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The Effects Of Music On Dairy Production, Anneliese Kemp 2020 Murray State University

The Effects Of Music On Dairy Production, Anneliese Kemp

Honors College Theses

The purpose of this research is to find which genre of music dairy cows produce the most milk to in order to aid dairy farmers in yielding maximum product while also keeping their cattle as comfortable as possible. During each lactation a different genre of music will play, basic vital signs, and behavioral observations of the cows will be taken, then the amount of milk produced during that genre will be measured. First, no music will be played, base line vitals will be taken, and milk yield will be measured. This will give an estimate to how positively or negatively ...


Metagenomic, Viral And Host Genetic Analyses Of Congenital Tremor In Pigs, Kylee Sutton 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Metagenomic, Viral And Host Genetic Analyses Of Congenital Tremor In Pigs, Kylee Sutton

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The Pestivirus genus contains several viral species having a major impact on the livestock species. While there were only four major pestiviral species for a time, recent metagenomic sequencing approaches identified additional species, such as atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Congenital tremor was first identified almost a hundred years ago and since still has an impact on swine health. There are two main types of congenital tremor, type A and B, with type A congenital tremor further subcategorized based on causative agent. Until recently, type A-II congenital tremor did not have a known cause. Recent viral sequencing of affected samples, including ...


Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor 2020 Iowa State University

Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The causal effect of an exposure on an outcome of interest in an observational study cannot be estimated directly if the confounding variables are not controlled. Many approaches are available for estimating the causal effect of an exposure. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the advantages associated with using inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust estimation of the odds ratio in terms of reduced bias. IPW approach can be used to adjust for confounding variables and provide unbiased estimates of the exposure’s causal effect. For cluster-structured data, as is common in animal populations, inverse conditional probability weighting (ICPW) approach ...


A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee 2020 Iowa State University

A Study To Assess The Correlation Between Plasma, Oral Fluid And Urine Concentrations Of Flunixin Meglumine With The Tissue Residue Depletion Profile In Finishing-Age Swine, Jessica L. Bates, Locke A. Karriker, Suzanne M. Rajewski, Zhoumeng Lin, Ronette Gehring, Mengjie Li, Jim E. Riviere, Johann F. Coetzee

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background

Flunixin meglumine (FM) was investigated for the effectiveness of plasma, oral fluid, and urine concentrations to predict tissue residue depletion profiles in finishing-age swine, along with the potential for untreated pigs to acquire tissue residues following commingled housing with FM-treated pigs. Twenty pigs were housed in groups of three treated and one untreated control. Treated pigs received one 2.2 mg/kg dose of FM intramuscularly. Before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h (h) after treatment, plasma samples were taken. At 1, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days (d) post-treatment, necropsy and collection ...


Quantitation Of Gait And Stance Alterations Due To Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Knee Osteoarthritis In Yucatan Swine, Katherine T. LaVallee, Timothy P. Maus, Joseph D. Stock, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Naveen S. Murthy, Rahul Kanwar, Andreas S. Beutler, Mark D. Unger 2020 Mayo Clinic

Quantitation Of Gait And Stance Alterations Due To Monosodium Iodoacetate–Induced Knee Osteoarthritis In Yucatan Swine, Katherine T. Lavallee, Timothy P. Maus, Joseph D. Stock, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Naveen S. Murthy, Rahul Kanwar, Andreas S. Beutler, Mark D. Unger

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Knee osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of chronic pain worldwide, and several animal models have been developed to investigate disease mechanisms and treatments to combat associated morbidities. Here we describe a novel method for assessment of locomotor pain behavior in Yucatan swine. We used monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to induce osteoarthritis in the hindlimb knee, and then conducted live observation, quantitative gait analysis, and quantitative weight-bearing stance analysis. We used these methods to test the hypothesis that locomotor pain behaviors after osteoarthritis induction would be detected by multiparameter quantitation for at least 12 wk in a novel large ...


