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The Use Of Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy With An Infrared Biotyper To Establish Classifiers For Major Serogroups Of Moraxella Bovis Based On Spectral Profiles, Jordyn Bailey Schommer 2024 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Use Of Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy With An Infrared Biotyper To Establish Classifiers For Major Serogroups Of Moraxella Bovis Based On Spectral Profiles, Jordyn Bailey Schommer

Honors Theses

A classifier tool was created to identify major serogroups of Moraxella bovis based on spectral profiles collected from bacterial cells through the use of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. M. bovis strains were selected from a group of previously sequenced and genotyped isolates, which provided the pilin sequence type for each isolate. The obtained spectroscopic profiles were analyzed through artificial neural networks to create a classifier tool that could identify the PilA type for unknown strains. Once a sufficient spectral library was obtained, the isolates were split into a training and a validation group, each containing spectra from isolates of five …


Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Scott L. Gardner, Sue Ann Gardner 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Concepts In Animal Parasitology, Scott L. Gardner, Sue Ann Gardner

Zea E-Books Collection

This is a textbook covering concepts in animal parasitology. It is meant to be used by students, teachers, professors, researchers, and members of the public who are interested in learning about animal parasite biology, systematics, taxonomy, zoogeography, and ecology. The primary intended audience is upper-level undergraduate or graduate university students who have knowledge of basic biology and, particularly, basic animal biology. (863 pages, illustrated)

One of the most fascinating things that a person can experience in the complex realm of biology is the discovery of an animal living inside another animal. If this discovery takes place at an early enough …


A Potential Of Watercress Nasturtium Officinale Bioactive Compounds In Inhibiting Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (Imnv) By Targeting Rna-Dependent Rna Polymerase (Rdrp) Virus From Several Countries: In Silico Approach, Qurrota A’yunin, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Maftuch Maftuch, Feri Eko Hermanto, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Narendra Santika Hartana, Muhaimin Rifa’i, Yoga Dwi Jatmiko 2024 Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

A Potential Of Watercress Nasturtium Officinale Bioactive Compounds In Inhibiting Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (Imnv) By Targeting Rna-Dependent Rna Polymerase (Rdrp) Virus From Several Countries: In Silico Approach, Qurrota A’Yunin, Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Maftuch Maftuch, Feri Eko Hermanto, Muhammad Hermawan Widyananda, Narendra Santika Hartana, Muhaimin Rifa’I, Yoga Dwi Jatmiko

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) disease causes mass mortality and decreased shrimp production. The RdRp region projects to the interior, where it may function in transcription. The focus of this study was to determine the effect of amino acid polymorphisms from several countries on the structure of RdRp and identify the potential of watercress in inhibiting IMNV by targeting the RdRp protein of IMNV through an in silico approach. The results showed that the structure of the IMNV RdRp protein from Indonesia was similar to Mexico, and the protein structure from India_QDN was identical to India_QIL. Ligand binding affinity values showed …


Investigation Of The Causative Agent Of Canine Leproid Granuloma Infection Cases In The Northeastern United States, Nicole J. Marcotte 2024 University of New Hampshire

Investigation Of The Causative Agent Of Canine Leproid Granuloma Infection Cases In The Northeastern United States, Nicole J. Marcotte

Honors Theses and Capstones

Canine leproid granuloma syndrome (CLGS) is a form of disease in dogs of many breeds that is characterized by a skin infection in the subcutis and/or dermis. The granulomas that form as a result of infection are typically non pruritic, alopecic, raised, and firm. These mass-like granulomas can ulcerate, causing further infection beneath the skin surface, and are present in areas of the body such as the ears, head, neck, and extremities. CLGS has been known to infect dogs of different breeds and ages, but has most commonly been reported to infect shorthaired, large sized breeds. This disease is suspected …


Site-Specific Space Use And Resource Selection By Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) In The Southeastern Usa, Betsy Evans, John S. Humphrey, Eric A. Tillman, Michael L. Avery, Bryan M. Kluever 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Florida

Site-Specific Space Use And Resource Selection By Black Vultures (Coragyps Atratus) In The Southeastern Usa, Betsy Evans, John S. Humphrey, Eric A. Tillman, Michael L. Avery, Bryan M. Kluever

