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Large or Food Animal and Equine Medicine Commons

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Pharmacokinetics Of Fentanyl Citrate And Norfentanyl In Holstein Calves And Effect Of Analytical Performances On Fentanyl Parameter Estimation, Joe Smith, Johann F. Coetzee, Isaac W. G. Fisher, David J. Borts, Jonathan P. Mochel 2019 Iowa State University

Pharmacokinetics Of Fentanyl Citrate And Norfentanyl In Holstein Calves And Effect Of Analytical Performances On Fentanyl Parameter Estimation, Joe Smith, Johann F. Coetzee, Isaac W. G. Fisher, David J. Borts, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

This study describes the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered (i.v.) fentanyl citrate, and its primary metabolite norfentanyl in Holstein calves. Eight calves (58.6 ± 2.2 kg), aged 3–4 weeks, were administered fentanyl citrate at a single dose of 5.0 μg/kg i.v. Blood samples were collected from 0 to 24 hr. Plasma (nor)fentanyl concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.03 ng/ml. To explore the effect of analytical performance on fentanyl parameter estimation, the noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was then repeated with a hypothetical ...


Rapid Communication: A Comparison Of Cardiac Lesions And Heart Weights From Market Pigs That Did And Did Not Die During Transport To One Ontario Abattoir, Kathy Zurbrigg, Tony van Dreumel, Max F. Rothschild, David Alves, Robert M. Friendship, Terri L. O’Sullivan 2019 University of Guelph

Rapid Communication: A Comparison Of Cardiac Lesions And Heart Weights From Market Pigs That Did And Did Not Die During Transport To One Ontario Abattoir, Kathy Zurbrigg, Tony Van Dreumel, Max F. Rothschild, David Alves, Robert M. Friendship, Terri L. O’Sullivan

Max Rothschild

In-transit losses of market hogs represent a small proportion of all market-weight pigs shipped in a year. This suggests that individual pig factors may be a significant cause of in-transit losses along with more traditionally considered environmental and transport factors. An investigation was performed to determine whether cardiac pathology and heart weights were associated with pigs that did or did not die during transport to an abattoir. The hearts from 70 pigs that died in-transit to one Ontario abattoir and 388 pigs that arrived alive were collected and examined. Hearts from pigs that died during transport demonstrated greater frequencies of ...


Genetic Architecture Of Gene Expression Underlying Variation In Host Response To Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection, Arun Kommadath, Hua Bao, Igseo Choi, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Chris J. Eisley, Jason R. Grant, Robert R. R. Rowland, Christopher K. Tuggle, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Joan K. Lunney, Le Luo Guan, Paul Stothard, Graham S. Plastow 2019 University of Alberta

Genetic Architecture Of Gene Expression Underlying Variation In Host Response To Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection, Arun Kommadath, Hua Bao, Igseo Choi, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Elyn Fritz-Waters, Chris J. Eisley, Jason R. Grant, Robert R. R. Rowland, Christopher K. Tuggle, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Joan K. Lunney, Le Luo Guan, Paul Stothard, Graham S. Plastow

James M Reecy

It has been shown that inter-individual variation in host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has a heritable component, yet little is known about the underlying genetic architecture of gene expression in response to PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection. Here, we integrated genome-wide genotype, gene expression, viremia level, and weight gain data to identify genetic polymorphisms that are associated with variation in inter-individual gene expression and response to PRRSV infection in pigs. RNA-seq analysis of peripheral blood samples collected just prior to experimental challenge (day 0) and at 4, 7, 11 and 14 days post infection from 44 pigs ...


Use Of Alivecor Heart Monitor For Heart Rate And Rhythm Evaluation In Dairy Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalis Bubalis), Joe Smith, Jessica Ward, Tara Urbano, Mikaela Mueller 2019 Iowa State University

Use Of Alivecor Heart Monitor For Heart Rate And Rhythm Evaluation In Dairy Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalis Bubalis), Joe Smith, Jessica Ward, Tara Urbano, Mikaela Mueller

Joe Smith

Smartphone-based ECG recording devices are a promising new diagnostic in veterinary medicine. However, these devices have not yet been demonstrated to work in water buffalo. A commercial, non-invasive, smartphone-based ECG (AliveCor Vet TM) monitoring device was field tested on water buffalo calves. Six neonatal water buffalo calves had an ECG simultaneously recorded with a standard medical ECG recorder and the AliveCor Vet device. A correlation of 0.75053 was observed between average heart rates obtained between AliveCor recordings when compared to those from the 6 lead ECG. 100% Rhythm agreement was met for all 12 recordings. The recordings of 4 ...