Detection Of Pseudorabies Virus Antibody In Swine Oral Fluid Using A Serum Whole-Virus Indirect Elisa, Ting-Yu Cheng, Alexandra Buckley, Albert Van Geelen, Kelly Lager, Alexandra Henao-Díaz, Korakrit Poonsuk, Pablo Piñeyro, David H. Baum, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola 2020 Iowa State University

Detection Of Pseudorabies Virus Antibody In Swine Oral Fluid Using A Serum Whole-Virus Indirect Elisa, Ting-Yu Cheng, Alexandra Buckley, Albert Van Geelen, Kelly Lager, Alexandra Henao-Díaz, Korakrit Poonsuk, Pablo Piñeyro, David H. Baum, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Rodger G. Main, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

We evaluated the detection of pseudorabies virus (PRV) antibodies in swine oral fluid. Oral fluid and serum samples were obtained from 40 pigs allocated to 4 treatment groups (10 pigs/group): negative control (NC); wild-type PRV inoculation (PRV 3CR Ossabaw; hereafter PRV); PRV vaccination (Ingelvac Aujeszky MLV; Boehringer Ingelheim; hereafter MLV); and PRV vaccination followed by PRV inoculation at 21 d post-vaccination (MLV-PRV). Using a serum PRV whole-virus indirect IgG ELISA (Idexx Laboratories) adapted to the oral fluid matrix, PRV antibody was detected in oral fluid samples from treatment groups PRV, MLV, and MLV-PRV in a pattern similar to serum ...


The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Therapies In A Fall Calving Beef Cowherd, Laine Zammit 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Therapies In A Fall Calving Beef Cowherd, Laine Zammit

Theses and Dissertations

Internal parasitism inevitability prompts economic loss in beef cattle production by decreasing growth performance and reproductive traits. Today, the most widely used class of anthelmintic used to treat parasitism, is the macrocyclic lactone. Many studies have conflicting results on the efficacy of macrocyclic lactones (ML) efficacy against internal parasitism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of moxidectin and eprinomectin, two of the MLs, on cow performance. Multiparous fall calving, crossbred beef cows (n = 106) were allocated randomly to 1 of 3 anthelmintic treatments: 1) Negative control (CON), in which cows did not receive an anthelmintic, 2 ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Evaluation Of Locally Injected Mycobacterium Cell Wall Fraction In Horses With Sarcoids, Stephanie S. Caston, Brett A. Sponseller, Katarzyna A. Dembek, Jesse M. Hostetter 2020 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Locally Injected Mycobacterium Cell Wall Fraction In Horses With Sarcoids, Stephanie S. Caston, Brett A. Sponseller, Katarzyna A. Dembek, Jesse M. Hostetter

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

A reformulation of Mycobacterium cell wall fraction immunotherapeutic can be used to successfully treat sarcoids in horses. Sarcoids are reported to be the most common equine skin tumors with tumor type and location influencing the choice of treatment. Wide surgical excision is curative for many tumors, but may not always be feasible. Previous studies have reported sarcoid regression after injection with mycobacterial cell wall immunotherapeutics. A new formulation of the Mycobacterium phlei cell wall fraction immunostimulant (Immunocidin® Equine) was utilized to treat cutaneous tumors in horses. Equids with skin tumors diagnosed as sarcoids were enrolled in the study. Sarcoids were ...


Dynamics Of Larkspur (Delphinium Barbeyi) Pellet Consumption And Tolerance Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Larkspur Alkaloids On Muscle Function In Cattle., Benedict T. Green, Jim Pfister, Dale Gardner, Kevin Welch, Daniel Cook 2020 USDA-ARS

Dynamics Of Larkspur (Delphinium Barbeyi) Pellet Consumption And Tolerance Of The Inhibitory Effects Of Larkspur Alkaloids On Muscle Function In Cattle., Benedict T. Green, Jim Pfister, Dale Gardner, Kevin Welch, Daniel Cook

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are toxic native plants on foothill and mountain rangelands in western North America, which poison cattle grazing on those rangelands. The purpose of this study was to examine in a laboratory setting, the subclinical effects of larkspur intake and toxicosis, by allowing larkspur susceptible and resistant cattle to self-select the amount of larkspur consumed in pellet form. We hypothesized that there would be differences in short term (9 – 11 day) pellet consumption between susceptible and resistant animals. Two trials were completed, each with larkspur resistant and susceptible Angus steers, and larkspur-alfalfa pellets at a 12% and 6 ...


