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Characterization And Functional Analysis Of Interleukin-12 In Amberjack Seriola Dumarili, Megumi Matsumoto Miss, Kyosuke Araki Dr, Kazuma Hayashi Mr, Hiroaki Suetake Dr, Atsushi Yamamoto Dr 2016 Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Japan

Characterization And Functional Analysis Of Interleukin-12 In Amberjack Seriola Dumarili, Megumi Matsumoto Miss, Kyosuke Araki Dr, Kazuma Hayashi Mr, Hiroaki Suetake Dr, Atsushi Yamamoto Dr

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Induction Of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses After Vaccination With Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Nocardia Seriolae In Amberjack Seriola Dumerili, Kyosuke Araki, Megumi Matsumoto, Kazuma Hayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto 2016 Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Japan

Induction Of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses After Vaccination With Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Nocardia Seriolae In Amberjack Seriola Dumerili, Kyosuke Araki, Megumi Matsumoto, Kazuma Hayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection: Temporal And Quantitative Relationships Among Colonization, Toxin Production, And Systemic Disease, Nancy A. Cornick, Ilze Matise, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection: Temporal And Quantitative Relationships Among Colonization, Toxin Production, And Systemic Disease, Nancy A. Cornick, Ilze Matise, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Edema disease, a naturally occurring disease of swine caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), was used as a model for the sequence of events that occur in the pathogenesis of STEC infection. The mean time from production of levels of Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e) detectable in the feces (day 1) to the onset of clinical disease (neurologic disturbances or death) was 5 days (range, 3–9). Bacterial colonization and titers of Stx2e in the ileum peaked at 4 days after inoculation in pigs without signs of clinical disease and at 6 days after inoculation in clinically affected pigs. Animals ...


Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho 2016 Iowa State University

Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho

Nancy Cornick

Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater (P < 0.10) proportions of applied precipitation and amounts of sediment and P transported in runoff from bare sites than from vegetated sites across grazing treatments. Similar differences were observed comparing vegetated sites in CSU and RS pastures with vegetated sites in CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, andEscherichia coli O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2016 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Nancy Cornick

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and ...


Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious, neurodegenerative disease of deer (white-tailed and mule), elk, moose, sika deer and muntjac caused by a misfolded version of a normally occurring protein. The notion that CWD could be spread indirectly via the environment has been documented and accepted in the scientific community for quite some time. Deer and elk consume soil, inhale dust and lick objects that have infectious material on them, resulting in chronic, low dose exposure. Surface contamination of plants with urine or feces is likely an additional source of exposure via ingestion and has been modeled in the laboratory ...


Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa Monson, Michael Kaiser, Susan Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa Monson, Michael Kaiser, Susan Lamont

Melissa Monson

Colonization levels in five tissues after avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) inoculation were investigated in chickens to generate phenotypic data for a genome wide association study (GWAS). Bacterial loads were measured in 370 birds and varied among individuals and tissues. Mean bacterial levels were significantly different between tissues (right lung > spleen > left lung and liver > blood). There were also significant correlations in bacterial load between tissues. These data suggest that colonization levels could be used as phenotypes in GWAS and could help identify markers associated with poultry resistance to APEC infections. After verification, these markers could be used for genetic ...


Systematic Review Of The Magnitude Of Change In The Prevalence Of Salmonella And The Quantity Of Salmonella After Administration Of Pathogen Reduction Treatments On Pork Carcasses: Interim Summary, S. Totton, J. Glanville, R. Dzikamunhenga, J. Dickson, A. O'Connor 2016 University of Guelph

Systematic Review Of The Magnitude Of Change In The Prevalence Of Salmonella And The Quantity Of Salmonella After Administration Of Pathogen Reduction Treatments On Pork Carcasses: Interim Summary, S. Totton, J. Glanville, R. Dzikamunhenga, J. Dickson, A. O'Connor

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Our objective was to review and describe the change in prevalence and/or quantity of Salmonella associated with pathogen reduction treatments (washes, sprays, etc.) on pork carcasses or carcass parts with skin in comparative experimental designs. This is an interim summary.


Meningeal Worm In Central Iowa Goat Herds, Kelly Still Brooks 2016 Iowa State University

Meningeal Worm In Central Iowa Goat Herds, Kelly Still Brooks

Animal Industry Report

Aberrant migration of the deer meningeal worm, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, is a commonly recognized cause of neurologic disease in South American camelids but is less frequently considered in other small ruminant species. After an unusually cool and wet summer season, central Iowa goat herds serviced by Iowa State University’s Veterinary Field Services have been increasingly affected by P. tenuis, with clinical cases presenting as early as August. Most caprine cases present with progressive neurologic deficits, starting with hind-end weakness and ataxia which may lead to complete paresis and death. Both sporadic cases and herd outbreaks involving as much as 15 ...


Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa S. Monson, Michael G. Kaiser, Susan J. Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Variation In Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Colonization Levels In Chickens, Melissa S. Monson, Michael G. Kaiser, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Colonization levels in five tissues after avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) inoculation were investigated in chickens to generate phenotypic data for a genome wide association study (GWAS). Bacterial loads were measured in 370 birds and varied among individuals and tissues. Mean bacterial levels were significantly different between tissues (right lung > spleen > left lung and liver > blood). There were also significant correlations in bacterial load between tissues. These data suggest that colonization levels could be used as phenotypes in GWAS and could help identify markers associated with poultry resistance to APEC infections. After verification, these markers could be used for genetic ...


Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Newcastle Disease (ND) is caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and is a major problem in developing countries where vaccination against NDV is not easily achievable. A step required for NDV infection is the cleavage of the NDV fusion (F) protein. Using structural information of the NDV F protein and the only known host protein binding partner, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), we computer modeled the interaction between the two proteins by looking at a docked structure of these two proteins. With our docked structure, we visualized one of the catalytic domains of PDIA3 being near the cleavage site of ...


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2016 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Genetic Parameters And Effect Of Wur Genotype On Piglet Response To Co-Infection With Prrs And Pcv2b, With Or Without Vaccination For Prrs, Jenelle R. Dunkelberger, Nick V. L. Serão, Maureen Kerrigan, Joan Lunney, Bob Rowland, Jack Dekkers 2016 Iowa State University

Genetic Parameters And Effect Of Wur Genotype On Piglet Response To Co-Infection With Prrs And Pcv2b, With Or Without Vaccination For Prrs, Jenelle R. Dunkelberger, Nick V. L. Serão, Maureen Kerrigan, Joan Lunney, Bob Rowland, Jack Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Commercial crossbred nursery piglets were either vaccinated or not using a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus vaccine and all pigs were co-infected with PRRS virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b) 28 days later. Genetic correlations indicate that traits associated with primary exposure to PRRSV infection (PRRS viral load (VL) of vaccinated pigs prior to co-infection and PRRS VL of non-vaccinated pigs post co-infection) are genetically the same trait. The WUR single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4, previously associated with reduced PRRS VL under PRRSV-only infection, was associated with significantly reduced PRRS VL following vaccination ...


Ring Test Evaluation Of The Detection Of Influenza A Virus In Swine Oral Fluids By Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction And Virus Isolation, Christa K. Goodell, Jianqiang Zhang, Erin Strait, Karen Harmon, Devi Patnayak, Tracy Otterson, Marie Culhane, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Travis Clement, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Richard Hesse, Joe Anderson, Kevin Skarbek, Amy Vincent, Pravina Kitikoon, Sabrina Swenson, Melinda Jenkins-Moore, Jodi McGill, Rolf Rauh, William Nelson, Catherine O'Connell, Rohn Shah, Chong Wang, Rodger Main, Jeffery J. Zimmerman 2016 Iowa State University

Ring Test Evaluation Of The Detection Of Influenza A Virus In Swine Oral Fluids By Real-Time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction And Virus Isolation, Christa K. Goodell, Jianqiang Zhang, Erin Strait, Karen Harmon, Devi Patnayak, Tracy Otterson, Marie Culhane, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Travis Clement, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Richard Hesse, Joe Anderson, Kevin Skarbek, Amy Vincent, Pravina Kitikoon, Sabrina Swenson, Melinda Jenkins-Moore, Jodi Mcgill, Rolf Rauh, William Nelson, Catherine O'Connell, Rohn Shah, Chong Wang, Rodger Main, Jeffery J. Zimmerman

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The probability of detecting influenza A virus (IAV) in oral fluid (OF) specimens was calculated for each of 13 assays based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and 7 assays based on virus isolation (VI). The OF specimens were inoculated with H1N1 or H3N2 IAV and serially diluted 10-fold (10(-1) to 10(-8)). Eight participating laboratories received 180 randomized OF samples (10 replicates × 8 dilutions × 2 IAV subtypes plus 20 IAV-negative samples) and performed the rRT-PCR and VI procedure(s) of their choice. Analysis of the results with a mixed-effect logistic-regression model identified dilution and assay as variables ...


Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F. Othman, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F. Othman, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only ~10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-α 334-352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-α 334-352 is shown. EAM and ...


