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Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson 2018 University of Wyoming

Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson

Honors Theses AY 17/18

This Cost Benefit Analysis is in reference to the new 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations and addresses the effect these updates have had on samples received at the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Before 2017 in Wyoming, either a culture or PCR could be performed to test a bull for the presence of Trichomonas. New regulations now require PCR diagnoses to take place. This project covers data collected at the WSVL from 2012 through 2017. Both culture and PCR data were analyzed for 2012 to 2016. Data was split into pre- and post-regulation changes, and then divided further into ...


Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey 2018 Murray State University

Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey

Honors College Theses

This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...


Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Tick-borne diseases spread through enzootic transmission cycles that often involve ticks parasitizing bird hosts. Some avian species are competent reservoirs, amplifying the pathogens that cause tick-borne illnesses in humans. Prescribed burns in forests have the potential to reduce tick-borne disease risk if they limit interactions between ticks and infectious wildlife hosts. Although prescribed burns are increasingly being used for a variety of habitat management purposes, little is known about how they affect tick-host interactions. We hypothesize that if prescribed fires reduce tick abundance, then birds in burned forest plots will host fewer ticks than birds in unburned forest plots. Experimental ...


Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul 2018 The University of Edinburgh

Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul

James S. Adelman

Background

A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.

Methods

A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, limits production and weight gain in pre-weaned calves, resulting in significant economic loss each year. IBK is one of the most common diseases in pre-weaned calves which leads to clinical signs from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness [4]. Due to large economic losses and limits in production and weaning weight, use of effective vaccines to prevent IBK is imperative.

Moraxella bovis is the primary causal organism of IBK [4, 5]. However, available evidence does not suggest that vaccination is effective for preventing naturally occurring IBK. Although individual studies and ...


Universal Swine Influenza Antigen And Vaccine, Zhao Wang 2018 South Dakota State University

Universal Swine Influenza Antigen And Vaccine, Zhao Wang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Swine influenza A viruses pose a serious concern for global health and worldwide swine industry considering their evasion from vaccine-induced immune responses. Formulation of effective influenza vaccines can be complicated by both antigenic shift to a different subtype of hemagglutinin (HAs) and antigenic drift within a particular HA subtype. To address these concerns, we employed a systematic approach to determine the antigenic determinants of swine influenza A viruses by focusing on H1 and H3 subtypes. In parallel, we used a cross-disciplinary approach including structural biology and modeling, virology, and immunology to identify swine influenza A virus-derived HA fusion intermediates broadly ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Annette O'Connor

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Paul Plummer

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Evaluation Of An Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide Disinfectant To Inactivate Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In Swine Feces On Aluminum Surfaces Under Freezing Conditions, Kimberlee L. Baker, Paul R. Thomas, Locke A. Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Jianqiang Zhang, Chong Wang, Derald J. Holtkamp 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of An Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide Disinfectant To Inactivate Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In Swine Feces On Aluminum Surfaces Under Freezing Conditions, Kimberlee L. Baker, Paul R. Thomas, Locke A. Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Jianqiang Zhang, Chong Wang, Derald J. Holtkamp

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background: Since its emergence in 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) spread rapidly throughout the country due, in part, to contaminated livestock trailers. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of an accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP) disinfectant for inactivating PEDV in swine feces on metal surfaces under freezing conditions. One 15.24 X 15.24 X 2.54 cm aluminum coupon, contaminated with swine feces, and randomly matched to one pig was the experimental unit. Eight treatment groups representing two AHP concentrations (1:16 and 1:32) in a 10% propylene glycol solution, two contact times in ...


Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Histomonas meleagridis is a protozoan parasite of avians and is the causative agent in Histomonosis, commonly known as Blackhead Disease. Current methods for diagnosing the presence of H. meleagridis are limited to parasite culture or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify target DNA. This project aims to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for faster and more sensitive diagnosis of Histomonas infections. Cultures of H. meleagridis parasites were purified, and surface antigens were extracted using a spectrum of chemical solutions. The various antigen solutions were subjected to an ELISA, with serum from birds immunized for H. meleagridis as positive controls ...