Measuring Cmi Responses Using The Primeflow Rna Assay: A New Method Of Evaluating Bvdv Vaccination Response In Cattle, Shollie M. Falkenberg, Rohana P. Dassanayake, John D. Neill, Paul H. Walz, Eduardo Casas, Julia F. Ridpath, James A. Roth 2020 United States Department of Agriculture

Measuring Cmi Responses Using The Primeflow Rna Assay: A New Method Of Evaluating Bvdv Vaccination Response In Cattle, Shollie M. Falkenberg, Rohana P. Dassanayake, John D. Neill, Paul H. Walz, Eduardo Casas, Julia F. Ridpath, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Current methods for evaluating bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccination response typically rely on measurement of humoral responses as determined by virus neutralizing antibody titers (VNT) against BVDV. While VNT are correlated with increased protection, research has also shown that cell mediated immunity (CMI) is an important component of a protective response against BVDV. For example, improved protection against BVDV by modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines as compared to killed vaccines is thought to be due to better CMI induced by the MLV. The goal of this work was to evaluate the cell mediated response in vaccinated calves using a novel ...


Comparison Of Productivity Losses Between Swine Breeding Herds Adopting Killed Or Attenuated Prrs Virus Vaccination Protocols Following Prrs Outbreaks, Gaurav Rawal, Christopher Rademacher, Daniel Linhares 2020 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Productivity Losses Between Swine Breeding Herds Adopting Killed Or Attenuated Prrs Virus Vaccination Protocols Following Prrs Outbreaks, Gaurav Rawal, Christopher Rademacher, Daniel Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) has been endemic for more than 30 years in most pig producing countries across the globe, and is still one of the most economically important pathogens affecting swine. The use of modified live vaccines (MLV) on breeding herds has been reported by several investigators and is a common practice in the industry for the control of PRRSv. There is limited published information on efficacy of killed virus (KV) vaccines as part of PRRS control programs in breeding herds. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe productivity losses in breeding herds following ...


Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão 2020 Iowa State University

Vaginal Microbiota Diverges In Sows With Low And High Reproductive Performance After Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Vaccination, L. P. Sanglard, S. Schmitz-Esser, K. A. Gray, D. C. L. Linhares, C. J. Yeoman, J. C. M. Dekkers, M. C. Niederwerder, N. V. L. Serão

Animal Science Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated evidence for a relationship between the vaginal microbiome and reproductive performance, suggesting the vaginal microbiota may serve as a tool to predict farrowing outcomes in commercial pigs. In this study, we compared the vaginal microbiome in sows with low and high farrowing performance and used it to classify animals with contrasting reproductive outcomes in commercial sows following immune challenge with porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS) vaccination. Eighteen microbes were differentially abundant (q-value < 0.05) between the Low and High farrowing performance groups. Among them, Campylobacter, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Lachnospiraceae unclassified, Prevotella, and Phascolarctobacterium were also selected in the discriminant and linear regression analyses, and could be used ...


Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser 2020 Iowa State University

Beef Cattle That Respond Differently To Fescue Toxicosis Have Distinct Gastrointestinal Tract Microbiota, Lucas R. Koester, Daniel H. Poole, Nick V. L. Serão, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

Animal Science Publications

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a widely used forage grass which shares a symbiosis with the endophytic fungus Epichloë coenophiala. The endophyte produces an alkaloid toxin that provides herbivory, heat and drought resistance to the grass, but can cause fescue toxicosis in grazing livestock. Fescue toxicosis can lead to reduced weight gain and milk yields resulting in significant losses to the livestock industry. In this trial, 149 Angus cows across two farms were continuously exposed to toxic, endophyte-infected, fescue for a total of 13 weeks. Of those 149 cows, 40 were classified into either high (HT) or low (LT) tolerance ...