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

North American populations of Black Vultures Coragyps atratus have increased and expanded their distribution in the southern and eastern USA. In conjunction with these patterns has been a rise in human–vulture conflicts. To improve our understanding of space use patterns and better inform management, we evaluated the movements of Black Vultures (n = 23) in the southeastern USA using a long-term GPS tracking database. Our specific objectives were to: (1) quantify home-range sizes in relation to season and geographical study location and (2) examine within-home-range resource selection to identify landscape and anthropogenic factors influencing roost and diurnal space use. …


Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Colorado

Treatment With The Immunocontraceptive Vaccine, Gonacon, Induces Temporary Fertility Control In Free-Ranging Prairie Dog Populations In Colorado, Usa, Aaron B. Shiels, Jackson Runte, Emily W. Ruell, Douglas C. Eckery, Gary W. Witmer, Daniel J. Salkeld

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Context

Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are rodents enjoyed by some humans; yet, they cause crop and property damage, and carry zoonotic disease. Non-lethal control of prairie dogs is of interest in urban/suburban settings. The injectable immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon (active ingredient is gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]) has been shown to be effective at reducing fertility in equine and deer, and is a US EPA-registered vaccine for use in these ungulate species.

Aims

To conduct a replicated field study to test efficacy of GonaCon in black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus), and if found to be efficacious, to help facilitate …


Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Colorado

Comparison Of Ketamine-Xylazine, Butorphanol-Azaperone-Medetomidine, And Nalbuphine-Medetomidine-Azaperone For Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) Immobilization, Shylo R. Johnson, Christine K. Ellis, Chad Wickham, Molly R. Selleck, Amy T. Gilbert

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are frequently handled using chemical immobilization in North America for management and research. In a controlled environment, we compared three drug combinations: ketamine-xylazine (KX), butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (BAM), and nalbuphinemedetomidine- azaperone (NalMed-A) for raccoon immobilization. In crossover comparisons, raccoons received a mean of the following: 8.66 mg/kg ketamine and 1.74 mg/kg xylazine (0.104 mL/kg KX); 0.464 mg/kg butorphanol, 0.155 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.185 mg/kg medetomidine (0.017 mL/kg BAM); and 0.800 mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.200 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.200 mg/kg medetomidine (0.020 mL/kg NalMed-A). Induction time was shortest with KX (mean6SE, 10.060.7 min) and longest with NalMed-A (13.061.3 min). …


Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis 2024 Université de Montréal

Oral Rabies Vaccination Of Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) Across A Development Intensity Gradient In Burlington, Vermont, Usa, 2015–2017, Emily M. Beasley, Kathleen M. Nelson, Dennis Slate, Amy T. Gilbert, Frederick E. Pogmore, Richard B. Chipman, Amy J. Davis

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Management of the raccoon rabies virus variant in North America is conducted primarily using oral rabies vaccination (ORV). When a sufficient proportion of the population is vaccinated (60%), rabies transmission can be eliminated. To date, ORV programs have successfully controlled and eliminated raccoon rabies in rural areas, but there has been less success in urban areas. We studied the proportions of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population during a 3-year ORV trial in developed areas of Burlington, Vermont, United States. We used a modified N-mixture model to estimate raccoon abundance, RVNA seroprevalence, and …


Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner 2024 CUNY Hunter College

Recent Beak Evolution In North American Starlings After Invasion, Julia M. Zichello, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Paul Shrewsbury, Agnieszka A. Pierwola, Scott J. Werner

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

European starlings are one of the most abundant and problematic avian invaders in the world. From their native range across Eurasia and North Africa, they have been introduced to every continent except Antarctica. In 160 years, starlings have expanded into different environments throughout the world, making them a powerful model for understanding rapid evolutionary change and adaptive plasticity. Here, we investigate their spatiotemporal morphological variation in North America and the native range. Our dataset includes 1,217 specimens; a combination of historical museum skins and modern birds. Beak length in the native range has remained unchanged during the past 206 years, …


Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. McClure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin 2024 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Assessing The Efficiency Of Local Rabies Vaccination Strategies For Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In An Urban Setting, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Nicole T. Gorman, Katherine M. Mcclure, Larissa Nituch, Tore Buchanan, Richard B. Chipman, Amy T. Gilbert, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Raccoon rabies virus (RRV) has been managed using multiple vaccination strategies, including oral rabies vaccination and trap-vaccinate-release (TVR). Identifying a rabies vaccination strategy for an area is a nontrivial task. Vaccination strategies differ in the amount of effort and monetary costs required to achieve a particular level of vaccine seroprevalence (efficiency). Simulating host movement relative to different vaccination strategies in silico can provide a useful tool for exploring the efficiency of different vaccination strategies. We refined a previously developed individual-based model of raccoon movement to evaluate vaccination strategies for urban Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We combined different oral rabies vaccination baiting …


Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice 2024 USDA APHIS WS NWRC Guam

Limitations Of Invasive Snake Control Tools In The Context Of A New Invasion On An Island With Abundant Prey, Shane R. Siers, Melia G. Nafus, Jereid E. Calaor, Rachel M. Volsteadt, Matthew S. Grassi, Megan Volsteadt, Aaron F. Collins, Patrick D. Barnhart, Logan T. Huse, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Diane L. Vice

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

In October 2020, a new population of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) was discovered on the 33-ha Cocos Island, 2.5 km off the south coast of Guam, United States. Cocos Island is a unique conservation resource, providing refuge for many lizards and birds, including endangered species, which were extirpated from mainland Guam by invasive predators including brown treesnakes. We sought to evaluate the usefulness of toxic baiting with acetaminophen-treated carrion baits and cage trapping, common tools for the control of brown treesnakes on mainland Guam, as potential eradication tools on Cocos Island. We evaluated multiple bait types and …


Effect Of Haemonchus Contortus Excretory/Secretory Protein On Differences In Host Neutrophil Migration, Hannah Grace Teddleton 2024 West Vrginia University

Effect Of Haemonchus Contortus Excretory/Secretory Protein On Differences In Host Neutrophil Migration, Hannah Grace Teddleton

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

An excretory/secretory (E/S) product, common to many helminths, is neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) which negatively affects neutrophil migration and activity. Due to differences in neutrophil accumulation between parasite resistant St. Croix STC and parasite susceptible Suffolk (SUF) sheep, we hypothesized that Hc-NIF may inhibit migration of SUF and not STC neutrophils. Previous studies have demonstrated that Hc produces NIF but is not commercially available. To test our hypothesis, neutrophils were cultured from STC and SUF sheep in the presence of Ancylostoma caninum-derived NIF (Ac-NIF) and measure chemotaxis to Interleukin-8 (IL-8), HcLA or H. contortus third-stage excretory/secretory (E/S) products. Neutrophils were …


Accelerated Evolution Of Sars-Cov-2 In Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer, Dillon S. McBride, Sofya K. Garushyants, John Franks, Andrew F. Magee, Steven H. Overend, Devra Huey, Amanda M. Williams, Seth A. Faith, Ahmed Kandeil, Sanja Trifkovic, Lance Miller, Trushar Jeevan, Anami Patel, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Michael J. Tonkovich, J. Tyler Genders, Andrew J. Montoney, Kevin Kasnyik, Timothy J. Linder, Sarah N. Bevins, Julianna B. Lenoch, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Eugene V. Koonin, Marc A. Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Richard J. Webby, Martha I. Nelson, Andrew S. Bowman 2023 The Ohio State University

Accelerated Evolution Of Sars-Cov-2 In Free-Ranging White-Tailed Deer, Dillon S. Mcbride, Sofya K. Garushyants, John Franks, Andrew F. Magee, Steven H. Overend, Devra Huey, Amanda M. Williams, Seth A. Faith, Ahmed Kandeil, Sanja Trifkovic, Lance Miller, Trushar Jeevan, Anami Patel, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Michael J. Tonkovich, J. Tyler Genders, Andrew J. Montoney, Kevin Kasnyik, Timothy J. Linder, Sarah N. Bevins, Julianna B. Lenoch, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Thomas J. Deliberto, Eugene V. Koonin, Marc A. Suchard, Philippe Lemey, Richard J. Webby, Martha I. Nelson, Andrew S. Bowman

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

The zoonotic origin of the COVID-19 pandemic virus highlights the need to fill the vast gaps in our knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 ecology and evolution in non-human hosts. Here, we detected that SARS-CoV-2 was introduced from humans into white-tailed deer more than 30 times in Ohio, USA during November 2021-March 2022. Subsequently, deer-to-deer transmission persisted for 2–8 months, disseminating across hundreds of kilometers. Newly developed Bayesian phylogenetic methods quantified how SARS-CoV-2 evolution is not only three-times faster in white-tailed deer compared to the rate observed in humans but also driven by different mutational biases and selection pressures. The long-term effect of …


