Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl
Steven M. Lonergan
With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...
Molecular Evidence For Zoonotic Transmission Of An Emergent, Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter Jejuni Clone In The United States, Orhan Sahin, Collette Fitzgerald, Steven Stroika, Shaohua Zhao, Rachel Sippy, Patrick Kwan, Paul J. Plummer, Jing Han, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those ...
Identification Of A Key Amino Acid Of Luxs Involved In Ai-2 Production In Campylobacter Jejuni, 2017 Iowa State University
Identification Of A Key Amino Acid Of Luxs Involved In Ai-2 Production In Campylobacter Jejuni, Paul J. Plummer, Jinge Zhu, Masato Akiba, Dehua Pei, Qijing Zhang
Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mediated quorum sensing has been associated with the expression of virulence factors in a number of pathogenic organisms and has been demonstrated to play a role in motility and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) production in Campylobacter jejuni. We have initiated the work to determine the molecular basis of AI-2 synthesis and the biological functions of quorum sensing in C. jejuni. In this work, two naturally occurring variants of C. jejuni 81116 were identified, one producing high-levels of AI-2 while the other is defective in AI-2 synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed a G92D mutation in the luxS gene of the ...
Critical Role Of Luxs In The Virulence Of Campylobacter Jejuni In A Guinea Pig Model Of Abortion, 2017 Iowa State University
Critical Role Of Luxs In The Virulence Of Campylobacter Jejuni In A Guinea Pig Model Of Abortion, Paul J. Plummer, Orhan Sahin, Eric Ryan Burrough, Rachel Sippy, Kathy T. Y. Mou, Jessica Rabenold, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang
Previous studies on Campylobacter jejuni have demonstrated the role of LuxS in motility, cytolethal distending toxin production, agglutination, and intestinal colonization; however, its direct involvement in virulence has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate a direct role of luxS in the virulence of C. jejuni in two different animal hosts. The IA3902 strain, a highly virulent sheep abortion strain recently described by our laboratory, along with its isogenic luxS mutant and luxScomplement strains, was inoculated by the oral route into both a pregnant guinea pig virulence model and a chicken colonization model. In both cases, the IA3902 ...
Genetic Diversity And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates Associated With Sheep Abortion In The United States And Great Britain, Zuowei Wu, Rachel Sippy, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Ana Vidal, Diane Newell, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejunistrains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuniisolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep ...
Bacterial Community Profiling Of Milk Samples As A Means To Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis, 2017 Iowa State University
Bacterial Community Profiling Of Milk Samples As A Means To Understand Culture-Negative Bovine Clinical Mastitis, Joanna S. Kuehn, Patrick J. Gorden, Daniel Munro, Ruichen Rong, Qunfeng Dong, Paul Joseph Plummer, Chong Wang, Gregory J. Phillips
Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters ...
Use Of Alivecor Heart Monitor For Heart Rate And Rhythm Evaluation In Dairy Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalis Bubalis), Joe Smith, Jessica Ward, Tara Urbano, Mikaela Mueller
Smartphone-based ECG recording devices are a promising new diagnostic in veterinary medicine. However, these devices have not yet been demonstrated to work in water buffalo. A commercial, non-invasive, smartphone-based ECG (AliveCor Vet TM) monitoring device was field tested on water buffalo calves. Six neonatal water buffalo calves had an ECG simultaneously recorded with a standard medical ECG recorder and the AliveCor Vet device. A correlation of 0.75053 was observed between average heart rates obtained between AliveCor recordings when compared to those from the 6 lead ECG. 100% Rhythm agreement was met for all 12 recordings. The recordings of 4 ...
Association Of Different Iowa Livestock Truck Wash Stations Service Levels With Enterobacteriaceae Counts, 2017 Iowa State University
Association Of Different Iowa Livestock Truck Wash Stations Service Levels With Enterobacteriaceae Counts, Amber M. Danielson, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna Johnson, James S. Dickson, Locke A. Karriker, Rodney Baker, Christopher Rademacher, Troy T. Bigelow, Kenneth J. Stalder
Kenneth J Stalder
Data from eighteen different truck washes were used to compare the association of different service levels with Enterobacteriaceae counts. Service levels were classified into three different categories; prewash (n=78), post wash with disinfectant (n=78), and post wash without disinfectant (n=12). A total of 168 drag swabs were used for collection for the purpose of this study. Prewash services were defined as trailers before they were scraped out and washed. Post wash with or without disinfectant services were defined as after the trailers were washed and disinfectant was or was not applied. Prewash trailers tended to have higher ...
