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Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks 2021 Iowa State University

Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections cause significant economic losses to swine producers every year. Aerosols containing infectious PRRSV are an important route of transmission, and proper treatment of air could mitigate the airborne spread of the virus within and between barns. Previous bioaerosol studies focused on the microbiology of PRRSV aerosols; thus, the current study addressed the engineering aspects of virus aerosolization and collection. Specific objectives were to (1) build and test a virus aerosolization system, (2) achieve a uniform and repeatable aerosol generation and collection throughout all replicates, (3) identify and minimize sources of variation, (4 ...


Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs 2021 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of California-Davis, and Iowa State University

Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Metaherpetic disease is recognized in humans affected by herpes simplex virus-1 but is not reported in cats affected by feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) despite the high prevalence of herpetic disease in this species and strong similarities in viral biology between alphaherpesviruses of humans and cats. This preliminary work evaluated cats naïve to FHV-1 (n = 9 cats, 18 eyes; control population) and cats naturally exposed to FHV-1 (n = 4 cats, 7 eyes), as confirmed by serologic testing and review of medical records. Antemortem assessment included clinical scoring, blink rate, corneal aesthesiometry, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) with ...


Core Commitments For Field Trials Of Gene Drive Organisms, Kanya C. Long, Luke Alphey, George J. Annas, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Karl J. Campbell, Jackson Champer, Chun-Hong Chen, Amit Choudhary, George M. Church, James P. Collins, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jason A. Delborne, Owain R. Edwards, Claudia I. Emerson, Kevin Esvelt, Sam Weiss Evans, Robert M. Friedman, Valentino M. Gantz, Fred Gould, Sarah Hartley, Elizabeth Heitman, Janet Hemingway, Hirotaka Kanuka, Jennifer Kuzma, James V. Lavery, Yoosook Lee, Marce Lorenzen, Jeantine E. Lunshof, John M. Marshall, Philipp W. Messer, Craig Montell, Kenneth A. Oye, Megan J. Palmer, Philippos Aris Papathanos, Prasad N. Paradkar, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Jason L. Rasgon, Gordana Rašić, Larisa Rudenko, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell J. Scott, Jolene T. Sutton, Adam E, Vorsino, Omar S. Akbari 2020 University of California, San Diego

Core Commitments For Field Trials Of Gene Drive Organisms, Kanya C. Long, Luke Alphey, George J. Annas, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Karl J. Campbell, Jackson Champer, Chun-Hong Chen, Amit Choudhary, George M. Church, James P. Collins, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jason A. Delborne, Owain R. Edwards, Claudia I. Emerson, Kevin Esvelt, Sam Weiss Evans, Robert M. Friedman, Valentino M. Gantz, Fred Gould, Sarah Hartley, Elizabeth Heitman, Janet Hemingway, Hirotaka Kanuka, Jennifer Kuzma, James V. Lavery, Yoosook Lee, Marce Lorenzen, Jeantine E. Lunshof, John M. Marshall, Philipp W. Messer, Craig Montell, Kenneth A. Oye, Megan J. Palmer, Philippos Aris Papathanos, Prasad N. Paradkar, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Jason L. Rasgon, Gordana Rašić, Larisa Rudenko, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell J. Scott, Jolene T. Sutton, Adam E, Vorsino, Omar S. Akbari

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We must ensure that trials are scientifically, politically, and socially robust, publicly accountable, and widely transparent.

Gene drive organisms (GDOs), whose genomes have been genetically engineered to spread a desired allele through a population, have the potential to transform the way societies address a wide range of daunting public health and environmental challenges. The development, testing, and release of GDOs, however, are complex and often controversial. A key challenge is to clarify the appropriate roles of developers and others actively engaged in work with GDOs in decision-making processes, and, in particular, how to establish partnerships with relevant authorities and other ...


Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel 2020 Bowling Green State University

Impact Of Endangered Animal Protection Rights, Policies, And Practices On Zoonotic Disease Spread, Daniella Fedak-Lengel

Honors Projects

Building on field research in Costa Rica and Belize, this honors project analyzes environmental and endangered animal protection policies, rights, and practices in Central America and the Caribbean, and assesses the impact of veterinary science and biological research and practice, particularly conservation biology, on animal welfare concerns. Informed by the recent surge in awareness regarding zoonoses and zoonotic disease transmission, prevention and control, resulting from the current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the project assesses the need for new and innovative types of collaboration, particularly involving conservation biologists, environmental scientists, public health experts, law and policy makers, and global trade and ...


Developing A Rabies Prevention Program Based On Rabies Exposure Data In Nebraska, Jill Oatman 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Developing A Rabies Prevention Program Based On Rabies Exposure Data In Nebraska, Jill Oatman

Capstone Experience

Eighty-nine percent of Nebraska’s towns are considered rural, with populations of less than 3,000 people and with many towns having less than 1,000 residents. Rural areas consist of crop ground, livestock facilities and regions inhabited by wildlife. Nebraska has two large urban cities, Lincoln and Omaha. Animal and human health in these communities can be greatly impacted by infectious diseases that are transmitted between animals and humans, known as zoonotic diseases. One zoonotic disease of great concern is rabies. Zoonotic diseases not only impact the health of animals and humans, but the social well-being of communities and ...


Linking Mosquito Surveillance To Dengue Fever Through Bayesian Mechanistic Modeling, Clinton B. Leach, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Kim M. Pepin, Alvaro E. Eiras, Mevin B. Hooten, Colleen T. Webb 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Linking Mosquito Surveillance To Dengue Fever Through Bayesian Mechanistic Modeling, Clinton B. Leach, Jennifer A. Hoeting, Kim M. Pepin, Alvaro E. Eiras, Mevin B. Hooten, Colleen T. Webb

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Our ability to effectively prevent the transmission of the dengue virus through targeted control of its vector, Aedes aegypti, depends critically on our understanding of the link between mosquito abundance and human disease risk. Mosquito and clinical surveillance data are widely collected, but linking them requires a modeling framework that accounts for the complex non-linear mechanisms involved in transmission. Most critical are the bottleneck in transmission imposed by mosquito lifespan relative to the virus’ extrinsic incubation period, and the dynamics of human immunity. We developed a differential equation model of dengue transmission and embedded it in a Bayesian hierarchical framework ...


Spotted Owls And Forest Fire: Comment, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutiérrez, William M. Block, Peter C. Carlson, Emily J. Comfort, Samuel A. Cushman, Raymond J. Davis, Stephanie A. Eyes, Alan B. Franklin, Joseph L. Ganey, Shaula Hedwall, John J. Keane, Rodd Kelsey, Damon B, Lesmeister, Malcolm P. North, Susan L. Roberts, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Jamie S. Sanderlin, Sarah C. Sawyer, Ben Solvesky, Douglas J. Tempel, Ho Yi Wan, A. LeRoy Westerling, Gary C. White, M. Zachariah Peery 2020 USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Albuquerque

Spotted Owls And Forest Fire: Comment, Gavin M. Jones, R. J. Gutiérrez, William M. Block, Peter C. Carlson, Emily J. Comfort, Samuel A. Cushman, Raymond J. Davis, Stephanie A. Eyes, Alan B. Franklin, Joseph L. Ganey, Shaula Hedwall, John J. Keane, Rodd Kelsey, Damon B, Lesmeister, Malcolm P. North, Susan L. Roberts, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Jamie S. Sanderlin, Sarah C. Sawyer, Ben Solvesky, Douglas J. Tempel, Ho Yi Wan, A. Leroy Westerling, Gary C. White, M. Zachariah Peery

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Western North American forest ecosystems are experiencing rapid changes in disturbance regimes because of climate change and land use legacies (Littell et al. 2018). In many of these forests, the accumulation of surface and ladder fuels from a century of fire suppression, coupled with a warming and drying climate, has led to increases in the number of large fires (Westerling 2016) and the proportion of areas burning at higher severity (Safford and Stevens 2017, Singleton et al. 2018). While the annual area burned by fire is still below historical levels (Taylor et al. 2016), some forest types in the west ...


