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Clinical And Pathologic Features Of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism, Justin J. Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee, Eric M. Nicholson 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Clinical And Pathologic Features Of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism, Justin J. Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee, Eric M. Nicholson

Jodi Smith

The majority of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases have been ascribed to the classical form of the disease. H-type and L-type BSE cases have atypical molecular profiles compared to classical BSE and are thought to arise spontaneously. However, one case of H-type BSE was associated with a heritable E211K mutation in the prion protein gene. The purpose of this study was to describe transmission of this unique isolate of H-type BSE when inoculated into a calf of the same genotype by the intracranial route. Electroretinograms were used to demonstrate preclinical deficits in retinal function, and optical coherence tomography was used ...


Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein–contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Steven M. Lonergan

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Association Of Different Iowa Livestock Truck Wash Stations Service Levels With Enterobacteriaceae Counts, Amber M. Danielson, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna Johnson, James S. Dickson, Locke A. Karriker, Rodney Baker, Christopher Rademacher, Troy T. Bigelow, Kenneth J. Stalder 2017 Iowa State University

Association Of Different Iowa Livestock Truck Wash Stations Service Levels With Enterobacteriaceae Counts, Amber M. Danielson, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna Johnson, James S. Dickson, Locke A. Karriker, Rodney Baker, Christopher Rademacher, Troy T. Bigelow, Kenneth J. Stalder

Kenneth J Stalder

Data from eighteen different truck washes were used to compare the association of different service levels with Enterobacteriaceae counts. Service levels were classified into three different categories; prewash (n=78), post wash with disinfectant (n=78), and post wash without disinfectant (n=12). A total of 168 drag swabs were used for collection for the purpose of this study. Prewash services were defined as trailers before they were scraped out and washed. Post wash with or without disinfectant services were defined as after the trailers were washed and disinfectant was or was not applied. Prewash trailers tended to have higher ...


Development And Refinement Of A Technique For Short-Term Intravascular Auricular Vein Catheter Placement In Mature Sows, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Anna Johnson, Jessica L. Bates, Matthew L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Alyssa Sue Brommel, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker 2017 Iowa State University

Development And Refinement Of A Technique For Short-Term Intravascular Auricular Vein Catheter Placement In Mature Sows, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Anna Johnson, Jessica L. Bates, Matthew L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Alyssa Sue Brommel, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker

Kenneth J Stalder

Intravenous drug administration in adult swine is difficult to perform due to inaccessible superficial veins and thick subcutaneous fat layers. However, successful intravenous drug administration is critical for many biomedical applications including pharmacokinetic studies as extravascular drug administration can influence the drug’s absorption and elimination rate. The purpose of this study was to develop and refine an effective technique for indwelling auricular vein catheter placement in the conscious mature sow. We developed a protocol using a topical anesthetic cream and minimal physical restraint to place indwelling catheters in the auricular vein of six multiparous sows. This method was quick ...


Development And Use Of A Survey Tool To Determine The Efficacy Of Livestock Truck Washes In Iowa, Amber M. Danielson, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Rodney B. Baker, Troy Bigelow, Daniel S. Andersen 2017 Iowa State University

Development And Use Of A Survey Tool To Determine The Efficacy Of Livestock Truck Washes In Iowa, Amber M. Danielson, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Rodney B. Baker, Troy Bigelow, Daniel S. Andersen

Kenneth J Stalder

The transmission of disease among livestock farms could be addressed by the efficiency of truck washes to clean and disinfect trailers used for transporting animals. Collecting swab samples from trailers and cabs of identified truck wash trailers will help to determine the proper procedures and steps needed to reduce the transmission of disease. Truck washes in the state of Iowa were identified and invited to participate in a questionnaire that will provide helpful information for this research. The main goals of this study are to 1) determine the areas in the truck washing process that pose a high risk to ...


Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2017 Iowa State University

Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Kenneth J Stalder

The objective of this experiment was to determine the distance of nursery pigs snout and tails from a human observer when classified as touched, orientated to the human or s not-orientated during a human-animal interaction test using a digital image collection methodology. A complete randomized experimental design was utilized in this study where the pen of pigs was the experimental unit. Two methods, a human observer and a digital image, were assigned within rooms to all pens. Two treatments were compared for snout and tail distance (n = 27). There was a difference in proximity between the observer’s index finger ...


Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Alejandro Ramirez, Julia A. Calderón Díaz 2017 Iowa State University

Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Alejandro Ramirez, Julia A. Calderón Díaz

Kenneth J Stalder

The objective of this study was to calculate the dynamic space requirements to lie down and stand up of lame and non-lame sowsusing two separate measurement methods.Eighty-fivemultiparous sowswere moved from their home stall to a testingpen where they were video recorded for one lying-standing sequence at 30,60,and 90 days of gestation. The digital video camera was affixed onto the ceiling immediately above the testing pen and the sow was filmed until she laiddown and stoodup one time, or if 2.5 hours elapsed from the start of recording. Sows were lameness scored using a 3-point scaleon the ...