Lungworm Infection In A Central Iowa Beef Herd, Joe Smith, Jeff Olivarez, Matt T. Brewer, Mitch R. Hiscocks, Claire B. Andreasen 2020 Iowa State University

Lungworm Infection In A Central Iowa Beef Herd, Joe Smith, Jeff Olivarez, Matt T. Brewer, Mitch R. Hiscocks, Claire B. Andreasen

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A beef herd presented four calves, aged 8–9 months, in late September for evaluation of respiratory disease of 2 months duration that was non-responsive to antimicrobial treatment. Calves were housed on a marshy pasture and similar signs occurred in calves during the same months the previous 2 years. The owner reported greater than 50% of calves were affected with a significantly decreased rate of gain. Physical examination revealed tachypnea and cough. Transtracheal wash cytology, viral respiratory PCR panel and bacterial culture were performed. The viral respiratory PCR panel was negative, and bacterial cultures identified commensal bacteria.


Impact Of Myoglobin Oxygenation State On Color Stability Of Frozen Beef Steaks, Morgan L. Henriott, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Nicolas J. Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Nicolas A. Bland, Chris Calkins 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Myoglobin Oxygenation State On Color Stability Of Frozen Beef Steaks, Morgan L. Henriott, Felipe A. Ribeiro, Nicolas J. Herrera, Kellen B. Hart, Nicolas A. Bland, Chris Calkins

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of myoglobin oxygenation level and frozen storage duration on frozen beef color. Strip loins were wet- aged for 4 or 20 days and were fabricated into steaks that were assigned a myoglobin oxygenation level (highly oxygenated, lowly oxygenated, or deoxymyoglobin) and packaging film (impermeable or permeable). Steaks were then frozen for 0, 2, 4, or 6 months of storage and analyzed for various beef color measurements. Highly oxygenated steaks had greater a* values (redness) and percent oxymyoglobin compared to the other treatments. Frozen storage beyond 4 months and oxygen impermeable ...


Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer 2020 University of Kentucky

Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Cyathostomins are ubiquitous parasites in equids. In rare cases, cyathostomins lead to a generalized typhlocolitis and death. In healthy horses, local reactions are noted to the mucosal larvae; however, the mechanisms and importance of these reactions have not been elucidated. It has been hypothesized that anthelmintics can alter these reactions. Currently, three drug classes are approved for use in horses against cyathostomins; while all products target the adults, only two products are labeled as larvicidal. Adulticidal therapy is implicated in triggering the typhlocolitis, however, current evidence is contradictory. There is also conjecture that the larvicidal drugs can increase the risk ...


Onset And Duration Of Liposomal Bupivacaine In Holstein Calves Using A Cornual Nerve Block, Selena Gomez 2020 Iowa State University

Onset And Duration Of Liposomal Bupivacaine In Holstein Calves Using A Cornual Nerve Block, Selena Gomez

Creative Components

Dairy calves are routinely disbudded during their first few weeks of life in order to prevent injuries and provide safety for their handlers. Disbudding is a procedure that removes the calves’ horn buds and activates nociceptors and causes acute pain and sometimes chronic pain. In order to mitigate pain, typically lidocaine or bupivacaine are used; however, their duration of analgesia lasts less than six hours. In order to alleviate chronic pain, a long-term local anesthetic must be used. Liposomal bupivacaine has shown in animals and humans to have a duration of analgesia ranging from 26 to 72 hours. To determine ...


Pain In The Bud: Comparing Lidocaine, Bupivacaine, And Liposomal Bupivacaine For Onset And Duration In Calves, John Danks 2020 Iowa State University

Pain In The Bud: Comparing Lidocaine, Bupivacaine, And Liposomal Bupivacaine For Onset And Duration In Calves, John Danks

Creative Components

This paper aims to describe the use of anesthetics for pain mitigation for disbudding in dairy calves by comparing onset and duration of three drugs. Disbudding removes the innervated tissue surrounding the bud to prevent horn growth. Currently it is not common practice to use any form of anesthetic for this procedure even though disbudding is a painful procedure. This pilot study’s aim was to compare onset and duration for lidocaine, bupivacaine, and liposomal bupivacaine. Calves administered liposomal bupivacaine will have a longer period of nociception desensitization around the horn bud. Liposomal bupivacaine has been shown to provide extended ...


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