A Scoping Review On The Epidemiology, Diagnostics, And Clinical Significance Of Porcine Astroviruses, Gaurav Rawal, Daniel Linhares, Bailey Arruda, Annette O'Connor 2019 Iowa State University

A Scoping Review On The Epidemiology, Diagnostics, And Clinical Significance Of Porcine Astroviruses, Gaurav Rawal, Daniel Linhares, Bailey Arruda, Annette O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Astroviruses (AstVs) are non-enveloped, 28-30 nm, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses with a genome that varies from 6.4 to 7.3 kb. Astroviruses have been demonstrated to infect a wide variety of animals, both domestic and wild, including avian and mammalian species in terrestrial and aquatic environments.1 Despite the broad host range and ability to cause disease, there are significant gaps in knowledge concerning the epidemiology, ecology, and pathophysiology of most AstVs.


Impact Of Dietary Fat Source On Beef Tenderness, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Katherine I. Domenech-Perez, Nicolas J. Herrera Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Chris R. Calkins 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Dietary Fat Source On Beef Tenderness, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Katherine I. Domenech-Perez, Nicolas J. Herrera Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Chris R. Calkins

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Steers were finished on either a corn control, 40% full-fat modified distillers grains plus solubles, 40% de-oiled modified distillers grains plus solubles, or 38% de-oiled modified distillers grains plus solubles plus 2% corn oil diet to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source on the mechanism of beef tenderization . Feeding modified distillers grains plus solubles increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane and increased free Ca2+ concentration early postmortem. Steaks from cattle fed de-oiled modified distillers grains and de-oiled modified distillers grains plus corn oil were more tender at 2 d of aging when compared to ...


A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman 2019 Iowa State University

A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Understanding the dynamics of disease spread is critical to achieving effective animal disease surveillance. A major challenge in modeling disease spread is the fact that the true disease status cannot be known with certainty due to the imperfect diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the tests used to generate the disease surveillance data. Other challenges in modeling such data include interval censoring, relating disease spread to distance between units, and incorporating time-varying covariates, which are the unobserved disease statuses. We propose a latent spatial piecewise exponential model (PEX) with misclassification of events to address the challenges in modeling such disease surveillance ...


Invited Review: Completeness Of Reporting Of Experiments: Reflecting On A Year Of Animal Trials In The Journal Of Dairy Science, Charlotte B. Winder, Katheryn J. Churchill, Jan M. Sargeant, Stephen J. LeBlanc, Annette M. O'Connor, David L. Renaud 2019 University of Guelph

Invited Review: Completeness Of Reporting Of Experiments: Reflecting On A Year Of Animal Trials In The Journal Of Dairy Science, Charlotte B. Winder, Katheryn J. Churchill, Jan M. Sargeant, Stephen J. Leblanc, Annette M. O'Connor, David L. Renaud

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Reproducibility is an essential element of the scientific process, and it requires clear and complete reporting of study design, conduct, and analysis. In the human and animal health literature, incomplete reporting is associated with biased effect estimates. Moreover, incomplete reporting precludes knowledge synthesis and undervalues the resources allocated to the primary research. The Reporting Guidelines for Randomized Controlled Trials for Livestock and Food Safety (REFLECT) statement, published in 2010, is a checklist developed by expert consensus to provide guidance on what study elements should be reported in any intervention trial (designed experiment) involving livestock. The Journal of Dairy Science (JDS ...


Quality Effects On Beef From Cattle Fed High-Protein Corn Distillers Grains And Other Ethanol By-Products, Kellen B. Hart, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Morgan L. Henriott Henriott, Nicolas J. Herrera, Chris R. Calkins 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Quality Effects On Beef From Cattle Fed High-Protein Corn Distillers Grains And Other Ethanol By-Products, Kellen B. Hart, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Morgan L. Henriott Henriott, Nicolas J. Herrera, Chris R. Calkins

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding high protein corn distillers grains on fresh beef quality. Steers were fed one of five diets, either a corn control, high protein distillers grains plus solubles, dry distillers grains plus solubles, wet distillers grains plus solubles, or bran plus solubles diet. Strip loins were aged for 2, 9, or 23 days and placed under retail display conditions for 0 or 7 days. Dietary treatment had no effect on tenderness within each aging period. There were also no differences between treatments for proximate composition, free calcium in the muscle ...