Fox Squirrels (Sciurus Niger) Develop West Nile Virus Viremias Sufficient For Infecting Select Mosquito Species, Kenneth Platt, Brad Tucker, Patrick Halbur, Bradley Blitvich, Flor Fabiosa, Kathleen Mullin, Grishma Parikh, Kitikoon Pravina, Lyric Bartholomay, Wayne Rowley 2015 Iowa State University

Fox Squirrels (Sciurus Niger) Develop West Nile Virus Viremias Sufficient For Infecting Select Mosquito Species, Kenneth Platt, Brad Tucker, Patrick Halbur, Bradley Blitvich, Flor Fabiosa, Kathleen Mullin, Grishma Parikh, Kitikoon Pravina, Lyric Bartholomay, Wayne Rowley

Lyric C. Bartholomay

The West Nile virus (WNV) viremia and shedding profiles of 11 adult fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) infected by needle inoculation or mosquito bite were characterized. Daily mean titers (95% confidence intervals) for all squirrels on days 1 through 6 postexposure (p.e.) were: 10(1.7 (1.32.1)), 10(4.4 (4.04.8)), 10(5.3 (5.05.6)), 10(4.4 (3.94.9)), 10(2.7 (2.03.4)), and 10(1.1 (0.52.1)) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. The highest WNV serum titers of individual squirrels infected by needle inoculation or mosquito bite ranged ...


Detection Of Flaviviruses And Orthobunyaviruses In Mosquitoes In The Yucatan Peninsula Of Mexico In 2008, Jose Farfan-Ale, Maria Loroño-Pino, Julian Garcia-Rejon, Victor Soto, Ming Lin, Molly Staley, Karin Dorman, Lyric Bartholomay, Einat Hovav, Bradley Blitvich 2015 Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan

Detection Of Flaviviruses And Orthobunyaviruses In Mosquitoes In The Yucatan Peninsula Of Mexico In 2008, Jose Farfan-Ale, Maria Loroño-Pino, Julian Garcia-Rejon, Victor Soto, Ming Lin, Molly Staley, Karin Dorman, Lyric Bartholomay, Einat Hovav, Bradley Blitvich

Lyric Bartholomay

A total of 191,244 mosquitoes from 24 species were collected in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico from January to December 2008, and tested for the presence of cytopathic virus by virus isolation in Vero cells. Eighteen virus isolates were obtained, all of which were orthobunyaviruses. These were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing as Cache Valley virus (n = 17) and South River virus (n = 1). A subset (n = 20,124) of Culex quinquefasciatus collected throughout the year was further tested by RT-PCR using flavivirus-specific primers. Flavivirus RNA was present in this mosquito species year-round. The ...


Detection Of Flaviviruses And Orthobunyaviruses In Mosquitoes In The Yucatan Peninsula Of Mexico In 2008, Jose Farfan-Ale, Maria Loroño-Pino, Julian Garcia-Rejon, Victor Soto, Ming Lin, Molly Staley, Karin Dorman, Lyric Bartholomay, Einat Hovav, Bradley Blitvich 2015 Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan

Detection Of Flaviviruses And Orthobunyaviruses In Mosquitoes In The Yucatan Peninsula Of Mexico In 2008, Jose Farfan-Ale, Maria Loroño-Pino, Julian Garcia-Rejon, Victor Soto, Ming Lin, Molly Staley, Karin Dorman, Lyric Bartholomay, Einat Hovav, Bradley Blitvich

Lyric C. Bartholomay

A total of 191,244 mosquitoes from 24 species were collected in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico from January to December 2008, and tested for the presence of cytopathic virus by virus isolation in Vero cells. Eighteen virus isolates were obtained, all of which were orthobunyaviruses. These were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequencing as Cache Valley virus (n = 17) and South River virus (n = 1). A subset (n = 20,124) of Culex quinquefasciatus collected throughout the year was further tested by RT-PCR using flavivirus-specific primers. Flavivirus RNA was present in this mosquito species year-round. The ...


Disease Will Limit Future Food Supply From The Global Crustacean Fishery And Aquaculture Sectors, G. Stentiford, D. Neil, E. Peeler, J. Shields, H. Small, T. Flegel, J. Vlak, B. Jones, F. Morado, S. Moss, J. Lotz, Lyric Bartholomay, D. Behringer, C. Hauton, D. Lightner 2015 Weymouth Laboratory

Disease Will Limit Future Food Supply From The Global Crustacean Fishery And Aquaculture Sectors, G. Stentiford, D. Neil, E. Peeler, J. Shields, H. Small, T. Flegel, J. Vlak, B. Jones, F. Morado, S. Moss, J. Lotz, Lyric Bartholomay, D. Behringer, C. Hauton, D. Lightner

Lyric Bartholomay

Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products ...


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