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Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul 2018 The University of Edinburgh

Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul

James S. Adelman

Background

A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.

Methods

A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Annette O'Connor

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Paul Plummer

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Histomonas Elisa, Jessica L Martinez

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Histomonas meleagridis is a protozoan parasite of avians and is the causative agent in Histomonosis, commonly known as Blackhead Disease. Current methods for diagnosing the presence of H. meleagridis are limited to parasite culture or Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to amplify target DNA. This project aims to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for faster and more sensitive diagnosis of Histomonas infections. Cultures of H. meleagridis parasites were purified, and surface antigens were extracted using a spectrum of chemical solutions. The various antigen solutions were subjected to an ELISA, with serum from birds immunized for H. meleagridis as positive controls ...


Pathogenesis Of Haemophilus Parasuis Infection: Update Of Current Research, John L. Vahle, Joseph S. Haynes, John J. Andrews 2017 Iowa State University

Pathogenesis Of Haemophilus Parasuis Infection: Update Of Current Research, John L. Vahle, Joseph S. Haynes, John J. Andrews

Joseph Haynes

Haemophilus parasuis has traditionally been considered a sporadic stress associated disease of young swine in conventional herds.12 In recent years there has been renewed interest in H. parasuis infection for several reasons. One of these reasons has been the expansion of high health status herds in which H. parasuis can produce severe disease with high morbidity and mortality in all age groups. 7 Another important factor is the emergence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Europe and North America as H. parasuis can be an important second~ bacterial infection in herds infected with PRRSV. 0 The following ...


Astrovirus Infection In Hatchling Turkeys, Mari Thouvenelle, Joseph S. Haynes, Don L. Reynolds 2017 Iowa State University

Astrovirus Infection In Hatchling Turkeys, Mari Thouvenelle, Joseph S. Haynes, Don L. Reynolds

Joseph Haynes

Astrovirus is just one of several different enteric viruses identified in association with turkey viral enteritis, which has been a primary concern in the area of enteric diseases of turkeys, although the economic impact on the turkey industry is not fully known.1 Losses stem from the high morbidity of the disease resulting in decreased growth and flock unevenness. Additionally, this disease appears to be highly prevalent and geographically widespread. Astrovirus causes problems even for producers who employ good management practices in modem facilities.


Temporal And Morphologic Characterization Of The Distribution Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) By In Situ Hybridization In Pigs Infected With Isolates Of Prrsv That Differ In Virulence, J. S. Haynes, P. G. Halbur, T. Sirinarumitr, P. S. Paul, X.-J. Meng, E. L. Huffman 2017 Iowa State University

Temporal And Morphologic Characterization Of The Distribution Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv) By In Situ Hybridization In Pigs Infected With Isolates Of Prrsv That Differ In Virulence, J. S. Haynes, P. G. Halbur, T. Sirinarumitr, P. S. Paul, X.-J. Meng, E. L. Huffman

Joseph Haynes

Three groups of 5-week-old cesarian-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs were inoculated intranasally with either a high-virulence isolate (VR2385) or a low-virulence isolate (VR2431) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) or with uninfected cell culture and media. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from pigs euthanatized at 10, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation were examined by in situ hybridization for PRRSV nucleic acid using a digoxigenin-labeled antisense RNA probe approximately 1,000 nucleotides in length. Alveolar macrophages were positive in the lungs of 9/9, 2/2, and 0/2 VR2385-inoculated pigs and 7/9, 1/2, and 2/3 VR2431-inoculated pigs at 10 ...


Experimental Infection Of Pigs With The Newly Identified Swine Hepatitis E Virus (Swine Hev), But Not With Human Strains Of Hev, X.-J. Meng, P. G. Halbur, J. S. Haynes, T. S. Tsareva, J. D. Bruna, R. L. Royer, R. H. Purcell, S. U. Emerson 2017 National Institutes of Health

Experimental Infection Of Pigs With The Newly Identified Swine Hepatitis E Virus (Swine Hev), But Not With Human Strains Of Hev, X.-J. Meng, P. G. Halbur, J. S. Haynes, T. S. Tsareva, J. D. Bruna, R. L. Royer, R. H. Purcell, S. U. Emerson

Joseph Haynes

A novel virus of pigs, swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), was recently identified and shown to be antigenically and genetically related to human HEV. In the present study, we attempted to infect specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pigs experimentally with swine HEV or with human strains of HEV. Serum samples collected from naturally infected pigs were used as the source of swine HEV. Pigs inoculated intravenously with serum samples containing swine HEV seroconverted to anti-HEV 4 to 8 weeks postinoculation, and the virus spread to an uninoculated pig. Swine HEV was detected in nasal and rectal swab materials as early as 2 ...


Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. DiVerde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. Diverde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger

Paul Plummer

Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902. Animals—51 female guinea pigs. Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged ...


Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. DiVerde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. Diverde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger

Qijing Zhang

Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902. Animals—51 female guinea pigs. Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged ...


Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, Yang Liu, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Yun Li, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, Yang Liu, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Yun Li, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates—Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr ...


Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of “super” efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs ...


Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, Zuowei Wu, Kathy Mou, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, Zuowei Wu, Kathy Mou, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT) sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed ...


First Identification Of Ndm-4-Producing Escherichia Coli St410 In China, Shangshang Qin, Mengmeng Zhou, Qijing Zhang, Hengxun Tao, Yafei Ye, Huizhi Chen, Lijuan Xu, Hui Xu, Ping Wang, Xianju Feng 2017 Zhengzhou University

First Identification Of Ndm-4-Producing Escherichia Coli St410 In China, Shangshang Qin, Mengmeng Zhou, Qijing Zhang, Hengxun Tao, Yafei Ye, Huizhi Chen, Lijuan Xu, Hui Xu, Ping Wang, Xianju Feng

Qijing Zhang

Dear Editor, The worldwide dissemination of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), an Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) conferring resistance to all β-lactams except monobactams, is of great concern for public health. NDM-4, which differs from NDM-1 by a single amino acid substitution (Met154Leu), was demonstrated to possess increased carbapenemase activity.


Dual Repression Of The Multidrug Efflux Pump Cmeabc By Cosr And Cmer In Campylobacter Jejuni, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Yang Mu, Lei Dai, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Dual Repression Of The Multidrug Efflux Pump Cmeabc By Cosr And Cmer In Campylobacter Jejuni, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Yang Mu, Lei Dai, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown. To answer these questions, we conducted various experiments utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays. CosR ...


Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun 2017 South China Agricultural University

Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun

Qijing Zhang

Bacterial heteroresistance has been identified in several combinations of bacteria and antibiotics, and it complicated the therapeutic strategies. Tigecycline is being used as one of the optimal options for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella. This study investigated whether heterorresistance to tigecycline exists in a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain harboring the oqxAB-bearing IncHI2 plasmid pHXY0908. MIC and population analyses were performed to evaluate population-wide susceptibility to tigecycline. The effects of efflux pumps on MIC levels were assessed using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, measuring intracellular tigecycline accumulation as well as mRNA levels of regulatory and efflux pump ...


Scrapie In Swine: A Diagnostic Challenge, Justin J. Greenlee, Robert A. Kunkle, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Scrapie In Swine: A Diagnostic Challenge, Justin J. Greenlee, Robert A. Kunkle, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the susceptibility of swine to the agent of sheep scrapie has not been thoroughly tested. We conducted this experiment to test the susceptibility of swine to U.S. scrapie isolates by intracranial and oral inoculation. Scrapie inoculum was a pooled 10% (w/v) homogenate derived from the brains of clinically ill sheep from the ...


Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

TRANSMISSIBLE spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in which an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPSc) accumulates in tissues of the central nervous system. Accumulation of PrPSc occurs in the retina, a rostral projection of the central nervous system, of both natural and nonnatural host species with TSEs (Foster and others 1999, Spraker and others 2002, Head and others 2003, 2005, Hamir and others 2004, 2005, Kercher and others 2004, Greenlee and others 2006, Hortells and others 2006). In retinas from scrapie-affected sheep, PrPSc accumulation is primarily observed in the inner and outer plexiform ...


Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein–contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations ...


Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Background

Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and veterinary communities, as well as animal agriculture and related industries. Currently accepted practices of harsh chemical treatments such as prolonged exposure to sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving are not suitable in many situations. Less caustic and more readily applicable treatments to contaminated environments are therefore desirable. We recently demonstrated that exposure of the RML scrapie agent to a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate (SPC-P) with or without sodium dodecyl ...


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