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Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, Bilal Ali Alrubaye 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Microbiota Metabolic Product Deoxycholic Acid Prevents Campylobacter Jejuni Chicken Colonization Through Modulating Ceca Anaerobes, Bilal Ali Alrubaye

Theses and Dissertations

Campylobacter jejuni is a prevalent infectious enteritis mainly foodborne from chickens. Despite of reducing C. jejuni food contamination dramatically decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available for the bacterial reduction in chickens. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product deoxycholic acid (DCA) to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed 0 or 1.5 g/kg DCA, lithocholic acid (LCA), or urodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in diets or orally gavaged with cholic acid (CA, 1.5g/kg body weight). Birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anearo) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). Birds were infected with ...


Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger 2018 Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A survey collection of mites of the family Spinturnicidae from Peruvian bats includes 11 species of Periglischrus (acutisternus, gameroi, grandisoma, herrerai, hopkinsi, iheringi, micronycteridis, ojasti, paracutisternus, paravargasi, and ramirezi) and 2 Spinturnix (americanus and bakeri); almost all represent new locality records. This survey collection is available for further study at the following repositories: The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; and the Laboratório de Espeleobiologia y Acarologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. When spinturnicid mites are collected to avoid cross-contamination by mites among species of bats, parasitic associations are ...


Functional Genomics And Immunologic Tools: The Impact Of Viral And Host Genetic Variations On The Outcome Of Zika Virus Infection, Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C. Frank, Justin G. Julander, Aaron L. Olsen, Irina A. Polejaeva, Christopher J. Davies, Kenneth L. White, Young-Min Lee 2018 Utah State University

Functional Genomics And Immunologic Tools: The Impact Of Viral And Host Genetic Variations On The Outcome Of Zika Virus Infection, Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C. Frank, Justin G. Julander, Aaron L. Olsen, Irina A. Polejaeva, Christopher J. Davies, Kenneth L. White, Young-Min Lee

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes no-to-mild symptoms or severe neurological disorders. To investigate the importance of viral and host genetic variations in determining ZIKV infection outcomes, we created three full-length infectious cDNA clones as bacterial artificial chromosomes for each of three spatiotemporally distinct and genetically divergent ZIKVs: MR-766 (Uganda, 1947), P6-740 (Malaysia, 1966), and PRVABC-59 (Puerto Rico, 2015). Using the three molecularly cloned ZIKVs, together with 13 ZIKV region-specific polyclonal antibodies covering nearly the entire viral protein-coding region, we made three conceptual advances: (i) We created a comprehensive genome-wide portrait of ZIKV gene products and their related species, with several previously ...


Relationship Of The Mucosal Microbiota To Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Small Cell Intestinal Lymphoma In Cats, Kayode Garraway, Chad M. Johannes, Angela Bryan, John Peauroi, Giacomo Rossi, Min Zhang, Chong Wang, Karin Allenspach, Albert E. Jergens 2018 Iowa State University

Relationship Of The Mucosal Microbiota To Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Small Cell Intestinal Lymphoma In Cats, Kayode Garraway, Chad M. Johannes, Angela Bryan, John Peauroi, Giacomo Rossi, Min Zhang, Chong Wang, Karin Allenspach, Albert E. Jergens

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background: The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in healthy cats is altered in IBD. Little research has been performed to identify whether specific bacterial groups are associated with small cell GI lymphoma (LSA).

Hypothesis: Mucosal bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae and Fusobacterium spp., are abundant in intestinal biopsies of cats with small cell GI LSA compared to cats with IBD.

Animals: Fourteen cats with IBD and 14 cats with small cell GI LSA.

Methods: Retrospective case control study. A search of the medical records was performed to identify cats diagnosed with IBD and with GI LSA. Bacterial groups identified by FISH in GI biopsies ...


Surveillance For Respiratory And Diarrheal Pathogens At The Human-Pig Interface In Sarawak, Malaysia, Laura K. Borkenhagen, Kerry A. Mallinson, Rick W. Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D. Anderson, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Sarah E. Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G. Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F. Lowe, Kristen K. Coleman, Gregory C. Gray 2018 Duke University

Surveillance For Respiratory And Diarrheal Pathogens At The Human-Pig Interface In Sarawak, Malaysia, Laura K. Borkenhagen, Kerry A. Mallinson, Rick W. Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D. Anderson, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Sarah E. Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G. Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F. Lowe, Kristen K. Coleman, Gregory C. Gray

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses.

Objectives To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways.

Study This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. Pig ...


Impact Of Flow Rate, Collection Devices, And Extraction Methods On Tear Concentrations Following Oral Administration Of Doxycycline In Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Lucas Showman, Emily M. McDowell, Ann Perera, Jonathan P. Mochel 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Flow Rate, Collection Devices, And Extraction Methods On Tear Concentrations Following Oral Administration Of Doxycycline In Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Lucas Showman, Emily M. Mcdowell, Ann Perera, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Purpose: Compare the precision of doxycycline quantification in tear fluid collected with either Schirmer strips or polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponges following oral drug administration.