Development And Refinement Of A Technique For Short-Term Intravascular Auricular Vein Catheter Placement In Mature Sows, Monique D. Pairis-Garcia, Anna Johnson, Jessica L. Bates, Matthew L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Alyssa Sue Brommel, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker
Kenneth J Stalder
Intravenous drug administration in adult swine is difficult to perform due to inaccessible superficial veins and thick subcutaneous fat layers. However, successful intravenous drug administration is critical for many biomedical applications including pharmacokinetic studies as extravascular drug administration can influence the drug’s absorption and elimination rate. The purpose of this study was to develop and refine an effective technique for indwelling auricular vein catheter placement in the conscious mature sow. We developed a protocol using a topical anesthetic cream and minimal physical restraint to place indwelling catheters in the auricular vein of six multiparous sows. This method was quick ...
Development And Use Of A Survey Tool To Determine The Efficacy Of Livestock Truck Washes In Iowa, 2017 Iowa State University
Development And Use Of A Survey Tool To Determine The Efficacy Of Livestock Truck Washes In Iowa, Amber M. Danielson, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Rodney B. Baker, Troy Bigelow, Daniel S. Andersen
Kenneth J Stalder
The transmission of disease among livestock farms could be addressed by the efficiency of truck washes to clean and disinfect trailers used for transporting animals. Collecting swab samples from trailers and cabs of identified truck wash trailers will help to determine the proper procedures and steps needed to reduce the transmission of disease. Truck washes in the state of Iowa were identified and invited to participate in a questionnaire that will provide helpful information for this research. The main goals of this study are to 1) determine the areas in the truck washing process that pose a high risk to ...
Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, 2017 Iowa State University
Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman
Kenneth J Stalder
The objective of this experiment was to determine the distance of nursery pigs snout and tails from a human observer when classified as touched, orientated to the human or s not-orientated during a human-animal interaction test using a digital image collection methodology. A complete randomized experimental design was utilized in this study where the pen of pigs was the experimental unit. Two methods, a human observer and a digital image, were assigned within rooms to all pens. Two treatments were compared for snout and tail distance (n = 27). There was a difference in proximity between the observer’s index finger ...
Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, 2017 Iowa State University
Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Alejandro Ramirez, Julia A. Calderón Díaz
Kenneth J Stalder
The objective of this study was to calculate the dynamic space requirements to lie down and stand up of lame and non-lame sowsusing two separate measurement methods.Eighty-fivemultiparous sowswere moved from their home stall to a testingpen where they were video recorded for one lying-standing sequence at 30,60,and 90 days of gestation. The digital video camera was affixed onto the ceiling immediately above the testing pen and the sow was filmed until she laiddown and stoodup one time, or if 2.5 hours elapsed from the start of recording. Sows were lameness scored using a 3-point scaleon the ...
The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety By Modifying The Consort Statement, 2017 Iowa State University
The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety By Modifying The Consort Statement, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills
James S. Dickson
The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health and food-safety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A 2-day consensus meeting was held on 18–19 November 2008 in Chicago, IL, USA, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors, assistant editors and ...
The Reflect Statement: Methods And Processes Of Creating Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials For Livestock And Food Safety, Annette M. O'Connor, Jan M. Sargeant, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, C. E. Dewey, Ian R. Dohoo, R. B. Evans, J. T. Gray, Mattias Greiner, Greg Keefe, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, William Sischo, D. R. Smith, Kate Snedeker, John N. Sofos, M. P. Ward, Robert W. Wills
James S. Dickson
The conduct of randomized controlled trials in livestock with production, health, and foodsafety outcomes presents unique challenges that may not be adequately reported in trial reports. The objective of this project was to modify the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement to reflect the unique aspects of reporting these livestock trials. A two-day consensus meeting was held on November 18–19, 2008 in Chicago, IL, United States of America, to achieve the objective. Prior to the meeting, a Web-based survey was conducted to identify issues for discussion. The 24 attendees were biostatisticians, epidemiologists, food-safety researchers, livestock-production specialists, journal editors ...
