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The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert 2018 Iowa State University

The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Systematic reviews are increasingly using data from preclinical animal experiments in evidence networks. Further, there are ever-increasing efforts to automate aspects of the systematic review process. When assessing systematic bias and unit-of-analysis errors in preclinical experiments, it is critical to understand the study design elements employed by investigators. Such information can also inform prioritization of automation efforts that allow the identification of the most common issues. The aim of this study was to identify the design elements used by investigators in preclinical research in order to inform unique aspects of assessment of bias and error in preclinical research. Using 100 ...


30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman

Celebration of Learning

There are no controlled studies of acetaminophen toxicity in horses. The objective was to test the hypotheses that oral acetaminophen administered at a dosage 25% higher than that sometimes used in horses would result in measurable hepatic toxicity as seen in humans and other species. Six healthy adult horses were administered 25 mg/kg acetaminophen powder in corn syrup twice daily for 30 days. Three other horses served as negative controls receiving only corn syrup. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained on days 7 and 1 before treatment; on treatment days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26 ...


Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, Julie Atchley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, Julie Atchley

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Effects of Fescue Toxicosis on Whole Blood Gene Expression in Beef Cattle

The consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue causes negative effects on the growth, reproduction, longevity, and overall health of beef cattle; this condition, termed fescue toxicosis by researchers and producers today, costs the United States over $1 billion in losses each year. To mitigate these production losses, it is important for producers to understand how fescue toxicosis affects gene expression and physiological pathways in beef cattle. This study examined the whole blood gene expression and affected pathways in beef cows grazing both endophyte-infected (toxic) tall fescue and (non-toxic) tall ...


Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey 2018 Murray State University

Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey

Honors College Theses

This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...


The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, Katelynn Cameron, Maria L. Hoffman PhD 2018 University of Rhode Island

The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, Katelynn Cameron, Maria L. Hoffman Phd

Senior Honors Projects

The efficiency of the dairy industry relies heavily on the production of healthy calves. However, dairy operations experience high rates of calf mortality due to digestive and respiratory issues. One factor that could predispose calves to disease is the effects of maternal programming caused by high maternal milk production during pregnancy. We hypothesized that calves born to high producing dams will exhibit increased oxidative stress as well as increased circulating triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. Cows (n = 17) that produced ≥ 14,865 kg of milk during their lactations were classified as high producers. Alternately, cows (n = 18) that produced ≤ 10 ...


Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...


Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Understanding how disease affects commercial production is imperative for pig producers to quantify its full impact on pig performance, carcass quality, and net returns. The objective of this experiment was to assess the productivity and economic importance of naturally occurring health challenges (HC) under commercial conditions. Three 1,000 pig grow-finish facilities received 936 pigs each. The experimental period started approximately 34 d post placement at an average start BW of 13.1 ± 0.2 kg. Barns were characterized based on the relative HC, determined by diagnostic assessments as the main characterization tool, along with other health indicators. Barns were ...


An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, Cole Barrett Sandow 2018 Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine

An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, Cole Barrett Sandow

LSU Master's Theses

INTRODUCTION-Laminitis and synovitis are two common causes of equine lameness. Laminitis is most often associated with hyperinsulinemia and osteoarthritis is most commonly the result of synovitis. The objective is to evaluate biomechanical and pathophysiologic events regarding laminitis and synovitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS-The first study evaluated biomechanical effects of insulin on lamellar strength. For this experiment, lamellar explants were harvested, incubated in media only (serving as a control) or media with a high concentration of insulin for 8 hours. After incubation, structural integrity was evaluated with a mechanical testing device. Data included load to failure (N), stress to failure (MPa), elongation ...


Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2018 Iowa State University

Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Statistics Publications

The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7 days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection ...


Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and incidence of seroconversion in alpacas in the United States during 2006 to 2007 and to evaluate associations between BVDV seropositive status and potential risk factors for exposure to BVDV.

Design—Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.

Sample—Blood samples from 192 alpacas > 6 months old in 39 herds from 20 states; 40 owners who completed questionnaires.

Procedures—550 US alpaca owners, stratified by state and randomly selected from a list of approximately 4,300 owners, were mailed a study description, voluntary participation request, and questionnaire. Thirty-nine owners submitted ...


Efficacy Of Nh3 As A Secondary Barrier Treatment For Inactivation Of Salmonella Typhimurium And Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Digestate Of Animal Carcasses: Proof-Of-Concept, Jacek A. Koziel, Timothy S. Frana, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Lam T. Nguyen, J. (Hans) van Leeuwen 2018 Iowa State University

Efficacy Of Nh3 As A Secondary Barrier Treatment For Inactivation Of Salmonella Typhimurium And Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Digestate Of Animal Carcasses: Proof-Of-Concept, Jacek A. Koziel, Timothy S. Frana, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Lam T. Nguyen, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen

Jacek A. Koziel

Managing the disposal of infectious animal carcasses from routine and catastrophic disease outbreaks is a global concern. Recent research suggests that burial in lined and aerated trenches provides the rapid pathogen containment provided by burial, while reducing air and water pollution potential and the length of time that land is taken out of agricultural production. Survival of pathogens in the digestate remains a concern, however. A potential answer is a ‘dual’-barrier approach in which ammonia is used as a secondary barrier treatment to reduce the risk of pathogen contamination when trench liners ultimately leak. Results of this study showed ...


Evaluation Of How Anesthesia Affect Body Temperature In Sows Using Infrared Thermography, Jennifer English, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Monique Pairis-Garcia, Caitlyn Bruns 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of How Anesthesia Affect Body Temperature In Sows Using Infrared Thermography, Jennifer English, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Monique Pairis-Garcia, Caitlyn Bruns

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this experiment was to determine the relationship between rectal temperature and infrared temperature measured on the inner eye, center- and ear base of sows undergoing anesthesia. A total of six sows were used. Sows were anaesthetized using a combination of xylazine, tiletamine HCl and ketamine. Thermal images at the inner ear, ear center and ear base were taken at 10 minute intervals starting ten minutes’ post-anesthetic induction until the sow was able to stand or reached 91.7◦ F body temperature. Rectal temperatures were measured using a digital thermometer. Rectal temperature Pearson correlations were determined among the ...


How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2018 Iowa State University

How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to determine if nursery pigs display different behaviors and postures pre- and post-injection using a live- and digital image methodology. A total of 149 pens housing approximately 19 barrows and gilts/pen (a mix of approximately 50% barrows and 50% gilts; 0.3 m2/pig) were used. Barrows and gilts were approximately 6-wk of age from a commercial crossbred genetic line. The pen applied injection treatments were (1) Ingelvac CircoFLEX®/Ingelvac MycoFLEX® vaccine, (2) Circumvent® PCVM vaccine (3) Saline. Pre-injection were conducted at 1600h the day before injections were administered. Pigs received their treatments ...


Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2018 Iowa State University

Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Novel phenotypes from a commercial testing system could add value to selection for resilience to disease and other stressors beyond simply collecting mortality. Day-to-day variability in feed intake (FI) and in duration at the feeder (DUR), quantified by root mean squared errors (RMSE), were investigated as novel measures of resilience using data from grow-finish pigs in a natural disease challenge facility. • RMSE of FI and DUR were moderately heritable • RMSE of FI and DUR showed moderate to strong genetic correlations with mortality and treatments These results show that day-to-day variation in FI and DUR in a challenge environment can be ...


The Unspoken Psychological Issues With Lesson Horses And How We Need To Address Them, Casey Clark 2018 Murray State University

The Unspoken Psychological Issues With Lesson Horses And How We Need To Address Them, Casey Clark

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Every day all over the world horses provide much needed therapy and treatment to people in need. They provide physical, emotional, and mental training and healing. Humans depend on them for so much and we have a moral and ethical obligation to be good stewards of our equine companions. This close proximity can take a toll on horses physically and psychologically even in the realm of experienced equine professionals. So many times though it is the small lesson facility that sees hundreds of people each year and makes a profound difference in people’s lives. This can be at a ...


Impact Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae And Lawsonia Intracellularis On The Performance Of Pigs Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, E. T. Helm, A. C. Outhouse, K. J. Schwartz, J. C. M. Dekkers, S. M. Lonergan, W. M. Rauw, N. K. Gabler 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae And Lawsonia Intracellularis On The Performance Of Pigs Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, E. T. Helm, A. C. Outhouse, K. J. Schwartz, J. C. M. Dekkers, S. M. Lonergan, W. M. Rauw, N. K. Gabler

Animal Science Publications

Feed efficiency (FE) is a valuable trait, yet how genetic selection for enhanced FE affects other processes such as response to disease is unknown. Disease from endemic respiratory and enteric pathogens such as Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) are common in swine production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine if pigs selected for high versus low FE based on residual feed intake (RFI) respond differently to a dual respiratory and enteric challenge. Pigs selected for low RFI (LRFI, high feed efficiency) pigs are considered more FE compared to their high RFI (HRFI, low feed efficiency ...


A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, limits production and weight gain in pre-weaned calves, resulting in significant economic loss each year. IBK is one of the most common diseases in pre-weaned calves which leads to clinical signs from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness [4]. Due to large economic losses and limits in production and weaning weight, use of effective vaccines to prevent IBK is imperative.

Moraxella bovis is the primary causal organism of IBK [4, 5]. However, available evidence does not suggest that vaccination is effective for preventing naturally occurring IBK. Although individual studies and ...


Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis On Efficacy Of Fostera Prrsv Modified Live Virus Vaccine Studies In Growing Pigs, Gaurav Rawal, Jose Angulo, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important health challenges that currently exists in the global swine industry. PRRSV is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to genus Arterivirus. A PRRSV infection is clinically characterized by reproductive failure in sows and/or respiratory disease in growing pigs, causing significant economic losses (Zimmerman et al., 2012). RNA viruses have relatively high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, mainly due to the low fidelity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (Arnold et al., 2005; Vignuzzi et al., 2008). This rapid high mutation rate usually leads to ...


What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville 2018 Iowa State University

What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically significant disease of feedlot cattle[4]. Putative causal organisms include Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus[5].

Vaccination against the putative causal organisms is a frequently used approach to aid in the prevention of BRD. With a more significant concern for prudent antibiotic use in the beef industry, it is vital that decision making with regards BRDC management be based on an understanding of the efficacy of vaccination programs and management factors that might ...


What Is The Efficacy Of Metaphylaxis Using Antibiotics For The Prevention Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Beef Cattle?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville 2018 Iowa State University

What Is The Efficacy Of Metaphylaxis Using Antibiotics For The Prevention Of Bovine Respiratory Disease In Beef Cattle?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically significant disease of feedlot cattle. Putative causal organisms include Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus. Although vaccination against the putative causal organisms is a frequently used approach to aid in the prevention of BRD, it is also common and legal for antibiotics to be used for metaphylaxis at the arrival of beef cattle at feedlots. With a more significant concern for prudent antibiotic use in the beef industry, it is essential for decision making ...


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