Loci Associated With Antibody Response In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) Infected With Brucella Suis, Courtney F. Pierce, Vienna R. Brown, Steven C. Olsen, Paola Boggiatto, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Scott E. Speidel, Timothy J. Smyser 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Loci Associated With Antibody Response In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) Infected With Brucella Suis, Courtney F. Pierce, Vienna R. Brown, Steven C. Olsen, Paola Boggiatto, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Scott E. Speidel, Timothy J. Smyser

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Feral swine (Sus scrofa) are a destructive invasive species widespread throughout the United States that disrupt ecosystems, damage crops, and carry pathogens of concern for the health of domestic stock and humans including Brucella suis—the causative organism for swine brucellosis. In domestic swine, brucellosis results in reproductive failure due to abortions and infertility. Contact with infected feral swine poses spillover risks to domestic pigs as well as humans, companion animals, wildlife, and other livestock. Genetic factors influence the outcome of infectious diseases; therefore, genome wide association studies (GWAS) of differential immune responses among feral swine can provide an understanding ...


A Review Of Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Synanthropic Birds, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

A Review Of Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Synanthropic Birds, Susan A. Shriner, J. Jeffrey Root

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Avian influenza A viruses (IAV) have received significant attention due to the threat they pose to human, livestock, and wildlife health. In this review, we focus on what is known about IAV dynamics in less common avian species that may play a role in trafficking IAVs to poultry operations. Specifically, we focus on synanthropic bird species. Synanthropic species, otherwise known as peridomestic, are species that are ecologically associated with humans and anthropogenically modified landscapes, such as agricultural and urban areas. Aquatic birds such as waterfowl and shorebirds are the species most commonly associated with avian IAVs, and are generally considered ...


Instability Of Glucocorticoid Metabolites In Coyote Scats: Implications For Field Sampling, Erika T. Stevenson, Eric M. Gese, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Susannah S. French 2020 USDA-ARS NWRC

Instability Of Glucocorticoid Metabolites In Coyote Scats: Implications For Field Sampling, Erika T. Stevenson, Eric M. Gese, Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Susannah S. French

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Studying physiologic stress responses can assist in understanding the welfare of animals. One method of measuring the physiologic stress response is evaluating concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites in feces. Previously, using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge, we found fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels were a reliable indicator of physiologic stress response in coyotes (Canis latrans). We determine whether glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remain stable when collecting feces over a 2-week period, a timeframe commonly used in scat surveys for wild canids. We collected feces from 6 captive coyotes maintained at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Predator Research ...


Tools, Techniques And Teamwork: Transferring New Technologies For Wildlife Management, Conservation And Economic Development, John Eisemann, Gail Keirn 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Tools, Techniques And Teamwork: Transferring New Technologies For Wildlife Management, Conservation And Economic Development, John Eisemann, Gail Keirn

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Did you ever wonder who invented radio telemetry? Or breakaway snares? What about the bird repellent methyl anthranilate or the livestock protection collar? These and many other tools used in wildlife damage management resulted from creative thinking by biologists, technicians, researchers and managers working to solve complex wildlife issues. Over the past 90 years, these “aha moments” within the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Wildlife Services program have ranged from developing novel scare devices, traps and vaccines to exploiting an animal’s visual capabilities to stop unwanted behaviors. Once discovered, these unique ideas may lead to practical, feasible and ...


