Physiologic Effects Of Nasopharyngeal Administration Of Supplemental Oxygen At Various Flow Rates In Healthy Neonatal Foals, David M. Wong, Cody J. Alcott, Chong Wang, Bonnie L. Hay-Kraus, Benjamin R. Buchanan, Charles W. Brockus
Objective—To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (Fio2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals.
Animals—9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals.
Procedures—In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal Fio2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial ...
Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst
The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in pigs of different age groups, to determine if 25(OH)D concentrations varied with season, and to assess the quality of vitamin D supplements used in swine diets from multiple commercial suppliers. Serum samples (n = 1200) submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for routine surveillance were assayed for serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D premix samples were obtained from suppliers and analyzed at two laboratories over a 9-month period. In all age categories, 25(OH)D concentrations in numerous serum samples were lower ...
Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor
Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves.
Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study.
Animals—1,882 Angus calves.
Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated.
Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...
A Live-Attenuated And An Inactivated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus (Pcv)1-2 Vaccine Are Both Effective At Inducing A Humoral Immune Response And Reducing Pcv2 Viremia And Intrauterine Infection In Female Swine Of Breeding Age, 2016 Iowa State University
A Live-Attenuated And An Inactivated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus (Pcv)1-2 Vaccine Are Both Effective At Inducing A Humoral Immune Response And Reducing Pcv2 Viremia And Intrauterine Infection In Female Swine Of Breeding Age, Michelle Hemann, Nathan M. Beach, Xiang-Jin Meng, Chong Wang, Patrick G. Halbur, Tanja Opriessnig
The objective of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of inactivated (1 or 2 dose) and live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccines in sows using the PCV2-spiked semen model. Thirty-five sows were randomly divided into 6 groups: negative and positive controls, 1 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-VAC-PCV2), 2 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (2-VAC-PCV2), 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine unchallenged (1-LIVE-VAC), and 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2). The inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine induced higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies in dams. All vaccination strategies provided good protection against PCV2 viremia in dams, whereas the majority of ...
Bacterial Isolates, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns, And Factors Associated With Infection And Outcome In Foals With Septic Arthritis: 83 Cases (1998–2013), Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, David M. Wong, Caroline V. Fulkerson, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun
Objective—To determine clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results associated with septic arthritis in foals ≤ 180 days old.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—83 foals with septic arthritis.
Procedures—Medical records at 2 teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2013 were searched to identify those for foals ≤ 180 days old with confirmed infection of ≥ 1 synovial structure. Data extracted from the records included signalment, clinicopathologic information, bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results, and outcome. Data were analyzed for all foals as a single population and for foals stratified into 3 age groups (≤ 7 days, 8 to ...
Effect Of Injection Tool On Incidence Of Head And Neck Abscesses At Slaughter, 2016 Pfizer Animal Health
Effect Of Injection Tool On Incidence Of Head And Neck Abscesses At Slaughter, Doug King, Tom Painter, Derald J. Holtkamp, Paul Dubois, Chong Wang
Objective: To test the effect of injection device (conventional syringe and needle versus needle-free injection device [NFID]) on the incidence of head and neck abscesses at slaughter. Materials and methods: Pigs raised under antibiotic-free (ABF) conditions (n=3424) were vaccinated first with combined Mycoflex and Circoflex (Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc, St Joseph, Missouri) and second with ER Bac Plus (Pfizer Inc, Pfizer Animal Health, New York, New York), each via either conventional syringe and needle (Needle) or NFID. The first vaccination was given on the right side of the neck 1 day post weaning and the second on the left ...
Agreement Between Arterial Partial Pressure Of Carbon Dioxide And Saturation Of Hemoglobin With Oxygen Values Obtained By Direct Arterial Blood Measurements Versus Noninvasive Methods In Conscious Healthy And Ill Foals, 2016 Iowa State University
Agreement Between Arterial Partial Pressure Of Carbon Dioxide And Saturation Of Hemoglobin With Oxygen Values Obtained By Direct Arterial Blood Measurements Versus Noninvasive Methods In Conscious Healthy And Ill Foals, David M. Wong, Cody J. Alcott, Chong Wang, Jennifer L. Bornkamp, Jessica L. Young, Brett A. Sponseller
Objective—To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Petco2) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) with direct measurements of Paco2 and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (Sao2) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Design—Validation study. Animals—10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Procedures—Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of Paco2 and Pao2 along with Sao2. Concurrently, Petco2 was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris ...
