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Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Antimicrobial Peptides And Surfactant Proteins: Potential New Factors Against Respiratory Tract Infection, Mark R. Ackermann, Kim A. Brogden, P. B. McCray 2017 Iowa State University

Antimicrobial Peptides And Surfactant Proteins: Potential New Factors Against Respiratory Tract Infection, Mark R. Ackermann, Kim A. Brogden, P. B. Mccray

Mark R. Ackermann

Although some vaccines and antibiotics have been very effective in preventing and treating respiratory disease, they have not been fully satisfactory. Recently, components of the innate immune system have been increasingly appreciated for their role in host defense against microbial pathogens. These molecules include lysozyme and lactoferrin, but recent work in cattle, sheep, man and other species have identified new classes of peptides expressed by respiratory epithelial cells that have potent microcidal activity in nanogram quantities. These peptides, termed antimicrobial peptides (AMP), include defensins, cathelicidins and anionic peptides. Some are expressed continuously whereas expression of others is stimulated by infection ...


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Steven M. Lonergan

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Molecular Evidence For Zoonotic Transmission Of An Emergent, Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter Jejuni Clone In The United States, Orhan Sahin, Collette Fitzgerald, Steven Stroika, Shaohua Zhao, Rachel Sippy, Patrick Kwan, Paul J. Plummer, Jing Han, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Molecular Evidence For Zoonotic Transmission Of An Emergent, Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter Jejuni Clone In The United States, Orhan Sahin, Collette Fitzgerald, Steven Stroika, Shaohua Zhao, Rachel Sippy, Patrick Kwan, Paul J. Plummer, Jing Han, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen. A highly virulent, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (clone SA) has recently emerged in ruminant reservoirs and has become the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States. To determine whether clone SA is associated with human disease, we compared the clinical isolates of clone SA from sheep abortions with the human isolates of the PulseNet National Campylobacter databases at the CDC and the FDA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotyping. The combined SmaI and KpnI PFGE pattern designations of clone SA from sheep were indistinguishable from those ...


Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Functional Characterization Of A Lipoprotein-Encoding Operon In Campylobacter Jejuni, Mayumi Oakland, Byeonghwa Jeon, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Background Bacterial lipoproteins have important functions in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. In Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, the majority of lipoproteins have not been functionally characterized. Previously, we showed by DNA microarray that CmeR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the multidrug efflux pump CmeABC, modulates the expression of a three-gene operon (cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091) encoding a cluster of lipoproteins in C. jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we characterized the function and regulation of the cj0089-cj0090-cj0091 operon. In contrast to the repression of cmeABC, CmeR activates the expression of the lipoprotein ...


Identification Of A Key Amino Acid Of Luxs Involved In Ai-2 Production In Campylobacter Jejuni, Paul J. Plummer, Jinge Zhu, Masato Akiba, Dehua Pei, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Identification Of A Key Amino Acid Of Luxs Involved In Ai-2 Production In Campylobacter Jejuni, Paul J. Plummer, Jinge Zhu, Masato Akiba, Dehua Pei, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mediated quorum sensing has been associated with the expression of virulence factors in a number of pathogenic organisms and has been demonstrated to play a role in motility and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) production in Campylobacter jejuni. We have initiated the work to determine the molecular basis of AI-2 synthesis and the biological functions of quorum sensing in C. jejuni. In this work, two naturally occurring variants of C. jejuni 81116 were identified, one producing high-levels of AI-2 while the other is defective in AI-2 synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed a G92D mutation in the luxS gene of the ...


Critical Role Of Luxs In The Virulence Of Campylobacter Jejuni In A Guinea Pig Model Of Abortion, Paul J. Plummer, Orhan Sahin, Eric Ryan Burrough, Rachel Sippy, Kathy T. Y. Mou, Jessica Rabenold, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Critical Role Of Luxs In The Virulence Of Campylobacter Jejuni In A Guinea Pig Model Of Abortion, Paul J. Plummer, Orhan Sahin, Eric Ryan Burrough, Rachel Sippy, Kathy T. Y. Mou, Jessica Rabenold, Michael Yaeger, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Previous studies on Campylobacter jejuni have demonstrated the role of LuxS in motility, cytolethal distending toxin production, agglutination, and intestinal colonization; however, its direct involvement in virulence has not been reported. In this study, we demonstrate a direct role of luxS in the virulence of C. jejuni in two different animal hosts. The IA3902 strain, a highly virulent sheep abortion strain recently described by our laboratory, along with its isogenic luxS mutant and luxScomplement strains, was inoculated by the oral route into both a pregnant guinea pig virulence model and a chicken colonization model. In both cases, the IA3902 ...


Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Key Role Of Mfd In The Development Of Fluoroquinolone Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Yi-Wen Barton, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a major food-borne pathogen and a common causative agent of human enterocolitis. Fluoroquinolones are a key class of antibiotics prescribed for clinical treatment of enteric infections including campylobacteriosis, but fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacterreadily emerges under the antibiotic selection pressure. To understand the mechanisms involved in the development of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter, we compared the gene expression profiles of C. jejuni in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin using DNA microarray. Our analysis revealed that multiple genes showed significant changes in expression in the presence of a suprainhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin. Most importantly, ciprofloxacin induced the expression of mfd, which encodes ...