Rapid Evolution Of A(H5n1) Influenza Viruses After Intercontinental Spread To North America, Ahmed Kandeil, Christopher Patton, Jeremy C. Jones, Trushar Jeevan, Walter N. Harrington, Sanja Trifkovic, Jon P. Seiler, Thomas Fabrizio, Karlie Woodard, Jasmine C. Turner, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Lance Miller, Adam Rubrum, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Charles J. Russell, Elena A. Govorkova, Peter Vogel, Mia Kim-Torchetti, Yohannes Berhane, David Stallknecht, Rebecca Poulson, Lisa Kercher, Richard J. Webby 2023 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Rapid Evolution Of A(H5n1) Influenza Viruses After Intercontinental Spread To North America, Ahmed Kandeil, Christopher Patton, Jeremy C. Jones, Trushar Jeevan, Walter N. Harrington, Sanja Trifkovic, Jon P. Seiler, Thomas Fabrizio, Karlie Woodard, Jasmine C. Turner, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Lance Miller, Adam Rubrum, Jennifer Debeauchamp, Charles J. Russell, Elena A. Govorkova, Peter Vogel, Mia Kim-Torchetti, Yohannes Berhane, David Stallknecht, Rebecca Poulson, Lisa Kercher, Richard J. Webby

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses of clade 2.3.4.4b underwent an explosive geographic expansion in 2021 among wild birds and domestic poultry across Asia, Europe, and Africa. By the end of 2021, 2.3.4.4b viruses were detected in North America, signifying further intercontinental spread. Here we show that the western movement of clade 2.3.4.4b was quickly followed by reassortment with viruses circulating in wild birds in North America, resulting in the acquisition of different combinations of ribonucleoprotein genes. These reassortant A(H5N1) viruses are genotypically and phenotypically diverse, with many causing severe disease with dramatic neurologic involvement in mammals. The proclivity of …


The Developmental Process For Adenoviral Vectored Canine Influenza Vaccines, Nicholas Jeanjaquet 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Developmental Process For Adenoviral Vectored Canine Influenza Vaccines, Nicholas Jeanjaquet

School of Biological Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Canine Influenza Virus (CIV) is a recently emerged branch of Influenza A virus that is highly infectious in dogs. The first strain was isolated in 2003, and it has quickly become endemic in areas with dense dog populations, most notably in Asia. The proximity of dogs to humans, along with their potential to serve as mixing vessels for reassortment, raises concern for possible zoonotic transmission and a potential human pandemic. Available vaccines are not frequently updated and struggle to prevent the spread of currently circulating strains. This highlights the need for a new and more effective vaccine. We outline the …


Pathogenicity In Chickens And Turkeys Of A 2021 United States H5n1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Clade 2.3.4.4b Wild Bird Virus Compared To Two Previous H5n8 Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Christina Leyson, Sungsu Youk, Scott A. Lee, Linda M. Moon, Mia K. Torchetti, Mary L. Killian, Julianna B. Lenoch, Darrell R. Kapczynski, David E. Swayne, David L. Suarez 2023 United States National Poultry Research Center

Pathogenicity In Chickens And Turkeys Of A 2021 United States H5n1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Clade 2.3.4.4b Wild Bird Virus Compared To Two Previous H5n8 Clade 2.3.4.4 Viruses, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Christina Leyson, Sungsu Youk, Scott A. Lee, Linda M. Moon, Mia K. Torchetti, Mary L. Killian, Julianna B. Lenoch, Darrell R. Kapczynski, David E. Swayne, David L. Suarez

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of subtype H5 of the Gs/GD/96 lineage remain a major threat to poultry due to endemicity in wild birds. H5N1 HPAIVs from this lineage were detected in 2021 in the United States (US) and since then have infected many wild and domestic birds. We evaluated the pathobiology of an early US H5N1 HPAIV (clade 2.3.4.4b, 2021) and two H5N8 HPAIVs from previous outbreaks in the US (clade 2.3.4.4c, 2014) and Europe (clade 2.3.4.4b, 2016) in chickens and turkeys. Differences in clinical signs, mean death times (MDTs), and virus transmissibility were found between chickens and …


Raccoon Spatial Ecology In The Rural Southeastern United States, Jacob E. Hill, Madison L. Miller, James L. Helton, Richard B. Chipman, Amy Gilbert, University of Georgia, Guha Dharmarajan, Olin E. Rhodes Jr. 2023 University of Georgia

Raccoon Spatial Ecology In The Rural Southeastern United States, Jacob E. Hill, Madison L. Miller, James L. Helton, Richard B. Chipman, Amy Gilbert, University Of Georgia, Guha Dharmarajan, Olin E. Rhodes Jr.