Comparison Of Traditional And Alternative Curing Ingredients On Curing Reactions In A Model Meat System, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Comparison Of Traditional And Alternative Curing Ingredients On Curing Reactions In A Model Meat System, Faith D. Rasmussen, Gary A. Sullivan

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

To meet consumer trends, alternative curing ingredients are used to replace sodium nitrite and cure accelerators. Due to the complexity of meat, it is challenging to compare traditional and alternative ingredients for curing reactions. Using a model system, sources of nitrite (traditional, sodium nitrite and alternative, cultured celery juice powder), salt, and cure accelerators (traditional, sodium erythorbate, or alternative, cherry juice powder) at ingoing sodium nitrite concentrations of 10, 50, 100, 150, or 200 ppm were evaluated for curing reactions. More complete curing reactions were indicated by a higher concentration of cured meat pigment, and lower sulfhydryl groups. Lower residual ...


Pooled Analysis Of Individually Fed Finishing Trials, Brett A. Melton, James C. MacDonald, Andrea K. Watson Watson, Galen E. Erickson 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Pooled Analysis Of Individually Fed Finishing Trials, Brett A. Melton, James C. Macdonald, Andrea K. Watson Watson, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A pooled analysis of 21 finishing trials (2002–2016; 1530 animals) with cattle individually fed in Calan gate barns was conducted. Mixed model regression analysis following random coefficient methodology was used to evaluate relationships between performance variables and carcass characteristics. Gain had a greater effect on efficiency (R2 = 0.72) compared to intake (R2 = 0.02). The relationship between gain and efficiency was cubic, while intake had a quadratic relationship. The cubic response of gain relative to efficiency was continually increasing with relatively slight curves in the line heavily influenced by points that lay on the ends of ...


Effect Of Adding Urea To Finishing Diets Containing Two Different Inclusions Of Distillers Grains On Steer Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Bradley M. Boyd, James C. MacDonald, Matthew K. Luebbe, Galen E. Erickson 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Adding Urea To Finishing Diets Containing Two Different Inclusions Of Distillers Grains On Steer Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Bradley M. Boyd, James C. Macdonald, Matthew K. Luebbe, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The effects of adding urea to a dry rolled corn based finishing diet containing low inclusions of distillers grains was evaluated. Treatments were designed as a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with factors consisting of wet distillers inclusion (either 12 or 20% of diet DM) and urea inclusion (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2% of diet DM). There were no significant interactions observed between distillers inclusion and urea inclusion in the diet. Increasing inclusion of distillers grains improved carcass adjusted average daily gain and feed conversion and reduced dry matter intake. Increasing distillers inclusion also increased 12th rib fat and ...


Effects Of Urea And Distillers Inclusion In Finishing Diets On Steer Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Bradley M. Boyd, James C. MacDonald, Matthew K. Luebbe, Galen E. Erickson 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Urea And Distillers Inclusion In Finishing Diets On Steer Performance And Carcass Characteristics, Bradley M. Boyd, James C. Macdonald, Matthew K. Luebbe, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental urea in dry rolled corn based finishing diets containing low inclusions of distillers grains. Treatments were set up in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. The first factor was wet distillers inclusion at either 10, 15, or 20% of diet DM. The second factor was urea inclusion at either 0, 0.5, or 1.0% of diet dry matter. Increasing inclusion of distillers linearly improved feed conversion and linearly reduced dry matter intake. An interaction for feed efficiency was observed where there was no effect of added urea when 10% or ...


Evaluation Of The Energy Value And Nutrient Digestibility Of Distillers Grains That Have Undergone A Fiber Separation Process In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, James C. MacDonald, Ryan A. Mass 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of The Energy Value And Nutrient Digestibility Of Distillers Grains That Have Undergone A Fiber Separation Process In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Melissa L. Jolly-Breithaupt, Hannah C. Hamilton Hamilton, Galen E. Erickson, James C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A digestion study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a new, high protein distillers grains and corn bran plus solubles on nutrient digestibility. Treatments included a corn-based control, high protein distillers at both 20% and 40%, corn bran plus solubles, traditional wet distillers grains and traditional dry distillers grains all at 40% of diet DM. Feeding high protein distillers grains or corn bran plus solubles resulted in decreased digestibility compared to corn or traditional wet and dry distillers grains, but increased energy intake. Traditional wet and dry distillers grains also resulted in decreased digestibilities while energy intake was ...


Evaluation Of Corn Bran Plus Solubles On Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. MacDonald, Ryan A. Mass 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Corn Bran Plus Solubles On Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A finishing study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding corn bran plus solubles, a new feed resulting from a pre-fermentation fiber removal process, compared to wet distillers grains plus solubles at two levels of inclusion (20% and 40% of diet DM). Intake increased with inclusion of byproduct, and steers fed 20% wet distillers had the greatest intakes numerically. Byproduct inclusion, regardless of type, increased daily gain over the corn-based control. Feed conversions were improved with increased inclusion of both Bran + Solubles and wet distillers, and both were superior to the control. Increased inclusion of both byproducts resulted in ...


