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Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. DiVerde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. Diverde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger

Paul Plummer

Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902. Animals—51 female guinea pigs. Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged ...


Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, Yang Liu, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Yun Li, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, Yang Liu, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Yun Li, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates—Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr ...


Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, Zuowei Wu, Kathy Mou, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, Zuowei Wu, Kathy Mou, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT) sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed ...


Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen 2017 China Agricultural University

Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen

Qijing Zhang

Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of “super” efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs ...


First Identification Of Ndm-4-Producing Escherichia Coli St410 In China, Shangshang Qin, Mengmeng Zhou, Qijing Zhang, Hengxun Tao, Yafei Ye, Huizhi Chen, Lijuan Xu, Hui Xu, Ping Wang, Xianju Feng 2017 Zhengzhou University

First Identification Of Ndm-4-Producing Escherichia Coli St410 In China, Shangshang Qin, Mengmeng Zhou, Qijing Zhang, Hengxun Tao, Yafei Ye, Huizhi Chen, Lijuan Xu, Hui Xu, Ping Wang, Xianju Feng

Qijing Zhang

Dear Editor, The worldwide dissemination of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), an Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) conferring resistance to all β-lactams except monobactams, is of great concern for public health. NDM-4, which differs from NDM-1 by a single amino acid substitution (Met154Leu), was demonstrated to possess increased carbapenemase activity.


Dual Repression Of The Multidrug Efflux Pump Cmeabc By Cosr And Cmer In Campylobacter Jejuni, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Yang Mu, Lei Dai, Qijing Zhang 2017 Iowa State University

Dual Repression Of The Multidrug Efflux Pump Cmeabc By Cosr And Cmer In Campylobacter Jejuni, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Yang Mu, Lei Dai, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown. To answer these questions, we conducted various experiments utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays ...


Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun 2017 South China Agricultural University

Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun

Qijing Zhang

Bacterial heteroresistance has been identified in several combinations of bacteria and antibiotics, and it complicated the therapeutic strategies. Tigecycline is being used as one of the optimal options for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella. This study investigated whether heterorresistance to tigecycline exists in a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain harboring the oqxAB-bearing IncHI2 plasmid pHXY0908. MIC and population analyses were performed to evaluate population-wide susceptibility to tigecycline. The effects of efflux pumps on MIC levels were assessed using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, measuring intracellular tigecycline accumulation as well as mRNA levels of regulatory and efflux pump ...


Scrapie In Swine: A Diagnostic Challenge, Justin J. Greenlee, Robert A. Kunkle, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Scrapie In Swine: A Diagnostic Challenge, Justin J. Greenlee, Robert A. Kunkle, Jodi D. Smith, M. Heather West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

A naturally occurring prion disease has not been recognized in swine, but the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy does transmit to swine by experimental routes. Swine are thought to have a robust species barrier when exposed to the naturally occurring prion diseases of other species, but the susceptibility of swine to the agent of sheep scrapie has not been thoroughly tested. We conducted this experiment to test the susceptibility of swine to U.S. scrapie isolates by intracranial and oral inoculation. Scrapie inoculum was a pooled 10% (w/v) homogenate derived from the brains of clinically ill sheep from the ...


Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

TRANSMISSIBLE spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in which an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPSc) accumulates in tissues of the central nervous system. Accumulation of PrPSc occurs in the retina, a rostral projection of the central nervous system, of both natural and nonnatural host species with TSEs (Foster and others 1999, Spraker and others 2002, Head and others 2003, 2005, Hamir and others 2004, 2005, Kercher and others 2004, Greenlee and others 2006, Hortells and others 2006). In retinas from scrapie-affected sheep, PrPSc accumulation is primarily observed in the inner and outer plexiform ...


Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein–contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations ...


Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Background

Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and veterinary communities, as well as animal agriculture and related industries. Currently accepted practices of harsh chemical treatments such as prolonged exposure to sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving are not suitable in many situations. Less caustic and more readily applicable treatments to contaminated environments are therefore desirable. We recently demonstrated that exposure of the RML scrapie agent to a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate (SPC-P) with or without sodium dodecyl ...


Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system ...


Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics. However, in the United States, very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie strains. Scrapie strain and PRNP genotype could both affect susceptibility, potential for transmission, incubation period (IP), and control measures required for eliminating scrapie from a flock. The investigators evaluated 2 US scrapie isolates, No. 13-7 and x124, after intranasal inoculation to compare clinical signs, IPs, spongiform lesions, and patterns of PrPSc deposition in sheep with ...


Genetic Variation Of The Prion Protein Gene (Prnp) In Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos), M. S. Vermette, J. A. Schleining, J. J. Greenlee, J. D. Smtih 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Variation Of The Prion Protein Gene (Prnp) In Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos), M. S. Vermette, J. A. Schleining, J. J. Greenlee, J. D. Smtih

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information regarding the genetic sequence of alpaca PRNP and the potential susceptibility of this species to TSE. The objective of this study was to sequence the open reading frame of the alpaca prion gene and analyze this sequence for variation within the alpaca population and for homology to TSE-susceptible species. We sequenced the open reading ...


Temporal Resolution Of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, And Neuronal Death In The Retinas Of Mice Inoculated With Scrapie, M. Heather West Greenlee, Melissa Lind, Robyn Kokemuller, Najiba Mammadova, Naveen Kondru, Sireesha Manne, Jodi Smith, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Temporal Resolution Of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, And Neuronal Death In The Retinas Of Mice Inoculated With Scrapie, M. Heather West Greenlee, Melissa Lind, Robyn Kokemuller, Najiba Mammadova, Naveen Kondru, Sireesha Manne, Jodi Smith, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Currently, there is a lack of pathological landmarks to describe the progression of prion disease in vivo. Our goal was to use an experimental model to determine the temporal relationship between the transport of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) from the brain to the retina, the accumulation of PrPSc in the retina, the response of the surrounding retinal tissue, and loss of neurons. Retinal samples from mice inoculated with RML scrapie were collected at 30, 60, 90, 105, and 120 days post inoculation (dpi) or at the onset of clinical signs of disease (153 dpi). Retinal homogenates were tested ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


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