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

The movement ecology of raccoons varies widely across habitats with important implications for the management of zoonotic diseases such as rabies. However, the spatial ecology of raccoons remains poorly understood in many regions of the United States, particularly in the southeast. To better understand the spatial ecology of raccoons in the southeastern United States, we investigated the role of sex, season, and habitat on monthly raccoon home range and core area sizes in three common rural habitats (bottomland hardwood, upland pine, and riparian forest) in South Carolina, USA. From 2018–2022, we obtained 264 monthly home ranges from 46 raccoons. Mean …


Skin Lipids Alone Enable Conspecific Tracking In An Invasive Reptile, The Argentine Black And White Tegu Lizard (Salvator Merianae), M. Rockwell Parker, Eric A. Tillman, Lauren A. Nazarian, Megan L. Barlowe, Julianna M. Lincoln, Bryan M. Kluever 2023 James Madison University

Skin Lipids Alone Enable Conspecific Tracking In An Invasive Reptile, The Argentine Black And White Tegu Lizard (Salvator Merianae), M. Rockwell Parker, Eric A. Tillman, Lauren A. Nazarian, Megan L. Barlowe, Julianna M. Lincoln, Bryan M. Kluever

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Locating potential mates in non-native habitats is one of the most important challenges faced by invasive vertebrate species. The Argentine black and white tegu lizard (Salvator merianae) is a major invasive reptile species in the contiguous United States and is rapidly expanding its range across Florida and the Southeast, in part due to inadequate management strategies and tools. Because a wide array of reptiles, especially squamates (snakes and lizards), have been well-studied for their reliance on chemical cues to locate conspecifics, our project aimed to isolate chemical cues from tegus and assess the ability of adult males and …


H5n1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Clade 2.3.4.4b In Wild And Domestic Birds: Introductions Into The United States And Reassortments, December 2021–April 2022, Sungsu Youk, Mia Kim Torchetti, Kristina Lantz, Julianna B. Lenoch, Mary Lea Killian, Christina Leyson, Sarah N. Bevins, Krista Dilione, Hon S. Ip, David E. Stallknecht, Rebecca L. Poulson, David L. Suarez, David E. Swayne, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood 2023 USDA Agricultural Research Service

H5n1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Clade 2.3.4.4b In Wild And Domestic Birds: Introductions Into The United States And Reassortments, December 2021–April 2022, Sungsu Youk, Mia Kim Torchetti, Kristina Lantz, Julianna B. Lenoch, Mary Lea Killian, Christina Leyson, Sarah N. Bevins, Krista Dilione, Hon S. Ip, David E. Stallknecht, Rebecca L. Poulson, David L. Suarez, David E. Swayne, Mary J. Pantin-Jackwood

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage H5 clade 2.3.4.4b continue to have a devastating effect on domestic and wild birds. Full genome sequence analyses using 1369 H5N1 HPAIVs detected in the United States (U.S.) in wild birds, commercial poultry, and backyard flocks from December 2021 to April 2022, showed three phylogenetically distinct H5N1 virus introductions in the U.S. by wild birds. Unreassorted Eurasian genotypes A1 and A2 entered the Northeast Atlantic states, whereas a genetically distinct A3 genotype was detected in Alaska. The A1 genotype spread westward via wild bird migration and reassorted with North American …


Limited Accumulation And Persistence Of An Influenza A Virus In Tadpole Snails (Physa Spp.), Paul T. Oesterle, J. Jeffrey Root, Darcy S.O. Mora, Heather Schneider, Alan B. Franklin, Kathryn P. Huyvaert 2023 National Wildlife Research Center

Limited Accumulation And Persistence Of An Influenza A Virus In Tadpole Snails (Physa Spp.), Paul T. Oesterle, J. Jeffrey Root, Darcy S.O. Mora, Heather Schneider, Alan B. Franklin, Kathryn P. Huyvaert

USDA Wildlife Services: Staff Publications

Waterfowl infected with avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) shed infectious virus into aquatic environments, providing a mechanism for transmission among waterfowl, while also exposing the entire aquatic ecosystem to the virus. Aquatic invertebrates such as freshwater snails are likely exposed to IAVs in the water column and sediment. Freshwater snails comprise a significant portion of some waterfowl species’ diets, so this trophic interaction may serve as a novel route of IAV transmission. In these experiments, tadpole snails (Physa spp.) were exposed to a low-pathogenicity IAV (H3N8) to determine whether snails can accumulate the virus and, if so, how long virus …


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