The Reflect Statement: Reporting Guidelines For Randomized Controlled Trials In Livestock And Food Safety: Explanation And Elaboration, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor, I. A. Gardner, James S. Dickson, Mary E. Torrence, Ian R. Dohoo, Sandra L. Lefebvre, Paul S. Morley, Alejandro Ramirez, Kate Snedeker
James S. Dickson
Concerns about the completeness and accuracy of reporting of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and the impact of poor reporting on decision making have been documented in the medical field over the past several decades. Experience from RCTs in human medicine would suggest that failure to report critical trial features can be associated with biased estimated effect measures, and there is evidence to suggest that similar biases occur in RCTs conducted in livestock populations. In response to these concerns, standardized guidelines for reporting RCTs were developed and implemented in human medicine. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was first ...
Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, 2017 Iowa State University
Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, Cassandra M. V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Haley A. Carr, Colleen M. Alvarez, Daniel I. Rubenstein
James S. Adelman
Due to the extirpation of their natural predators, feral horse populations have expanded across the United States, necessitating their management. Contraception of females (mares) with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) is a popular option; however, effects to physiology and behavior can be substantial. On Shackleford Banks, North Carolina, USA, treated mares have exhibited cycling during the non-breeding season and demonstrated decreased fidelity to the band stallion, but PZP's long-term effects on mare physiology and behavior remain largely unexplored. After the contraception program was suspended in this population, we examined how prior exposure to varying levels of PZP treatment impacted (1 ...
Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor
James M Reecy
Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves. Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study. Animals—1,882 Angus calves. Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated. Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...
Serum Concentrations Of Haptoglobin And Haptoglobin-Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-Mmp 9) Complexes Of Bovine Calves In A Bacterial Respiratory Challenge Model, Christy Jo Hanthorn, Grant A. Dewell, Reneé Dewell, Vickie L. Cooper, Chong Wang, Paul J. Plummer, Jeff Lakritz
Grant A. Dewell
Serum haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin matrix metalloproteinase 9 complexes (Hp-MMP 9) have been identified as biomarkers with diagnostic potential in cattle with conditions resulting in an acute inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential diagnostic applications of serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations in calves with BRD and establish a timeline for their detection in calves experimentally challenged with Bibersteinia trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty-five cross bred dairy calves were inoculated via tracheal catheterization with either a PCR confirmed leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi isolate, a PCR confirmed leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, a Mannheimia haemolyticaisolate ...
Evaluation Of An Interactive Workshop Designed To Teach Practical Welfare Techniques To Beef Cattle Caretakers And Decision Makers, Reneé Dewell, Christy J. Hanthorn, Jared A. Danielson, Rebecca G. Burzette, Johann F. Coetzee, D. Dee Griffin, Alejandro Ramirez, Grant A. Dewell
Grant A. Dewell
The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam for pain management. Respondents also reported improvement in performing all skills taught in the workshop. These results suggest instructional techniques used to teach practical concepts/techniques relevant to beef cattle welfare led to improvements in both perceived competency and estimated likelihood that the material will be ...
Randomized Clinical Trial To Evaluate The Pathogenicity Of Bibersteinia Trehalosi In Respiratory Disease Among Calves, Christy Jo Hanthorn, Reneé Dewell, Vickie L. Cooper, Timothy S. Frana, Paul J. Plummer, Chong Wang, Grant A. Dewell
Grant A. Dewell
Bibersteinia trehalosi causes respiratory disease in ruminants particularly in wild and domestic sheep. Recently, there has been an increased number of B. trehalosi isolates obtained from diagnostic samples from bovine respiratory disease cases. This study evaluated the role of B. trehalosi in bovine respiratory disease using an intra-tracheal inoculation model in calves. Thirty six cross bred 2–3 month old dairy calves were inoculated intra-tracheally with either leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi, leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, Mannheimia haemolytica, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica or negative control. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 ...