Methods: Three dogs and 3 cats were administered doxycycline orally at a dose of 4.2–5 mg/kg every 12 h for 6 consecutive days. At day 5 and 6, blood and tear fluid were sampled to capture doxycycline trough and maximal concentrations. Tear fluid was collected 3 times (spaced 10 min apart) at each session with the absorbent material placed in the lower conjunctival fornix until the 20-mm mark was reached (Schirmer strip, one ...


Protozoal Coinfection In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis In The Eastern United States, Sarah Schale, Daniel Howe, Michelle Yeargan, Jennifer K. Morrow, Amy Graves, Amy L. Johnson 2018 Oregon State University

Protozoal Coinfection In Horses With Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis In The Eastern United States, Sarah Schale, Daniel Howe, Michelle Yeargan, Jennifer K. Morrow, Amy Graves, Amy L. Johnson

Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Infection by 2 or more protozoa is linked with increased severity of disease in marine mammals with protozoan encephalitis.

Hypothesis/Objectives: To assess whether horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona also have evidence of infection with Neospora hughesi or Toxoplasma gondii. We hypothesized that horses with EPM would be more likely than horses with cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (CVSM) to be positive for antibodies to multiple protozoan parasites.

Animals: One hundred one horses with neurologic disease: 49 with EPM and 52 with CVSM.

Methods: Case review. Archived serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 101 horses ...


Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson 2018 University of Wyoming

Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson

Honors Theses AY 17/18

This Cost Benefit Analysis is in reference to the new 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations and addresses the effect these updates have had on samples received at the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Before 2017 in Wyoming, either a culture or PCR could be performed to test a bull for the presence of Trichomonas. New regulations now require PCR diagnoses to take place. This project covers data collected at the WSVL from 2012 through 2017. Both culture and PCR data were analyzed for 2012 to 2016. Data was split into pre- and post-regulation changes, and then divided further into ...


Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey 2018 Murray State University

Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey

Honors College Theses

This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...


Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Tick-borne diseases spread through enzootic transmission cycles that often involve ticks parasitizing bird hosts. Some avian species are competent reservoirs, amplifying the pathogens that cause tick-borne illnesses in humans. Prescribed burns in forests have the potential to reduce tick-borne disease risk if they limit interactions between ticks and infectious wildlife hosts. Although prescribed burns are increasingly being used for a variety of habitat management purposes, little is known about how they affect tick-host interactions. We hypothesize that if prescribed fires reduce tick abundance, then birds in burned forest plots will host fewer ticks than birds in unburned forest plots. Experimental ...


Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...


Detection Of Volatile Compounds Emitted From Nasal Secretions And Serum: Towards Non-Invasive Identification Of Diseased Cattle Biomarkers, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Terry J. Engelken, Vickie L. Cooper, Jenna L. Funk 2018 Iowa State University

Detection Of Volatile Compounds Emitted From Nasal Secretions And Serum: Towards Non-Invasive Identification Of Diseased Cattle Biomarkers, Devin L. Maurer, Jacek A. Koziel, Terry J. Engelken, Vickie L. Cooper, Jenna L. Funk

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Non-invasive diagnostics and finding biomarkers of disease in humans have been a very active research area. Some of the analytical technologies used for finding biomarkers of human disease are finding their use in livestock. Non-invasive sample collection from diseased cattle using breath and headspace of fecal samples have been reported. In this work, we explore the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from bovine nasal secretions and serum for finding biomarkers for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). One hundred nasal swabs and 100 serum samples (n = 50 for both ‘sick’ and ‘healthy’) were collected at the time of treatment for ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.


Streptococcus Equi Infections In Horses: Guidelines For Treatment, Control, And Prevention Of Strangles—Revised Consensus Statement, A. G. Boyle, John F. Timoney, J. R. Newton, M. T. Hines, A. S. Waller, B. R. Buchanan 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Streptococcus Equi Infections In Horses: Guidelines For Treatment, Control, And Prevention Of Strangles—Revised Consensus Statement, A. G. Boyle, John F. Timoney, J. R. Newton, M. T. Hines, A. S. Waller, B. R. Buchanan

Gluck Equine Research Center Faculty Publications

This consensus statement update reflects our current published knowledge and opinion about clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology, treatment, complications, and control of strangles. This updated statement emphasizes varying presentations in the context of existing underlying immunity and carrier states of strangles in the transmission of disease. The statement redefines the “gold standard” for detection of possible infection and reviews the new technologies available in polymerase chain reaction diagnosis and serology and their use in outbreak control and prevention. We reiterate the importance of judicious use of antibiotics in horses with strangles. This updated consensus statement reviews current vaccine technology and the ...


