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Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Annette O'Connor

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. von Borell, S. R. Webb 2017 Iowa State University

Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. Von Borell, S. R. Webb

Annette O'Connor

Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for ...


Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward 2017 Iowa State University

Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward

Annette O'Connor

The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE has a unique focus on observational studies. Although much of the guidance provided by the original STROBE document is directly applicable, it was deemed useful to map those statements to veterinary concepts, provide veterinary examples and highlight unique aspects of reporting in veterinary observational studies. Here, we present the examples and explanations for the checklist items included ...


Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Ontario Veterinary College

Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Meta-analysis, the statistical combination of results from multiple studies, can be used to summarize all of the available research on an intervention, etiology, descriptive, or diagnostic test accuracy question. Meta-analysis should be conducted as a component of a systematic review, to increase transparency in the selection of studies and to incorporate an evaluation of the risk of bias in the individual studies included in the meta-analysis. The process of meta-analysis may include a forest plot to graphically display the study results and the calculation of a weighted average summary effect size. Heterogeneity (differences in the effect size between studies) can ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Annette O'Connor

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Paul Plummer

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Dairy Goat Quality Assurance And Haccp, Paul Plummer, Roger Merkel 2017 Iowa State University

Dairy Goat Quality Assurance And Haccp, Paul Plummer, Roger Merkel

Paul Plummer

Today's US milk supply is the safest it has been in history, yet consumers have concerns ai;>out the quality and safety of the food products they purc~ase. News of food recalls based on the presence of potentially harmful bacteria or other disease-causing agents and contaminants raise fear in consumers and lower the confidence in our nation's food supply. While food safety may be at an all time high, the perception of many consumers is that there is genuine risk in consuming many of the products marketed at grocery stores. This perception can play a role in ...


Key Role Of Capsular Polysaccharide In The Induction Of Systemic Infection And Abortion By Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni, Orhan Sahin, Samantha A. Terhorst, Eric R. Burrough, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, Yizhi Tang, Paul J. Plummer, Ju Ji, Michael J. Yaeger, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Capsular Polysaccharide In The Induction Of Systemic Infection And Abortion By Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni, Orhan Sahin, Samantha A. Terhorst, Eric R. Burrough, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, Yizhi Tang, Paul J. Plummer, Ju Ji, Michael J. Yaeger, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and a hypervirulent clone, named clone SA, has recently emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion in the United States. To induce abortion, orally ingested Campylobacter must translocate across the intestinal epithelium, spread systemically in the circulation, and reach the fetoplacental tissue. Bacterial factors involved in these steps are not well understood. C. jejuni is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS), but the specific role that CPS plays in systemic infection and particularly abortion in animals remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the role of CPS in bacteremia using a ...


Rnaseq Reveals Complex Response Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Ovine Bile And In Vivo Gallbladder Environment, Amanda J. Kreuder, Jennifer A. Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer 2017 Iowa State University

Rnaseq Reveals Complex Response Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Ovine Bile And In Vivo Gallbladder Environment, Amanda J. Kreuder, Jennifer A. Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer

Qijing Zhang

Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting ...


Key Role Of Capsular Polysaccharide In The Induction Of Systemic Infection And Abortion By Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni, Orhan Sahin, Samantha A. Terhorst, Eric R. Burrough, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, Yizhi Tang, Paul J. Plummer, Ju Ji, Michael J. Yaeger, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Capsular Polysaccharide In The Induction Of Systemic Infection And Abortion By Hypervirulent Campylobacter Jejuni, Orhan Sahin, Samantha A. Terhorst, Eric R. Burrough, Zhangqi Shen, Zuowei Wu, Lei Dai, Yizhi Tang, Paul J. Plummer, Ju Ji, Michael J. Yaeger, Qijing Zhang

Paul Plummer

Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and a hypervirulent clone, named clone SA, has recently emerged as the predominant cause of ovine abortion in the United States. To induce abortion, orally ingested Campylobacter must translocate across the intestinal epithelium, spread systemically in the circulation, and reach the fetoplacental tissue. Bacterial factors involved in these steps are not well understood. C. jejuni is known to produce capsular polysaccharide (CPS), but the specific role that CPS plays in systemic infection and particularly abortion in animals remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the role of CPS in bacteremia using a ...


Rnaseq Reveals Complex Response Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Ovine Bile And In Vivo Gallbladder Environment, Amanda J. Kreuder, Jennifer A. Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer 2017 Iowa State University

Rnaseq Reveals Complex Response Of Campylobacter Jejuni To Ovine Bile And In Vivo Gallbladder Environment, Amanda J. Kreuder, Jennifer A. Schleining, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang, Paul J. Plummer

Paul Plummer

Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting ...


