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Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Altered Electroretinogram B-Wave In A Suffolk Sheep Experimentally Infected With Scrapie, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

TRANSMISSIBLE spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in which an abnormal isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPSc) accumulates in tissues of the central nervous system. Accumulation of PrPSc occurs in the retina, a rostral projection of the central nervous system, of both natural and nonnatural host species with TSEs (Foster and others 1999, Spraker and others 2002, Head and others 2003, 2005, Hamir and others 2004, 2005, Kercher and others 2004, Greenlee and others 2006, Hortells and others 2006). In retinas from scrapie-affected sheep, PrPSc accumulation is primarily observed in the inner and outer plexiform ...


Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Retinal Function And Morphology Are Altered In Cattle Infected With The Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy, J. D. Smith, J. J. Greenlee, A. N. Hamir, J. A. Richt, M. H. West Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein–contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations ...


Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Background

Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and veterinary communities, as well as animal agriculture and related industries. Currently accepted practices of harsh chemical treatments such as prolonged exposure to sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving are not suitable in many situations. Less caustic and more readily applicable treatments to contaminated environments are therefore desirable. We recently demonstrated that exposure of the RML scrapie agent to a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate (SPC-P) with or without sodium dodecyl ...


Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system ...


Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Comparison Of Two Us Sheep Scrapie Isolates Supports Identification As Separate Strains, S. J. Moore, J. D. Smith, M. H. West Greenlee, E. M. Nicholson, J. A. Richt, J. J. Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats. There are different strains of sheep scrapie that are associated with unique molecular, transmission, and phenotype characteristics. However, in the United States, very little is known about the potential presence of scrapie strains. Scrapie strain and PRNP genotype could both affect susceptibility, potential for transmission, incubation period (IP), and control measures required for eliminating scrapie from a flock. The investigators evaluated 2 US scrapie isolates, No. 13-7 and x124, after intranasal inoculation to compare clinical signs, IPs, spongiform lesions, and patterns of PrPSc deposition in sheep with ...


Genetic Variation Of The Prion Protein Gene (Prnp) In Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos), M. S. Vermette, J. A. Schleining, J. J. Greenlee, J. D. Smtih 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Variation Of The Prion Protein Gene (Prnp) In Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos), M. S. Vermette, J. A. Schleining, J. J. Greenlee, J. D. Smtih

Jodi Smith

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information regarding the genetic sequence of alpaca PRNP and the potential susceptibility of this species to TSE. The objective of this study was to sequence the open reading frame of the alpaca prion gene and analyze this sequence for variation within the alpaca population and for homology to TSE-susceptible species. We sequenced the open reading ...


Temporal Resolution Of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, And Neuronal Death In The Retinas Of Mice Inoculated With Scrapie, M. Heather West Greenlee, Melissa Lind, Robyn Kokemuller, Najiba Mammadova, Naveen Kondru, Sireesha Manne, Jodi Smith, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Temporal Resolution Of Misfolded Prion Protein Transport, Accumulation, Glial Activation, And Neuronal Death In The Retinas Of Mice Inoculated With Scrapie, M. Heather West Greenlee, Melissa Lind, Robyn Kokemuller, Najiba Mammadova, Naveen Kondru, Sireesha Manne, Jodi Smith, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin Greenlee

Jodi Smith

Currently, there is a lack of pathological landmarks to describe the progression of prion disease in vivo. Our goal was to use an experimental model to determine the temporal relationship between the transport of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) from the brain to the retina, the accumulation of PrPSc in the retina, the response of the surrounding retinal tissue, and loss of neurons. Retinal samples from mice inoculated with RML scrapie were collected at 30, 60, 90, 105, and 120 days post inoculation (dpi) or at the onset of clinical signs of disease (153 dpi). Retinal homogenates were tested ...


Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Host-Pathogen Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction Using An In Silico Model, John C. F. Hsieh, Robert L. Jernigan, Susan J. Lamont

Robert Jernigan

Newcastle Disease (ND) is caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and is a major problem in developing countries where vaccination against NDV is not easily achievable. A step required for NDV infection is the cleavage of the NDV fusion (F) protein. Using structural information of the NDV F protein and the only known host protein binding partner, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), we computer modeled the interaction between the two proteins by looking at a docked structure of these two proteins. With our docked structure, we visualized one of the catalytic domains of PDIA3 being near the cleavage site of ...


Arca Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, And Motility Contributing To The Pathogenicity Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Fengwei Jiang, Chunxia An, Yinli Bao, Xuefeng Zhao, Robert L. Jernigan, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li, Eve S. Wurtele, Lisa K. Nolan, Chengping Lu, Ganwu Li 2017 Nanjing Agricultural University

Arca Controls Metabolism, Chemotaxis, And Motility Contributing To The Pathogenicity Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli, Fengwei Jiang, Chunxia An, Yinli Bao, Xuefeng Zhao, Robert L. Jernigan, Andrew Lithio, Dan Nettleton, Ling Li, Eve S. Wurtele, Lisa K. Nolan, Chengping Lu, Ganwu Li

Robert Jernigan

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains cause one of the three most significant infectious diseases in the poultry industry and are also potential food-borne pathogens threating human health. In this study, we showed that ArcA (aerobic respiratory control), a global regulator important for E. coli's adaptation from anaerobic to aerobic conditions and control of that bacterium's enzymatic defenses against reactive oxygen species (ROS), is involved in the virulence of APEC. Deletion of arcA significantly attenuates the virulence of APEC in the duck model. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses comparing the APEC wild type and the arcA mutant indicate that ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Devin L. Maurer

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Developing A Plant Virus-Based Expression System For The Expression Of Vaccines Against Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Hong Hanh Tran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Virus-based expression systems have been widely exploited for the production of recombinant proteins in plants during the last three decades. Advances in technology have boosted scale-up manufacturing of plant-made pharmaceuticals to high levels, via the complementation of transient expression and viral vectors. This combination allows proteins of interest to be produced in plants within a matter of days and thus, is well suited for the development of plant-made vaccines or therapeutics against emerging infectious diseases and potential bioterrorism agents. Several plant-based products are currently in varying stages of clinical development. To investigate the viability of virus-based expression systems for plant-made ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Do Two Distinct Chicken Lines Differ In Their Response To Newcastle Disease Virus?, Melissa S. Herrmann, Rodrigo Gallardo, David A. Bunn, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

The differences between relatively resistant and susceptible chicken lines can be utilized to study the genetics behind disease resistance. To assess resistance, the viral quantity in each bird was measured after challenge with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) at two time points. As predicted, the resistant line was able to clear the virus more quickly than the susceptible line. Further studies are needed to determine the genetics responsible for resistance.


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Steven M. Lonergan

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor

James M Reecy

Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves. Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study. Animals—1,882 Angus calves. Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated. Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl 2017 Iowa State University

Dietary Inclusion Of Colicin E1 Is Effective In Preventing Postweaning Diarrhea Caused By F18-Positive Escherichia Coli In Pigs, Sara A. Cutler, Steven M. Lonergan, Nancy A. Cornick, Anna K. Johnson, Chad H. Stahl

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

With worldwide concern over the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and their contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance, alternatives to conventional antibiotics are needed. Previous research in our laboratories has shown that colicin E1 is effective against some Escherichia coli strains responsible for postweaning diarrhea (PWD) in vitro. In this study we examined the efficacy of the dietary inclusion of colicin E1 in preventing experimentally induced PWD caused by F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli in young pigs. Twenty-four weaned pigs (23 days of age), identified by genotyping to be susceptible to F18-positive E. coliinfections, were individually housed and fed ...


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