Pathogenesis Of Haemophilus Parasuis Infection: Update Of Current Research, John L. Vahle, Joseph S. Haynes, John J. Andrews 2017 Iowa State University

Pathogenesis Of Haemophilus Parasuis Infection: Update Of Current Research, John L. Vahle, Joseph S. Haynes, John J. Andrews

Joseph Haynes

Haemophilus parasuis has traditionally been considered a sporadic stress associated disease of young swine in conventional herds.12 In recent years there has been renewed interest in H. parasuis infection for several reasons. One of these reasons has been the expansion of high health status herds in which H. parasuis can produce severe disease with high morbidity and mortality in all age groups. 7 Another important factor is the emergence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Europe and North America as H. parasuis can be an important second~ bacterial infection in herds infected with PRRSV. 0 The following ...


Astrovirus Infection In Hatchling Turkeys, Mari Thouvenelle, Joseph S. Haynes, Don L. Reynolds 2017 Iowa State University

Astrovirus Infection In Hatchling Turkeys, Mari Thouvenelle, Joseph S. Haynes, Don L. Reynolds

Joseph Haynes

Astrovirus is just one of several different enteric viruses identified in association with turkey viral enteritis, which has been a primary concern in the area of enteric diseases of turkeys, although the economic impact on the turkey industry is not fully known.1 Losses stem from the high morbidity of the disease resulting in decreased growth and flock unevenness. Additionally, this disease appears to be highly prevalent and geographically widespread. Astrovirus causes problems even for producers who employ good management practices in modem facilities.


Temporal And Morphologic Characterization Of The Distribution Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) By In Situ Hybridization In Pigs Infected With Isolates Of Prrsv That Differ In Virulence, J. S. Haynes, P. G. Halbur, T. Sirinarumitr, P. S. Paul, X.-J. Meng, E. L. Huffman 2017 Iowa State University

Temporal And Morphologic Characterization Of The Distribution Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) By In Situ Hybridization In Pigs Infected With Isolates Of Prrsv That Differ In Virulence, J. S. Haynes, P. G. Halbur, T. Sirinarumitr, P. S. Paul, X.-J. Meng, E. L. Huffman

Joseph Haynes

Three groups of 5-week-old cesarian-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs were inoculated intranasally with either a high-virulence isolate (VR2385) or a low-virulence isolate (VR2431) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or with uninfected cell culture and media. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from pigs euthanatized at 10, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation were examined by in situ hybridization for PRRSV nucleic acid using a digoxigenin-labeled antisense RNA probe approximately 1,000 nucleotides in length. Alveolar macrophages were positive in the lungs of 9/9, 2/2, and 0/2 VR2385-inoculated pigs and 7/9, 1/2, and 2/3 VR2431-inoculated pigs at 10 ...


Experimental Infection Of Pigs With The Newly Identified Swine Hepatitis E Virus (Swine Hev), But Not With Human Strains Of Hev, X.-J. Meng, P. G. Halbur, J. S. Haynes, T. S. Tsareva, J. D. Bruna, R. L. Royer, R. H. Purcell, S. U. Emerson 2017 National Institutes of Health

Experimental Infection Of Pigs With The Newly Identified Swine Hepatitis E Virus (Swine Hev), But Not With Human Strains Of Hev, X.-J. Meng, P. G. Halbur, J. S. Haynes, T. S. Tsareva, J. D. Bruna, R. L. Royer, R. H. Purcell, S. U. Emerson

Joseph Haynes

A novel virus of pigs, swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), was recently identified and shown to be antigenically and genetically related to human HEV. In the present study, we attempted to infect specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs experimentally with swine HEV or with human strains of HEV. Serum samples collected from naturally infected pigs were used as the source of swine HEV. Pigs inoculated intravenously with serum samples containing swine HEV seroconverted to anti-HEV 4 to 8 weeks postinoculation, and the virus spread to an uninoculated pig. Swine HEV was detected in nasal and rectal swab materials as early as 2 ...


Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. DiVerde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. Diverde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger

Paul Plummer

Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902. Animals—51 female guinea pigs. Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged ...


Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. DiVerde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. Diverde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger

Qijing Zhang

Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902. Animals—51 female guinea pigs. Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged ...


Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, Yang Liu, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Yun Li, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, Yang Liu, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Yun Li, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates—Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr ...


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