Alterations In The Colonic Microbiota Of Pigs Associated With Feeding Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Eric R. Burrough, Bailey L. Arruda, John F. Patience, Paul J. Plummer 2017 Iowa State University

Alterations In The Colonic Microbiota Of Pigs Associated With Feeding Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles, Eric R. Burrough, Bailey L. Arruda, John F. Patience, Paul J. Plummer

Paul Plummer

In an effort to reduce feed costs, many pork producers have increased their use of coproducts of biofuel production in commercial pig diets, including increased feeding of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The inclusion of DDGS increases the insoluble fiber content in the ration, which has the potential to impact the colonic microbiota considerably as the large intestine contains a dynamic microenvironment with tremendous interplay between microorganisms. Any alteration to the physical or chemical properties of the colonic contents has the potential to impact the resident bacterial population and potentially favor or inhibit the establishment of pathogenic species ...


Deciphering Digital Dermatitis, Paul J. Plummer, Jan K. Shearer 2017 Iowa State University

Deciphering Digital Dermatitis, Paul J. Plummer, Jan K. Shearer

Paul Plummer

Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite more than 40 years of research, the definitive etio- logic agent associated with the disease pro- cess is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism.

According to the most recent National Animal Health Monitoring System survey of U.S. dairy farms, lameness is the second most common health problem identified in dairy cattle. DD was found to be the primary cause of lameness within the study herds, account- ...


Digital Dermatitis In Cow/Calf And Feedlot Cattle, J. K. Shearer, P. J. Plummer 2017 Iowa State University

Digital Dermatitis In Cow/Calf And Feedlot Cattle, J. K. Shearer, P. J. Plummer

Paul Plummer

Our lameness research team at Iowa State University, comprised of faculty members Drs. Paul Plummer, Pat Gorden and Jan Shearer, and graduate students Drs. Adam Krull and John Coatney, has been actively studying digital dermatitis for the past six years. Our work has been focused on identifying causative agents for the purpose of developing better strategies for its treatment and control. In the following article, we review current understanding of this disease and highlight some of our research findings.


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Paul Plummer

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


A Highly Effective Protocol For The Rapid And Consistent Induction Of Digital Dermatitis In Holstein Calves, Adam C. Krull, Vickie L. Cooper, John W. Coatney, Jan K. Shearer, Patrick J. Gorden, Paul J. Plummer 2017 Iowa State University

A Highly Effective Protocol For The Rapid And Consistent Induction Of Digital Dermatitis In Holstein Calves, Adam C. Krull, Vickie L. Cooper, John W. Coatney, Jan K. Shearer, Patrick J. Gorden, Paul J. Plummer

Paul Plummer

Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a ...


Evaluating Corellations In Salmonella Serotypes In Swine In Four Longitudinal Dataset, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Paula Cray, Chong Wang, Catherine Logue 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluating Corellations In Salmonella Serotypes In Swine In Four Longitudinal Dataset, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Paula Cray, Chong Wang, Catherine Logue

Annette O'Connor

S. enterica serovars surveillance program have been established for many years in the United State of America (USA). Data from long running surveillance programs provides the opportunity to compare prevalence of serotypes within and across surveillance programs, observed patterns and generate hypothesis. To this end, the aim of this project was to estimate the correlation between changes in the yearly changes in serotypes proportions in concurrent years and lagged years from swine, beef and avian longitudinal datasets: (The Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (VDL), The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ( NARMS animal-based isolates only), compared to data from The ...


Evaluating Changes In Salmonella Serovars Associated With Swine Over The Past 20 Years, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Chong Wang, Paula Cray, Catherine Logue 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluating Changes In Salmonella Serovars Associated With Swine Over The Past 20 Years, Annette O'Connor, Chaohui Yuan, Adam Krull, Chong Wang, Paula Cray, Catherine Logue

Annette O'Connor

The aim of this project was to described changes in Salmonella serotypes prevalence over the past 20 years in the datasets from Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISU VDL), The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS animal based isolates only), and the CDC Laboratory-based Enteric Disease Surveillance (LEDS) Program.


Constitutive And Inducible Expression Of The Rrna Methylase Gene Erm(B) In Campylobacter, Fengru Deng, Jianzhong Shen, Maojun Zhang, Congming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang 2017 Iowa State University

Constitutive And Inducible Expression Of The Rrna Methylase Gene Erm(B) In Campylobacter, Fengru Deng, Jianzhong Shen, Maojun Zhang, Congming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang

Qijing Zhang

Macrolides are the antimicrobials of choice for treating human campylobacteriosis. The recent emergence of erm(B) in Campylobacter bacteria threatens the utility of this class of antibiotics. Here we report the constitutive and inducible expression of erm(B) in Campylobacter isolates derived from diarrheal patients and food-producing animals. Constitutive expression of erm(B) was associated with insertion and deletion in the regulatory region of the gene, providing the first documentation of the differential expression of erm(B) in Campylobacter bacteria.


Scrapie In Swine: A Diagnostic Challenge, Justin J. Greenlee, Robert A. Kunkle, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Scrapie In Swine: A Diagnostic Challenge, Justin J. Greenlee, Robert A. Kunkle, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the susceptibility of swine to the agent of sheep scrapie has not been thoroughly tested. We conducted this experiment to test the susceptibility of swine to U.S. scrapie isolates by intracranial and oral inoculation. Scrapie inoculum was a pooled 10% (w/v) homogenate derived from the brains of clinically ill sheep from the ...


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