Evaluation Of Fractionated Distillers Grains (High Protein And Bran Plus Solubles) On Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. MacDonald, Ryan A. Mass 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Fractionated Distillers Grains (High Protein And Bran Plus Solubles) On Performance And Carcass Characteristics In Finishing Diets, Shelby A. Garland, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher Hilscher, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald, Ryan A. Mass

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A finishing study evaluated the effect of feeding a new, high protein distillers grains along with corn bran plus condensed distillers solubles compared to traditional wet distillers grains, traditional dry distillers grains and a corn-based control. Each byproduct replaced corn at 40% of the diet dry-matter. Intake was not affected by treatment; however gain and carcass weight were greater and feed conversion improved for high protein distillers and corn bran plus solubles than either type of traditional distillers grains or corn. Based on feed efficiency, the feeding values of high protein distillers grains and corn bran plus solubles are 121 ...


Impact Of Grazing Spring Rye On Subsequent Crop Yields And Profitability, Ashley C. Conway, Robert G. Bondurant, Fred H. Hilscher Hilscher, Jay Parsons, Daren Redfearn, Mary E. Drewnoski 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Grazing Spring Rye On Subsequent Crop Yields And Profitability, Ashley C. Conway, Robert G. Bondurant, Fred H. Hilscher Hilscher, Jay Parsons, Daren Redfearn, Mary E. Drewnoski

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Steers (729 ± 19 lb BW) grazed in two November-planted cereal rye fields for 22 d in April, either with or without an ionophore in their free choice mineral supplement. Subsequent corn yields were measured to assess impact of planting cereal rye as a cover crop (not grazed) or grazing the rye compared to a no rye control. There was no statistical impact of rye or grazing on subsequent corn yield. Supplying an ionophore in the mineral did not uniformly improve gains across fields. However, gains were high at 3.2 lb/d and were able to offset the cost of ...


Nitrate Concentrations Of Annual Forages Grown For Grazing In Nebraska, Mary E. Lenz, Rebecca J. Kern, Carrie E. Orvis Orvis, Mary E. Drewnoski 2019 University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Nitrate Concentrations Of Annual Forages Grown For Grazing In Nebraska, Mary E. Lenz, Rebecca J. Kern, Carrie E. Orvis Orvis, Mary E. Drewnoski

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Annual forage samples sent by producers to Ward Laboratories Inc. for nitrate analysis were evaluated to determine which cover crop species in Nebraska are most likely to accumulate nitrates, and how often the accumulated nitrates are considered toxic by traditional recommendations. Additionally, nitrate levels of cover crop mixes grown in research trials were analyzed to ensure species differences were repeated when grown together in the same fields. Brassicas accumulate more nitrate than small grains, millet, sorghum/sudan grasses, or cover crop mixes. Brassicas accumulated levels of nitrate considered moderately to highly toxic in 48% of the samples. The other cover ...


Prediction Of Energy Value (Tdn) In Grazed And Hayed Forages, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Mary E. Drewnoski, Karla H. Jenkins Jenkins 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Prediction Of Energy Value (Tdn) In Grazed And Hayed Forages, Terry J. Klopfenstein, Mary E. Drewnoski, Karla H. Jenkins Jenkins

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The goal of producers and nutritionists is to meet the nutritional needs of their cattle. Requirements are well established, but the diets of grazing cattle are difficult to predict. Selection by the animal, sample handling, lab analysis, and relating the lab analysis to the animal are issues that have been researched the last 20 years. Based on that research, data have been compiled to predict the energy and protein values of grazed Sandhills range, meadows, smooth brome, and corn residue. Additionally, equations used by commercial labs to predict the TDN of grass hays based on ADF were compared to TDN ...


Effect Of Rapeseed Inclusion In Late-Summer Planted Oats Pasture On Growing Performance Of Beef Steers, Hannah E. Riley, Kristin E. Hales, Steven D. Shackelford Shackelford, Harvey C. Freetly, Mary E. Drewnoski 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effect Of Rapeseed Inclusion In Late-Summer Planted Oats Pasture On Growing Performance Of Beef Steers, Hannah E. Riley, Kristin E. Hales, Steven D. Shackelford Shackelford, Harvey C. Freetly, Mary E. Drewnoski

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Fall cover crops have been shown to be an effective way to background calves into the winter. An oat monoculture was planted in late summer at 100 lb/ac and compared to oats planted at 50 lb/ac with rapeseed included at 3 lb/ac. Initial forage yield was not affected by the inclusion of rapeseed with fall oat. Calf gain tended to be greater and cost of gain was decreased when rapeseed was included. Including rapeseed in late summer planted oats may be beneficial for producers who want to graze growing calves in the fall.


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