Arca Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, And Motility Contributing To The Pathogenicity Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Fengwei Jiang, Chunxia An, Yinli Bao, Xuefeng Zhao, Robert L. Jernigan, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li, Eve S. Wurtele, Lisa K. Nolan, Chengping Lu, Ganwu Li 2017 Nanjing Agricultural University

Arca Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, And Motility Contributing To The Pathogenicity Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Fengwei Jiang, Chunxia An, Yinli Bao, Xuefeng Zhao, Robert L. Jernigan, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li, Eve S. Wurtele, Lisa K. Nolan, Chengping Lu, Ganwu Li

Lisa K. Nolan

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause one of the three most significant infectious diseases in the poultry industry and are also potential food-borne pathogens threating human health. In this study, we showed that ArcA (aerobic respiratory control), a global regulator important for E. coli's adaptation from anaerobic to aerobic conditions and control of that bacterium's enzymatic defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS), is involved in the virulence of APEC. Deletion of arcA significantly attenuates the virulence of APEC in the duck model. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses comparing the APEC wild type and the arcA mutant indicate that ...


Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor

James M Reecy

Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves. Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study. Animals—1,882 Angus calves. Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated. Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...


Randomized Clinical Trial To Evaluate The Pathogenicity Of Bibersteinia Trehalosi In Respiratory Disease Among Calves, Christy Jo Hanthorn, Reneé Dewell, Vickie L. Cooper, Timothy S. Frana, Paul J. Plummer, Chong Wang, Grant A. Dewell 2017 Iowa State University

Randomized Clinical Trial To Evaluate The Pathogenicity Of Bibersteinia Trehalosi In Respiratory Disease Among Calves, Christy Jo Hanthorn, Reneé Dewell, Vickie L. Cooper, Timothy S. Frana, Paul J. Plummer, Chong Wang, Grant A. Dewell

Grant A. Dewell

Bibersteinia trehalosi causes respiratory disease in ruminants particularly in wild and domestic sheep. Recently, there has been an increased number of B. trehalosi isolates obtained from diagnostic samples from bovine respiratory disease cases. This study evaluated the role of B. trehalosi in bovine respiratory disease using an intra-tracheal inoculation model in calves. Thirty six cross bred 2–3 month old dairy calves were inoculated intra-tracheally with either leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi, leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, Mannheimia haemolytica, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica or negative control. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 ...


Color Images For Zoonotic Diseases Of Companion Animals, Steven D. Sorden, Claire B. Andreasen 2017 Iowa State University

Color Images For Zoonotic Diseases Of Companion Animals, Steven D. Sorden, Claire B. Andreasen

Claire B. Andreasen

The chapter contains annotated color images of diseases in or caused by companion animals.


Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves. Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study. Animals—1,882 Angus calves. Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated. Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...


Detection Of Salmonella Enteritidis In Pooled Poultry Environmental Samples Using A Serotype-Specific Real-Time–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay, Derek R. Adams, Wendy R. Stensland, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor, Darrell W. Trampel, Karen M. Harmon, Erin L. Strait, Timothy S. Frana 2017 Iowa State University

Detection Of Salmonella Enteritidis In Pooled Poultry Environmental Samples Using A Serotype-Specific Real-Time–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay, Derek R. Adams, Wendy R. Stensland, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor, Darrell W. Trampel, Karen M. Harmon, Erin L. Strait, Timothy S. Frana

Annette O'Connor

While real-time–polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) has been used as a rapid test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in recent years, little research has been done to assess the feasibility of pooling poultry environmental samples with aSalmonella Enteritidis–specific RT PCR assay. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare RT PCR SalmonellaEnteritidis detection in individual and pooled (in groups of two, three, and four) poultry environmental drag swab samples to traditional cultural methods. The drag swabs were collected from poultry facilities previously confirmed positive forSalmonella Enteritidis and were cultured according to National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines. Initial ...


Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves. Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study. Animals—1,882 Angus calves. Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated. Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...


Detection Of Salmonella Enteritidis In Pooled Poultry Environmental Samples Using A Serotype-Specific Real-Time–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay, Derek R. Adams, Wendy R. Stensland, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor, Darrell W. Trampel, Karen M. Harmon, Erin L. Strait, Timothy S. Frana 2017 Iowa State University

Detection Of Salmonella Enteritidis In Pooled Poultry Environmental Samples Using A Serotype-Specific Real-Time–Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay, Derek R. Adams, Wendy R. Stensland, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor, Darrell W. Trampel, Karen M. Harmon, Erin L. Strait, Timothy S. Frana

Annette O'Connor

While real-time–polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) has been used as a rapid test for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in recent years, little research has been done to assess the feasibility of pooling poultry environmental samples with aSalmonella Enteritidis–specific RT PCR assay. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare RT PCR SalmonellaEnteritidis detection in individual and pooled (in groups of two, three, and four) poultry environmental drag swab samples to traditional cultural methods. The drag swabs were collected from poultry facilities previously confirmed positive forSalmonella Enteritidis and were cultured according to National Poultry Improvement Plan guidelines. Initial ...


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