Ecology Of Porcine Astrovirus Type 3 In A Herd With Associated Neurologic Disease, Gaurav Rawal, Franco S. Matias Ferreyra, Nubia R. Macedo, Laura K. Bradner, Karen M. Harmon, Grant Allison, Daniel C.L. Linhares, Bailey L. Wilberts 2020 Iowa State University

Ecology Of Porcine Astrovirus Type 3 In A Herd With Associated Neurologic Disease, Gaurav Rawal, Franco S. Matias Ferreyra, Nubia R. Macedo, Laura K. Bradner, Karen M. Harmon, Grant Allison, Daniel C.L. Linhares, Bailey L. Wilberts

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Astroviruses (AstVs) cause disease in a wide variety of species. Porcine AstVs are highly genetically diverse and conventionally assigned to five genetic lineages (PoAstV1-5). Due to the increasing evidence that porcine astrovirus type 3 (PoAstV3) is a cause of encephalomyelitis in swine and to elucidate important ecologic characteristics, the infection dynamics and environmental distribution of PoAstV3 were investigated in a herd with PoAstV3-associated neurologic disease. Over a 22 week period, the frequency of PoAstV3 fecal shedding varied by pig and age. The peak detection by RT-qPCR of PoAstV3 on fecal swabs (95%; 61 of 64) occurred at 3 weeks of ...


Afoxolaner As A Treatment For A Novel Sarcoptes Scabiei Infestation In A Juvenile Potbelly Pig, Joe S. Smith, Darren J. Berger, Sarah E. Hoff, Jeba R. J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Matthew T. Brewer 2020 Iowa State University

Afoxolaner As A Treatment For A Novel Sarcoptes Scabiei Infestation In A Juvenile Potbelly Pig, Joe S. Smith, Darren J. Berger, Sarah E. Hoff, Jeba R. J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Katy A. Martin, Matthew T. Brewer

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

A 2 months old female Vietnamese potbellied pig presented to a veterinary teaching hospital with a referring complaint of pruritus. A human caretaker of the pig had recently been diagnosed with a Sarcoptes spp. dermatitis. Microscopic examination of the skin scrape samples and BLAST analysis confirmed the species of the mite as most closely related to Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis (AY493391). The pig was treated with afoxolaner as previous treatment with ivermectin was not efficacious. Recheck examinations and follow up revealed the pig to be non-pruritic and resolving. Afoxolaner may be a therapeutic option when treating Sarcoptes spp. infections in ...


Relationship Between Weekly Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Exposure In Breeding Herds And Subsequent Viral Shedding And Mortality In The Nursery, Giovani Trevisan, Rebecca Robbins, Jose Angulo, Luc Dufresne, Will A. Lopez, Nubia R. Macedo, Daniel C.L. Linhares 2020 Iowa State University

Relationship Between Weekly Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Exposure In Breeding Herds And Subsequent Viral Shedding And Mortality In The Nursery, Giovani Trevisan, Rebecca Robbins, Jose Angulo, Luc Dufresne, Will A. Lopez, Nubia R. Macedo, Daniel C.L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Objective: Describe the relationship of weekly breeding herd status based on processing fluid (PF) testing for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) RNA by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on subsequent viral shedding and cumulative mortality during the nursery phase.

Materials and methods: Weekly cohorts (n = 121) of newborn piglets were classified into PRRSV exposure groups according to PRRSV detection in PF: low (quantification cycles [Cq] ≤ 27), medium (27 < Cq ≤ 34), high (34 < Cq ≤ 37), and negative (Cq > 37). At 6 weeks of age, oral fluids (OF) were collected from a subset of 41 cohorts, tested by qRT-PCR, and results used to classify the nursery shedding status ...


An Evaluation Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Turbines In The Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, Bryan M. Kluever 2020 United States Fish and Wildlife Service

An Evaluation Of Bird And Bat Mortality At Wind Turbines In The Northeastern United States, Daniel Y. Choi, Thomas W. Wittig, Bryan M. Kluever

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wind energy offers substantial environmental benefits, but wind facilities can negatively impact wildlife, including birds and bats. Researchers and managers have made major efforts to chronicle bird and bat mortality associated with wind facilities, but few studies have examined the patterns and underlying mechanisms of spatial patterns of fatalities at wind facilities. Understanding the horizontal fall distance between a carcass and the nearest turbine pole is important in designing effective search protocols and estimating total mortality. We explored patterns in taxonomic composition and fall distance of bird and bat carcasses at wind facilities in the Northeastern United States using publicly ...


Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie Mckee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Wildlife damage to crops is a persistent and costly problem for many farmers in the USA. Most existing estimates of crop damage have relied on direct assessment methods such as field studies conducted by trained biologists or surveys distributed to farmers. In this paper, we describe a new method of estimating wildlife damage that exploits federal crop insurance data. We focused our study on four crops: corn, soybean, wheat, and cotton, chosen because of their economic importance and their vulnerability to wildlife damage.

RESULTS: We determined crop-raiding hot spots across the USA over the 2015–2019 period and identified ...


Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Roots, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Effects Of Freshwater Crayfish On Influenza A Virus Persistence In Water, J. Jeffrey Roots, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater crayfish have on IAV in water at three dose levels and monitored for the presence of IAV in crayfish tissues (gill and green gland) and haemolymph at multiple time points. At relatively high, medium 432 and low (approximately 10 , 10 ...


Room Decontamination Using Ionized Hydrogen Peroxide Fog And Mist Reduces Hatching Rates Of Syphacia Obvelata Ova, Giuseppe Dell'Anna, Kathleen Mullin, Matthew T. Brewer, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Mary B. Sauer, Brianne L.S. Ball 2020 Iowa State University

Room Decontamination Using Ionized Hydrogen Peroxide Fog And Mist Reduces Hatching Rates Of Syphacia Obvelata Ova, Giuseppe Dell'anna, Kathleen Mullin, Matthew T. Brewer, Jeba R.J. Jesudoss Chelladurai, Mary B. Sauer, Brianne L.S. Ball

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

This study evaluated the efficacy of ionized hydrogen peroxide (iHP) fog and mist for environmental and surface decontamination of Syphacia obvelata ova in rodent rooms. Ova were collected by perianal tape impression from S. obvelata infected mice. In experiment 1, ova were exposed to iHP using a whole-room fogging decontamination system with a 15 min initial fog application cycle in unoccupied rodent rooms. Ova were removed from the fogged environment after a 15 min, 30 min, 90 min, or 240 min iHP exposure time. In experiment 2, a second cohort of ova were exposed to iHP using the whole-room fogging ...


Frontal Vehicle Illumination Via Rear-Facing Lighting Reduces Potential For Collisions With White-Tailed Deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley Blackwell 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Frontal Vehicle Illumination Via Rear-Facing Lighting Reduces Potential For Collisions With White-Tailed Deer, Travis L. Devault, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley Blackwell

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

nimal–vehicle collisions cause many millions of animal deaths each year worldwide and present a substantial safety risk to people. In the United States and Canada, deer (Odocoileus spp.) are involved in most animal–vehicle collisions associated with human injuries. We evaluated a vehicle-based collision mitigation method designed to decrease the likelihood of deer–vehicle collisions during low-light conditions, when most collisions occur. Specifically, we investigated whether the use of a rear-facing light, providing more complete frontal vehicle illumination than standard headlights alone, enhanced vehicle avoidance behaviors of white-tailed deer (O. virginianus). We quantified flight initiation distance (FID), the likelihood ...


Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor 2020 Iowa State University

Comparing The Estimates Of Effect Obtained From Statistical Causal Inference Methods: An Example Using Bovine Respiratory Disease In Feedlot Cattle, Ju Ji, Chong Wang, Zhulin He, Karen E. Hay, Tamsin S. Barnes, Annette O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The causal effect of an exposure on an outcome of interest in an observational study cannot be estimated directly if the confounding variables are not controlled. Many approaches are available for estimating the causal effect of an exposure. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the advantages associated with using inverse probability weighting (IPW) and doubly robust estimation of the odds ratio in terms of reduced bias. IPW approach can be used to adjust for confounding variables and provide unbiased estimates of the exposure’s causal effect. For cluster-structured data, as is common in animal populations, inverse conditional probability weighting (ICPW) approach ...


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