A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Efficacy Of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis And Assessment Of Comprehensiveness Of Reporting, Olivia Weaver, Ella Meyer, Binh Doan, Jan Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, commonly known as pinkeye, limits production and weight gain in pre-weaned calves, resulting in significant economic loss each year. IBK is one of the most common diseases in pre-weaned calves which leads to clinical signs from mild conjunctivitis to severe ulceration, corneal perforation, and blindness [4]. Due to large economic losses and limits in production and weaning weight, use of effective vaccines to prevent IBK is imperative.

Moraxella bovis is the primary causal organism of IBK [4, 5]. However, available evidence does not suggest that vaccination is effective for preventing naturally occurring IBK. Although individual studies and ...


Protocol For A Scoping Review Of Influenza A Viruses Infecting Swine Or Directly Related To Swine, Sheila Keay, Zvonimir Poljak, Annette O'Connor, Robert Friendship, Terri O'Sullivan, Jan Sargeant 2018 University of Guelph

Protocol For A Scoping Review Of Influenza A Viruses Infecting Swine Or Directly Related To Swine, Sheila Keay, Zvonimir Poljak, Annette O'Connor, Robert Friendship, Terri O'Sullivan, Jan Sargeant

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Influenza A viruses are endemic in swine populations, a global zoonotic concern, and associated with economically significant disease in food animal production. Global partnerships (Star-IDAZ 2014, USDA 2014, European Food Safety Authority 2015, WHO 2017) have conducted gap analyses on Animal Influenza Research and set research agendas for various species. To date, however, an explicit inventory of the broad areas of accumulated research on Influenza A viruses in swine or directly related to swine (IAV-S), constructed in compliance with syntheses standards for literature mapping (Arksey and O’Malley 2005), is not available.

In particular, a baseline descriptive categorization of the ...


The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Prevent Collibacilosis In Broiler Poultry: A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis., Jan M. Sargeant, Anastasia Novy, Catherine M. Logue, Jenny Nicholds, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Antibiotics To Prevent Collibacilosis In Broiler Poultry: A Protocol For A Systematic Review And Network Meta-Analysis., Jan M. Sargeant, Anastasia Novy, Catherine M. Logue, Jenny Nicholds, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Antibiotics are used in broiler poultry production both for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. However, antibiotic use is a driver of antibiotic resistance. The World Health Organization has published numerous reports urging all stakeholders concerned with both food-producing animals and humans to establish recommended steps to enhance the prudent use of antimicrobials (WHO, 2015). Similarly, the World Animal Health Organization has also published recommendations and position statements regarding prudent use and risk management related to antimicrobial use in animals (OIE, 2017).

Colibacillosis is an important bacterial pathogen of poultry, and a costly disease for the industry resulting in ...


Diseases Affecting Pigs: An Overview Of Common Bacterial, Viral And Parasitic Pathogens Of Pigs, Alejandro Ramirez 2018 Iowa State University

Diseases Affecting Pigs: An Overview Of Common Bacterial, Viral And Parasitic Pathogens Of Pigs, Alejandro Ramirez

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Recent events such as the 2009 pandemic influenza outbreak, the continuous spread of African swine fever virus in Eastern Europe and the introduction of several new pathogens into the United States and their spread to Canada, Mexico, Central and South America have emphasized the ability of pig diseases to cross borders rapidly and the importance of global cooperation to improve the health and welfare of pigs. This chapter summarizes recent research on the causes and epidemiology of major bacteria, viruses and parasites found in pig production, focusing on those with a particular impact on safety and global production.


Comparative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Fraction Of Conditioned Media Derived From Starvation-Dormant And Anaerobically-Dormant Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, Marina Buciuc 2018 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Comparative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Fraction Of Conditioned Media Derived From Starvation-Dormant And Anaerobically-Dormant Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, Marina Buciuc

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a contagious chronic enteritis affecting all ruminants and causing economic loss of at least $250 million annually in the US dairy industry. One of the major limitations in the diagnosis of JD is the low sensitivity of fecal culture in animals with no clinical signs of the disease, but who are actively shedding MAP. Persistence of MAP in the host with no apparent signs of infection is attributed to its ability to enter a dormant state wherein the bacterium is viable, but is not able to replicate until ...


Prevalence Of Cytauxzoon Felis (Protista: Apicomplexa) In Feral Cats In Russellville Arkansas, Cynthia H. Jacobs 2018 Arkansas Tech University

Prevalence Of Cytauxzoon Felis (Protista: Apicomplexa) In Feral Cats In Russellville Arkansas, Cynthia H. Jacobs

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Abstract

Cytauxzoon felis (C. felis) is a protozoan hemoparasite of domestic and wild felids. Transmitted by ixodid ticks, the sylvatic reservoir for this organism in North America is the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in which the infection is apparently self-limiting. In domestic cats (Felis catus), C. felis causes a highly fatal disease with a distribution that covers much of the central, southcentral and southeastern U.S. and parallels that of the primary vector, the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum). Interestingly, there appears to be an increased survival rate in domestic cats in the geographic area of the Ozark Plateau. In this ...


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