The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills 2017 Iowa State University

The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills

James S. Dickson

The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health, and foodsafety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A two-day consensus meeting was held on November 18–19, 2008 in Chicago, IL, United States of America, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors ...


The Reflect Statement: Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials In Livestock And Food Safety: Explanation And Elaboration, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, Ian R. Dohoo, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, Kate Snedeker 2017 University of Guelph

The Reflect Statement: Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials In Livestock And Food Safety: Explanation And Elaboration, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, Ian R. Dohoo, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, Kate Snedeker

James S. Dickson

Concerns about the completeness and accuracy of reporting of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the impact of poor reporting on decision making have been documented in the medical field over the past several decades. Experience from RCTs in human medicine would suggest that failure to report critical trial features can be associated with biased estimated effect measures, and there is evidence to suggest that similar biases occur in RCTs conducted in livestock populations. In response to these concerns, standardized guidelines for reporting RCTs were developed and implemented in human medicine. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was first ...


The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety By Modifying The Consort Statement, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills 2017 Iowa State University

The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety By Modifying The Consort Statement, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills

James S. Dickson

The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health and food-safety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A 2-day consensus meeting was held on 18–19 November 2008 in Chicago, IL, USA, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors, assistant editors and ...


Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor

James M Reecy

Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves. Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study. Animals—1,882 Angus calves. Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated. Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...


Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough 2017 Iowa State University

Investigation Of The Impact Of Increased Dietary Insoluble Fiber Through The Feeding Of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles (Ddgs) On The Incidence And Severity Of Brachyspira-Associated Colitis In Pigs, Bailey Lauren Wilberts, Paulo Elias Arruda, Joann M. Kinyon, Timothy S. Frana, Chong Wang, Drew Robert Magstadt, Darin M. Madson, John F. Patience, Eric Ryan Burrough

Bailey (Wilberts) Arruda

Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including “B. hampsonii” has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups ...


Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Alejandro Ramirez, Julia A. Calderón Díaz 2017 Iowa State University

Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Alejandro Ramirez, Julia A. Calderón Díaz

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

The objective of this study was to calculate the dynamic space requirements to lie down and stand up of lame and non-lame sowsusing two separate measurement methods.Eighty-fivemultiparous sowswere moved from their home stall to a testingpen where they were video recorded for one lying-standing sequence at 30,60,and 90 days of gestation. The digital video camera was affixed onto the ceiling immediately above the testing pen and the sow was filmed until she laiddown and stoodup one time, or if 2.5 hours elapsed from the start of recording. Sows were lameness scored using a 3-point scaleon the ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Pain Management In The Neonatal Piglet During Routine Management Procedures. Part 1: A Systematic Review Of Randomized And Non-Randomized Intervention Studies, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga, R. Anthony, Johann F. Coetzee, Stacie A. Gould, Anna Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, James McKean, Suzanne T. Millman, S. R. Niekamp, Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Pain Management In The Neonatal Piglet During Routine Management Procedures. Part 1: A Systematic Review Of Randomized And Non-Randomized Intervention Studies, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga, R. Anthony, Johann F. Coetzee, Stacie A. Gould, Anna Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, James Mckean, Suzanne T. Millman, S. R. Niekamp, Annette M. O'Connor

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Routine procedures carried out on piglets (i.e. castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and ear notching) are considered painful. Unfortunately the efficacy of current pain mitigation modalities is poorly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing primary scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of pain management interventions used for routine procedures on piglets. The review question was, 'In piglets under twenty-eight days old, undergoing castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and/or methods of identification that involve cutting of the ear tissue, what is the effect of pain mitigation compared with no pain mitigation on behavioral and ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Pain Management In The Neonatal Piglet During Routine Management Procedures. Part 1: A Systematic Review Of Randomized And Non-Randomized Intervention Studies, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga, R. Anthony, Johann F. Coetzee, Stacie A. Gould, Anna Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, James McKean, Suzanne T. Millman, S. R. Niekamp, Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Pain Management In The Neonatal Piglet During Routine Management Procedures. Part 1: A Systematic Review Of Randomized And Non-Randomized Intervention Studies, Rungano Stan Dzikamunhenga, R. Anthony, Johann F. Coetzee, Stacie A. Gould, Anna Johnson, Locke A. Karriker, James Mckean, Suzanne T. Millman, S. R. Niekamp, Annette M. O'Connor

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Routine procedures carried out on piglets (i.e. castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and ear notching) are considered painful. Unfortunately the efficacy of current pain mitigation modalities is poorly understood. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the existing primary scientific literature regarding the effectiveness of pain management interventions used for routine procedures on piglets. The review question was, 'In piglets under twenty-eight days old, undergoing castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and/or methods of identification that involve cutting of the ear tissue, what is the effect of pain mitigation compared with no pain mitigation on behavioral and ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


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