung Seo, Swanand Sathe 2020 Iowa State University

Effects Of The Estrous Cycle And Pregnancy Status On Cardiovascular Variables In Healthy Bitches, Jessica Ward, Jonathan P. Mochel, Yeon-Jung Seo, Swanand Sathe

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Introduction To characterize changes in maternal cardiovascular variables throughout the reproductive cycle in healthy bitches and determine whether magnitude of pregnancy-induced changes correlates to litter size.

Animals Eleven client-owned breeding bitches.

Materials and Methods Bitches were enrolled prospectively and followed longitudinally throughout a single reproductive cycle. Physical examination, echocardiography, blood pressure, and plasma volume estimation were performed during proestrus, diestrus (early and late pregnancy), and anestrus. Fetal echocardiography was performed during late pregnancy. Data were compared across visits using a linear mixed-effects model, and correlation between variables was assessed.

Results Compared to proestrus, no significant changes were observed at any ...


Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch 2020 University of California, Davis and Mansoura University

Whole Genome Sequencing For Mutation Discovery In A Single Case Of Lysosomal Storage Disease (Mps Type 1) In The Dog, Tamer A. Mansour, Kevin D. Woolard, Karen L. Vernau, Devin M. Ancona, Sara M. Thomasy, Lionel Sebbag, Bret A. Moore, Marguerite F. Knipe, Haitham A. Seada, Tina M. Cowan, Miriam Aguilar, C. Titus Brown, Danika L. Bannasch

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a metabolic storage disorder caused by the deficiency of any lysosomal enzyme required for the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans. A 15-month-old Boston Terrier presented with clinical signs consistent with lysosomal storage disease including corneal opacities, multifocal central nervous system disease and progressively worsening clinical course. Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy based on histopathologic evaluation of multiple organs demonstrating accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. Whole genome sequencing was used to uncover a frame-shift insertion affecting the alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) gene (c.19_20insCGGCCCCC), a mutation confirmed in another Boston Terrier presented 2 years later with a similar clinical picture. Both dogs were homozygous ...


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