A Method To Quantify Infectious Airborne Pathogens At Concentrations Below The Threshold Of Quantification By Culture, Timothy D. Cutler, Chong Wang, Steven J. Hoff, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman
In aerobiology, dose-response studies are used to estimate the risk of infection to a susceptible host presented by exposure to a specific dose of an airborne pathogen. In the research setting, host- and pathogen-specific factors that affect the dose-response continuum can be accounted for by experimental design, but the requirement to precisely determine the dose of infectious pathogen to which the host was exposed is often challenging. By definition, quantification of viable airborne pathogens is based on the culture of micro-organisms, but some airborne pathogens are transmissible at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture. In this paper we ...
Evaluation Of Disinfection Protocols To Reduce Virus Transmission Via Livestock Transport Vehicles Using Model Trailers And Experimental Conditions, 2016 Innovative Agriculture Solutions
Evaluation Of Disinfection Protocols To Reduce Virus Transmission Via Livestock Transport Vehicles Using Model Trailers And Experimental Conditions, Peter T. Schneider, Jianqiang Zhang, Alejandro Ramirez, Chong Wang, Derald J. Holtkamp
Objective: To determine the efficacy of accelerated hydrogen peroxide disinfectant and combined glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium disinfectant after a high-pressure wash against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in experimental settings mimicking field conditions commonly experienced on livestock trailers.
Materials and methods: Aluminum model livestock trailers (1:61) were contaminated with PRRSV- and TGEV-spiked feces. Each model trailer underwent a simple washing procedure and an assigned disinfectant application. Four environmental swabs were collected per trailer at five time points and tested by PRRSV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and TGEV polymerase chain reaction (PCR ...
Colonization And Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Swine, 2016 Iowa State University
Colonization And Transmission Of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Swine, Nancy A. Cornick, Dianna M. Jordan, Sheridan L. Booher, Harley W. Moon
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing E.coli (STEC) have emerged over the last several decades as a significant cause of food-borne illness in the United States. Approximately 5-10% of people clinically infected by these bacteria develop a systemic disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome, which has a fatality rate of approximately 5%. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that STEC cause some 110,000 illnesses and 90 deaths annually in the United States (Mead et al. 1999). In addition, the economic consequences of recalling large lots of food for public health reasons are significant. Cattle are considered ...
Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden
Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works
Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...
Lachnospira Pectinoschiza Sp. Nov., An Anaerobic Pectinophile From The Pig Intestine, 2016 Iowa State University
Lachnospira Pectinoschiza Sp. Nov., An Anaerobic Pectinophile From The Pig Intestine, Nancy A. Cornick, N. S. Jensen, D. A. Stahl, P. A. Hartman, M. J. Allison
Pectinophiles are bacteria that utilize pectin and only a few related compounds as substrates. Obligately anaerobic pectinophiles have been isolated from the intestinal tracts and gingivae of humans and from the rumina of cattle. We isolated three strains of pectinophilic bacteria from colonic contents of pigs but were unable to isolate pectinophiles from the rumen contents of four sheep, even when the animals were fed a high-pectin diet. The pectinophiles isolated from pigs were strictly anaerobic, motile, gram-positive rods (0.36 to 0.56 by 2.4 to 3.1 μm). Pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and gluconate were the only substrates ...
Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho
Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater (P < 0.10) proportions of applied precipitation and amounts of sediment and P transported in runoff from bare sites than from vegetated sites across grazing treatments. Similar differences were observed comparing vegetated sites in CSU and RS pastures with vegetated sites in CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, andEscherichia coli O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces ...
Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl
With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and ...
Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, Brittany R. Weir
Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses
One societal trend that has been gaining much traction and popularity since the 21st century began is “organic” and/or “natural” food products. In 1999, the global market accounted for $15.2 billion dollars worth of organic food and drink, compared to the market in 2014 where we consumed $80 billion dollars worth (Willer et. al, 2016). With “natural” production of food animals however, “natural” parasite transmission may be a consequence. To that end, this experiment examines the prevalence of helminths in 110 “natural” laying hens from three regional farms and the efficacies of fenbendazole, piperazine, and levamisole on ...
Association Of Different Iowa Livestock Truck Wash Stations Service Levels With Enterobacteriaceae Counts, 2016 Iowa State University
Association Of Different Iowa Livestock Truck Wash Stations Service Levels With Enterobacteriaceae Counts, Amber Danielson, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna Johnson, James Dickson, Locke Karriker, Rodney Baker, Christopher Rademacher, Troy Bigelow, Kenneth Stalder
Data from eighteen different truck washes were used to compare the association of different service levels with Enterobacteriaceae counts. Service levels were classified into three different categories; prewash (n=78), post wash with disinfectant (n=78), and post wash without disinfectant (n=12). A total of 168 drag swabs were used for collection for the purpose of this study. Prewash services were defined as trailers before they were scraped out and washed. Post wash with or without disinfectant services were defined as after the trailers were washed and disinfectant was or was not applied. Prewash trailers tended to have higher ...
Therapeutic Neonatal Hepatic Gene Therapy In Mucopolysaccharidosis Vii Dogs, 2016 University of Pennsylvania
Therapeutic Neonatal Hepatic Gene Therapy In Mucopolysaccharidosis Vii Dogs, Katherine Parker Ponder, John Melniczek, Lingfei Xu, Margaret Weil, Thomas O'Malley, Patricia O'Donnell, Van Knox, Gustavo Aguirre, Hamutal Mazrier, N Ellinwood, Margaret Sleeper, Albert Maguire, Susan Volk, Robert Mango, Jean Zweigle, John Wolfe, Mark Haskins
Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD
Dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) were injected intravenously at 2–3 days of age with a retroviral vector (RV) expressing canine β-glucuronidase (cGUSB). Five animals received RV alone, and two dogs received hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) before RV in an attempt to increase transduction efficiency. Transduced hepatocytes expanded clonally during normal liver growth and secreted enzyme with mannose 6-phosphate. Serum GUSB activity was stable for up to 14 months at normal levels for the RV-treated dogs, and for 17 months at 67-fold normal for the HGF/RV-treated dog. GUSB activity in other organs was 1.5–60% of normal ...
Impact Of Carprofen Administration On Stress And Nociception Responses Of Calves To Cautery Dehorning, 2016 Iowa State University
Impact Of Carprofen Administration On Stress And Nociception Responses Of Calves To Cautery Dehorning, M. L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Nicholas K. Van Engen, Suzanne T. Millman, R. Gehring, Chong Wang, E. A. Voris, Larry W. Wulf, Lea Labeur, Walter H. Hsu, Johann F. Coetzee
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of carprofen administered immediately before cautery dehorning on nociception and stress. Forty Holstein calves aged approximately 6 to 8 wk old were either placebo treated and sham dehorned (n = 10) or cautery dehorned following administration of carprofen (1.4 mg/kg) subcutaneously (n = 10) or orally (n = 10) or a subcutaneous and oral placebo (n = 10) in a randomized, controlled trial. All animals were given a cornual nerve block using lidocaine before dehorning. Response variables including mechanical nociception threshold, ocular temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and ...
Table Of Contents 2016 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Table Of Contents 2016 Nebraska Beef Cattle Report
Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports
No abstract provided.
Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, 2016 Otterbein University
Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Salivary Cortisol And Cyathostome Infestation In Horses, Danielle L. Keating
Honors Thesis Projects
With an increase in anthelmintic resistance and decreased efficacy of many commercial dewormers, understanding factors that contribute to parasite infestations in horses is integral to their management. The goal of this study was to look at the potential relationship between parasites and stress response by evaluating salivary cortisol levels and cyathostome egg shedding levels. Using a sample size of n = 200 horses from the state of Ohio, fecal and saliva samples were collected from each horse. Fecal egg counts were performed for each horse with a modified Stoll method, and saliva samples were tested with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ...