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The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert 2018 Iowa State University

The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Systematic reviews are increasingly using data from preclinical animal experiments in evidence networks. Further, there are ever-increasing efforts to automate aspects of the systematic review process. When assessing systematic bias and unit-of-analysis errors in preclinical experiments, it is critical to understand the study design elements employed by investigators. Such information can also inform prioritization of automation efforts that allow the identification of the most common issues. The aim of this study was to identify the design elements used by investigators in preclinical research in order to inform unique aspects of assessment of bias and error in preclinical research. Using 100 ...


30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman

Celebration of Learning

There are no controlled studies of acetaminophen toxicity in horses. The objective was to test the hypotheses that oral acetaminophen administered at a dosage 25% higher than that sometimes used in horses would result in measurable hepatic toxicity as seen in humans and other species. Six healthy adult horses were administered 25 mg/kg acetaminophen powder in corn syrup twice daily for 30 days. Three other horses served as negative controls receiving only corn syrup. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained on days 7 and 1 before treatment; on treatment days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26 ...


Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes 2018 University of Maine

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, Julie Atchley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, Julie Atchley

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Effects of Fescue Toxicosis on Whole Blood Gene Expression in Beef Cattle

The consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue causes negative effects on the growth, reproduction, longevity, and overall health of beef cattle; this condition, termed fescue toxicosis by researchers and producers today, costs the United States over $1 billion in losses each year. To mitigate these production losses, it is important for producers to understand how fescue toxicosis affects gene expression and physiological pathways in beef cattle. This study examined the whole blood gene expression and affected pathways in beef cows grazing both endophyte-infected (toxic) tall fescue and (non-toxic) tall ...


Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey 2018 Murray State University

Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey

Honors College Theses

This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...


The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, Katelynn Cameron, Maria L. Hoffman PhD 2018 University of Rhode Island

The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, Katelynn Cameron, Maria L. Hoffman Phd

Senior Honors Projects

The efficiency of the dairy industry relies heavily on the production of healthy calves. However, dairy operations experience high rates of calf mortality due to digestive and respiratory issues. One factor that could predispose calves to disease is the effects of maternal programming caused by high maternal milk production during pregnancy. We hypothesized that calves born to high producing dams will exhibit increased oxidative stress as well as increased circulating triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. Cows (n = 17) that produced ≥ 14,865 kg of milk during their lactations were classified as high producers. Alternately, cows (n = 18) that produced ≤ 10 ...


Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...


Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Understanding how disease affects commercial production is imperative for pig producers to quantify its full impact on pig performance, carcass quality, and net returns. The objective of this experiment was to assess the productivity and economic importance of naturally occurring health challenges (HC) under commercial conditions. Three 1,000 pig grow-finish facilities received 936 pigs each. The experimental period started approximately 34 d post placement at an average start BW of 13.1 ± 0.2 kg. Barns were characterized based on the relative HC, determined by diagnostic assessments as the main characterization tool, along with other health indicators. Barns were ...


An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, Cole Barrett Sandow 2018 Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine

An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, Cole Barrett Sandow

LSU Master's Theses

INTRODUCTION-Laminitis and synovitis are two common causes of equine lameness. Laminitis is most often associated with hyperinsulinemia and osteoarthritis is most commonly the result of synovitis. The objective is to evaluate biomechanical and pathophysiologic events regarding laminitis and synovitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS-The first study evaluated biomechanical effects of insulin on lamellar strength. For this experiment, lamellar explants were harvested, incubated in media only (serving as a control) or media with a high concentration of insulin for 8 hours. After incubation, structural integrity was evaluated with a mechanical testing device. Data included load to failure (N), stress to failure (MPa), elongation ...


Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman 2018 Iowa State University

Detection Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv)-Specific Igm-Iga In Oral Fluid Samples Reveals Prrsv Infection In The Presence Of Maternal Antibody, Marisa L. Rotolo, Luis Giménez-Lirola, Ju Ji, Ronaldo Magtoto, Yuly A. Henao-Díaz, Chong Wang, David H. Baum, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Statistics Publications

The ontogeny of PRRSV antibody in oral fluids has been described using isotype-specific ELISAs. Mirroring the serum response, IgM appears in oral fluid by 7 days post inoculation (DPI), IgA after 7 DPI, and IgG by 9 to 10 DPI. Commercial PRRSV ELISAs target the detection of IgG because the higher concentration of IgG relative to other isotypes provides the best diagnostic discrimination. Oral fluids are increasingly used for PRRSV surveillance in commercial herds, but in younger pigs, a positive ELISA result may be due either to maternal antibody or to antibody produced by the pigs in response to infection ...


Evaluation Of How Anesthesia Affect Body Temperature In Sows Using Infrared Thermography, Jennifer English, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Monique Pairis-Garcia, Caitlyn Bruns 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of How Anesthesia Affect Body Temperature In Sows Using Infrared Thermography, Jennifer English, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Monique Pairis-Garcia, Caitlyn Bruns

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this experiment was to determine the relationship between rectal temperature and infrared temperature measured on the inner eye, center- and ear base of sows undergoing anesthesia. A total of six sows were used. Sows were anaesthetized using a combination of xylazine, tiletamine HCl and ketamine. Thermal images at the inner ear, ear center and ear base were taken at 10 minute intervals starting ten minutes’ post-anesthetic induction until the sow was able to stand or reached 91.7◦ F body temperature. Rectal temperatures were measured using a digital thermometer. Rectal temperature Pearson correlations were determined among the ...


How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2018 Iowa State University

How Does The Type Of Vaccine Affect Pig Approachability Pre- And Post-Vaccination?, Shawna Weimer, Anna Johnson, Kenneth Stalder, Locke Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to determine if nursery pigs display different behaviors and postures pre- and post-injection using a live- and digital image methodology. A total of 149 pens housing approximately 19 barrows and gilts/pen (a mix of approximately 50% barrows and 50% gilts; 0.3 m2/pig) were used. Barrows and gilts were approximately 6-wk of age from a commercial crossbred genetic line. The pen applied injection treatments were (1) Ingelvac CircoFLEX®/Ingelvac MycoFLEX® vaccine, (2) Circumvent® PCVM vaccine (3) Saline. Pre-injection were conducted at 1600h the day before injections were administered. Pigs received their treatments ...


Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2018 Iowa State University

Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Novel phenotypes from a commercial testing system could add value to selection for resilience to disease and other stressors beyond simply collecting mortality. Day-to-day variability in feed intake (FI) and in duration at the feeder (DUR), quantified by root mean squared errors (RMSE), were investigated as novel measures of resilience using data from grow-finish pigs in a natural disease challenge facility. • RMSE of FI and DUR were moderately heritable • RMSE of FI and DUR showed moderate to strong genetic correlations with mortality and treatments These results show that day-to-day variation in FI and DUR in a challenge environment can be ...


A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, limits production and weight gain in pre-weaned calves, resulting in significant economic loss each year. IBK is one of the most common diseases in pre-weaned calves which leads to clinical signs from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness [4]. Due to large economic losses and limits in production and weaning weight, use of effective vaccines to prevent IBK is imperative.

Moraxella bovis is the primary causal organism of IBK [4, 5]. However, available evidence does not suggest that vaccination is effective for preventing naturally occurring IBK. Although individual studies and ...


What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville 2018 Iowa State University

What Is The Efficacy Of Viral And Bacterial Vaccines In Feedlot Cattle To Reduce Bovine Respiratory Disease (Brd) And Subsequent Antibiotic Use?, Annette M. O'Connor, Chong Wang, Jan M. Sargeant, Brad White, Robert Larson, Bing Wang, Cheryl Waldner, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Bovine respiratory disease complex is the most economically significant disease of feedlot cattle[4]. Putative causal organisms include Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Mycoplasma bovis, bovine herpesvirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza type 3 virus[5].

Vaccination against the putative causal organisms is a frequently used approach to aid in the prevention of BRD. With a more significant concern for prudent antibiotic use in the beef industry, it is vital that decision making with regards BRDC management be based on an understanding of the efficacy of vaccination programs and management factors that might ...


Evaluating Methods Of Estimating Forage Intake By Grazing Cattle, Aaron J. Shropshire, Walter H. Schacht, Jerry D. Volesky 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluating Methods Of Estimating Forage Intake By Grazing Cattle, Aaron J. Shropshire, Walter H. Schacht, Jerry D. Volesky

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Two methods of estimating forage intake of grazing cattle were compared to clipped estimates in 4-pasture rotational grazing systems on Sandhills subirrigated meadow from mid-May through early August over a 4-year period. Clipping standing vegetation samples within a pasture before and after cattle grazing provides for an accurate estimate of forage removal during a grazing period. A less laborious method of intake estimation commonly used is based on a percentage of an animal’s liveweight. University Extension and some federal agencies use a 2.3% factor and others such as the Natural Resources Conservation Service use a 2.7% factor ...


Using A Cured Meat Model System To Investigate Factors That Influence Cured Color Development, Jennifer A. Posthuma, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using A Cured Meat Model System To Investigate Factors That Influence Cured Color Development, Jennifer A. Posthuma, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Producing cured meats manufactured with natural ingredients could impact cured meat characteristics, including color. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nitrite source (sodium nitrite or cultured celery juice powder), reducing agents (no reducing compound or sodium erythorbate/ ascorbic acid), and holding times prior to cooking on cured color development in a meat model system. The addition of reducing compounds had the largest impact on cured color development and reduced residual nitrite in a cured meat model system. Treatments cured with sodium nitrite had slightly greater cured color development than treatments cured with celery juice powder ...


Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Repeated Calm Handling Can Lead To More Docile Cattle, Jamie T. Parham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Changes in temperament in heifers when handled either frequently or infrequently were evaluated subjectively based on their behavior when restrained in (chute score) and exiting from (exit score) a squeeze chute. Chute scores decreased over time–a favorable direction–with more dramatic declines in heifers handled more frequently. Heifers with higher chute scores on the first day of handling had the largest reduction in score. Exit scores changed less over time. Chute score therefore may be more indicative of acclimation to a novel environment than exit score. Both scores appear to offer a fast, easy and inexpensive way to quantify ...


Experience Improves The Reliability Of Subjective Measurements Of Temperament In Beef Cattle, Jaime T. Praham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Experience Improves The Reliability Of Subjective Measurements Of Temperament In Beef Cattle, Jaime T. Praham, Amy E. Tanner, Mark L. Wahlberg, W. S. Swecker Jr., Ronald M. Lewis

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Reliability of experienced and inexperienced observers when assessing the behavior of cattle when restrained in a squeeze chute (chute score), and when exiting the chute (exit score), was compared. Overall, experienced observers had higher reliability than inexperienced observers. Increasing the number of individuals scoring an animal decreased the degree of agreement. However, within an acceptable tolerance for difference in scores, such disagreement may be beneficial; it allows for subtlety in interpretations of temperament, which when averaged, may better reflect docility. Reliabilities were higher for exit score than chute score. This may reflect the complexity of the trait being evaluated, with ...


Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. MacDonald 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Five summer management strategies were compared following grazing corn residue through winter. Cattle were assigned to be 1) summer finished, 2) graze bromegrass, 3) graze bromegrass and fed distillers grains at 0.6% of BW, 4) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 1.70 lb/d, or 5) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 2.35 lb/d. Results differed by year, however, in general as backgrounding ADG increased, days required on feed to reach an equal fat endpoint decreased. In year 1, ADG of cattle grazing bromegrass was less than cattle backgrounded in pens. There was no ...


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