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Differences In Efficacy Between Gamithromycin, Tilmicosin, And Tulathromycin As Metaphylactic Treatments In High Risk Calves For Bovine Respiratory Disease, T. Miller, M. E. Hubbert, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Differences In Efficacy Between Gamithromycin, Tilmicosin, And Tulathromycin As Metaphylactic Treatments In High Risk Calves For Bovine Respiratory Disease, T. Miller, M. E. Hubbert, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The cost of Bovine Respiratory Disease to the beef industry due to death, poorer conversions, and therapy is estimated to cost more than $3 billion per year. Identifying and mitigating Bovine Respiratory Disease in cattle can be difficult due to the increased susceptibility for Bovine Respiratory Disease in high risk cattle. One management option to minimize an outbreak of respiratory disease is the use of metaphylaxis, the mass treatment of a group of calves to reduce the incidence and adverse effects of respiratory disease on high risk animals. Criteria used to determine the necessity of metaphylactic treatment against Bovine Respiratory ...


Zelnate On Arrival Could Decrease The Likelihood Of Subsequent Pulls In Suspect Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex Cases, T. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, G. A. Hanzlicek, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, J. E. Sears, Dale Blasi 2017 Kansas State University

Zelnate On Arrival Could Decrease The Likelihood Of Subsequent Pulls In Suspect Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex Cases, T. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, G. A. Hanzlicek, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, J. E. Sears, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Antimicrobial metaphylaxis is an important tool used for the prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex; a disease with a large economic impact that typically affects newly-weaned beef calves that are marketed and transported a distance from their origin.

There are questions involving the potential benefit of Zelnate, a novel non-antibiotic technology designed to activate an animal’s natural immunity to fight Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, being used either solely or in combination with metaphylaxis at the time of initial processing of high risk calves. More knowledge is also needed regarding the possible effects of repeated use of Zelnate when subsequent ...


Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Responses To Vaccination Of Angus Cattle For Four Viruses That Contribute To Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, Luke M. Kramer, Mary S. Mayes, Jazmine Brown, Lyle Braun, Eric R. Fritz-Waters, Jamie Williams, Amelia Woolums, Christopher Chase, James M. Reecy

Animal Industry Report

Initial antibody titers are maternally-derived from colostrum, then decay with age. Change in antibody titer levels were compared between four viruses contributing to the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC), and evaluation of response to vaccination indicated that antibody production will not occur when high levels of maternal antibodies are present. The maternal antibodies were found to decay with calf age for each of the four viruses, which allowed for the estimation of a maximum circulating titer level under which a positive antibody response to vaccination could occur. Phenotypic correlations were calculated between the antibody titers for the four viruses across ...


The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman 2017 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Prrs Virus Outbreak On Genetic Parameters Of Reproductive Performance In Pigs, Austin M. Putz, Clint R. Schwab, Alysta D. Sewell, Nick Serao, Derald Holtkamp, Jeff Zimmerman

Animal Industry Report

PRRSV is a significant economic problem for producers in the US and around the world. The genetic basis for reproductive performance in sow herds has been poorly understood.


Evaluation Of The Effects Of Flushing Feed Manufacturing Equipment With Chemically- Treated Rice Hulls On Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Cross Contamination During Feed Manufacturing, J. T. Gebhardt, J. C. Woodworth, C. K. Jones, Phillip Charles Gauger, M. D. Tokach, J. M. DeRouchey, R. D. Goodband, M. Muckey, R. A. Cochrane, M. Niederwerder, C. R. Stark, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Alejandro Ramirez, Rachel J. Derscheid, Rodger G. Main, S. S. Dritz 2016 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Evaluation Of The Effects Of Flushing Feed Manufacturing Equipment With Chemically- Treated Rice Hulls On Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Cross Contamination During Feed Manufacturing, J. T. Gebhardt, J. C. Woodworth, C. K. Jones, Phillip Charles Gauger, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, M. Muckey, R. A. Cochrane, M. Niederwerder, C. R. Stark, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Alejandro Ramirez, Rachel J. Derscheid, Rodger G. Main, S. S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Various strategies have been proposed to mitigate potential risk of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) transmission via feed and feed ingredients. Wet decontamination has been found to be the most effective decontamination of feed mill surfaces; however, this is not practical on a commercial feed production-scale. Another potential mitigation strategy, easier to implement, would be using chemically-treated rice hulls flushed through the feed manufacturing equipment. The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of MCFA- or formaldehyde-treated rice hull flush batches as potential PEDV mitigation strategies during feed manufacturing. Feed without evidence of PEDV RNA contamination was inoculated ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Vevovitall And/Or Crina As Potential Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Mitigation Strategies As Determined By Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis And Bioassay, J. T. Gebhardt, J. C. Woodworth, C. K. Jones, M. D. Tokach, J. M. DeRouchey, R. D. Goodband, R. A. Cochrane, C. R. Stark, J. Bergstrom, Phillip Charles Gauger, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Rodger G. Main, S. S. Dritz 2016 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Evaluating The Impact Of Vevovitall And/Or Crina As Potential Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Mitigation Strategies As Determined By Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis And Bioassay, J. T. Gebhardt, J. C. Woodworth, C. K. Jones, M. D. Tokach, J. M. Derouchey, R. D. Goodband, R. A. Cochrane, C. R. Stark, J. Bergstrom, Phillip Charles Gauger, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Rodger G. Main, S. S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Feed and feed ingredients have been shown to be potential vectors of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Potential strategies to mitigate the risk of disease transmission via feed and feed ingredients would be valuable to the swine and feed milling industries. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of VevoVitall (5,000 ppm; DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Parsipanny, NJ), CRINA (200 ppm; DSM Nutritional Products Inc., Parsipanny, NJ), and a combination of both products (COMBINATION; 5,000 ppm VevoVitall and 200 ppm CRINA) as feed additives with potential to mitigate the risk of PEDV, in swine ...


Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Surface Decontamination Strategies Using Chemical Sanitizing To Reduce The Quantity Of Pedv Rna On Feed Manufacturing Surfaces With Environmental Swabbing, M. Muckey, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, J. Bai, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, Rodger G. Main, C. K. Jones 2016 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Surface Decontamination Strategies Using Chemical Sanitizing To Reduce The Quantity Of Pedv Rna On Feed Manufacturing Surfaces With Environmental Swabbing, M. Muckey, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, C. R. Stark, J. Bai, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, Rodger G. Main, C. K. Jones

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a possible hazard in feed mills that could impact pig health. If the virus enters a feed mill, it quickly becomes widely distributed and is difficult to decontaminate from surfaces.6,7 The objective of this study was to evaluate a variety of liquid and dry chemical treatments that could be used as sanitizers to reduce the amount of PEDV found on feed manufacturing surfaces in mills. This experiment was replicated 3 times and was designed in a 5 × 10 factorial with main effects of 5 different feed manufacturing surfaces and 10 sanitizing treatments ...


Evaluating The Inclusion Level Of Medium Chain Fatty Acids To Reduce The Risk Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In Complete Feed And Spray-Dried Animal Plasma, R. A. Cochrane, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, A. R. Huss, C. R. Stark, M. Saensukjaroenphon, J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, Rachel J. Derscheid, Drew Robert Magstadt, Paulo Elias Arruda, Alejandro Ramirez, Rodger G. Main, C. K. Jones 2016 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Evaluating The Inclusion Level Of Medium Chain Fatty Acids To Reduce The Risk Of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In Complete Feed And Spray-Dried Animal Plasma, R. A. Cochrane, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, A. R. Huss, C. R. Stark, M. Saensukjaroenphon, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, Rachel J. Derscheid, Drew Robert Magstadt, Paulo Elias Arruda, Alejandro Ramirez, Rodger G. Main, C. K. Jones

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Research has confirmed that chemical treatments, such as medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and commercial formaldehyde, can be effective to reduce the risk of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) cross-contamination in feed. However, the efficacy of MCFA levels below 2% inclusion is unknown. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate if a 1% inclusion of MCFA is as effective at PEDV mitigation as a 2% inclusion or formaldehyde in swine feed and spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP). Treatments were arranged in a 4 × 2 × 7 plus 2 factorial with 4 chemical treatments: 1) PEDV positive with no chemical treatment, 2 ...


Assessing The Effects Of Medium Chain Fatty Acids And Fat Sources On Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Viral Rna Stability And Infectivity, R. A. Cochrane, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, A. R. Huss, C. R. Stark, M. Saensukjaroenphon, J. M. DeRouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, Rachel J. Derscheid, Rodger G. Main, C. K. Jones 2016 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Assessing The Effects Of Medium Chain Fatty Acids And Fat Sources On Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Viral Rna Stability And Infectivity, R. A. Cochrane, S. S. Dritz, J. C. Woodworth, A. R. Huss, C. R. Stark, M. Saensukjaroenphon, J. M. Derouchey, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goodband, J. Bai, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip Charles Gauger, Rachel J. Derscheid, Rodger G. Main, C. K. Jones

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Research has confirmed that chemical treatments, such as medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and commercial formaldehyde, can be effective to reduce the risk of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) cross-contamination in feed. However, the efficacy of individual MCFA levels are unknown. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of commercially-available sources of MCFA and other fat sources versus a synthetic custom blend of MCFA to minimize the risk of PEDV cross-contamination as measured by qRT-PCR and bioassay. Treatments were arranged in a 17 × 4 plus 1 factorial with 17 chemical treatments: 1) Positive control with PEDV and ...


Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli And Other E. Coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli And Other E. Coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. Hemorrhagic colitis occasionally progresses to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), an important cause of acute renal failure in children and morbidity and mortality in adults. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157:H7) has been known to cause these syndromes since the 1980s, but clinical cases and outbreaks caused by members of other EHEC serogroups are increasingly recognized. In some areas, non-O157 EHEC may account for a greater number of cases than EHEC O157:H7. In 2011, an unusual enteroaggregative E ...


Toxocariasis, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Toxocariasis, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Members of the genus Toxocara are zoonotic intestinal nematodes (roundworms) that mature in various mammals, including some domesticated species. Parasitized animals can shed large numbers of eggs in the feces, infecting people (particularly children) who ingest these eggs in contaminated soil, or on hands or objects. Although Toxocara eggs do not complete their maturation in humans, the developing larvae can migrate through the body for a time. In some cases, they cause symptoms ranging from mild, vague discomfort to ocular disturbances, blindness and neurological syndromes. Human toxocariasis is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with children ...


Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Of Animals, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Of Animals, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions. Although these infections usually remain asymptomatic for years, the disease is always progressive and fatal once the clinical signs develop. TSEs affecting animals include scrapie (tremblante de mouton, rida), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, “mad cow disease”), feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME, mink scrapie) and chronic wasting disease (CWD). Although some prion diseases usually occur in one or a few closely related species, other prions can cross species barriers. BSE has a particularly wide host range. Cattle are the primary hosts for this disease, but some other ruminants ...


Scrapie, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Scrapie, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that affects sheep, and less frequently, goats. Infected animals do not usually become ill for years; however, the clinical signs are progressive and invariably fatal once they develop. Scrapie can be transmitted between animals, either directly or via the environment, and infected premises are difficult to decontaminate. The presence of classical scrapie can result in trade sanctions, and many countries are conducting control or eradication programs. Breeding sheep for genetic resistance is an important tool in many of these programs; however, the understanding of resistance genes is still incomplete in goats ...


Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.

Results: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, we propose that this ...


Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that mainly affects cattle. Other ruminants, cats, nonhuman primates and humans are occasionally affected; this disease is called feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) in cats, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in people. BSE is primarily acquired by eating prion-containing tissues from an infected animal. Cooking and standard disinfection procedures do not destroy this agent. Infected animals or people do not become ill for years; however, the disease is always progressive and fatal once clinical signs develop. BSE was first reported in the United Kingdom in the 1980s. Its ...


Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) is a neurodegenerative disease, caused by a prion, that affects members of the cat family. Once the clinical signs appear, this disease is invariably fatal. FSE is caused by the same agent that is responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. BSE was first reported in the 1980s, when it caused an explosive epidemic among cattle in the U.K. This disease eventually spread to many other countries. FSE was first reported in 1990, and was apparently transmitted to individual cats in BSE-contaminated food. As the BSE epidemic has declined, and controls have been placed ...


Ebolavirus And Marburgvirus Infections, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Ebolavirus And Marburgvirus Infections, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Ebolaviruses and marburgviruses are incompletely understood pathogens that cause severe, often fatal, illnesses in humans and non-human primates. These diseases have been known as Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, respectively, after the most dramatic symptoms in severe cases. The names “Ebola virus disease” or Marburg virus disease” are now preferred by the World Health Organization (WHO) and some other groups.

Most species of ebolaviruses and the only known species of marburgvirus occur in Africa. Current evidence suggests that the reservoir hosts are probably bats, while other animals and people are incidental hosts. Humans seem to become infected with marburgviruses mainly ...


Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects ranched mink (Neovison (Mustela) vison). Most or all of the adult animals on a ranch may be affected, and once an animal becomes symptomatic, death is inevitable. This disease is still poorly understood. It is very rare, with only a few outbreaks reported in the U.S. and other countries. Outbreaks seem to result from feeding contaminated food containing prions to mink; however, the origin of these prions is unknown. Recent evidence suggests they might be an atypical variant of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent.


Chronic Wasting Disease, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Chronic Wasting Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a prion that affects cervids including deer, elk and moose. At one time, CWD was an obscure illness that seemed to occur only in a small geographic area in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming. However, this disease is now found in wild and/or farmed cervids in many other states in the U.S., where it appears to be slowly spreading, and in parts of Canada. South Korea reported outbreaks among captive cervids between 2004 and 2010, after importing infected animals from Canada, and Norway detected CWD in wild cervids ...


Bovine Ephemeral Fever, Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health 2016 Iowa State University

Bovine Ephemeral Fever, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Bovine ephemeral fever is an economically important arboviral disease that affects cattle and water buffalo, and is widespread in tropical and semitropical areas of the Eastern Hemisphere. In most cases, the main impact is on productivity. While the illness is usually brief, it can result in decreased milk yield, loss of condition and reproductive losses, and recovery can be prolonged in some animals. Mortality is typically low (1-2%); however, significantly higher case fatality rates were reported in some recent outbreaks.


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