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Comparative and Laboratory Animal Medicine Commons

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An Eye On The Dog As The Scientist’S Best Friend For Translational Research In Ophthalmology: Focus On The Ocular Surface, Lionel Sebbag, Jonathan P. Mochel 2020 Iowa State University

An Eye On The Dog As The Scientist’S Best Friend For Translational Research In Ophthalmology: Focus On The Ocular Surface, Lionel Sebbag, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Preclinical animal studies provide valuable opportunities to better understand human diseases and contribute to major advances in medicine. This review provides a comprehensive overview of ocular parameters in humans and selected animals, with a focus on the ocular surface, detailing species differences in ocular surface anatomy, physiology, tear film dynamics and tear film composition. We describe major pitfalls that tremendously limit the translational potential of traditional laboratory animals (ie., rabbits, mice and rats) in ophthalmic research, and highlight the benefits of integrating companion dogs with clinical analogues to human diseases into preclinical pharmacology studies. This One Health approach can help ...


The Effect Of Intravenous Maropitant On Blood Pressure In Healthy Awake And Anesthetized Dogs, Ting-Ting Chi, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2020 Iowa State University

The Effect Of Intravenous Maropitant On Blood Pressure In Healthy Awake And Anesthetized Dogs, Ting-Ting Chi, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective To evaluate the effects of intravenous maropitant on arterial blood pressure in healthy dogs while awake and under general anesthesia.

Design Experimental crossover study.

Animals Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs.

Procedure All dogs received maropitant (1 mg kg-1) intravenously under the following conditions: 1) awake with non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwNIBP), 2) awake with invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwIBP), 3) premedication with acepromazine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaAB), and 4) premedication with dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed ...


Accepting Higher Morbidity In Exchange For Sacrificing Fewer Animals In Studies Developing Novel Infection-Control Strategies., Henk J. Busscher, Willem Woudstra, Theo G. van Kooten, Paul Jutte, Linqi Shi, Jianfeng Liu, Wouter L.J. Hinrichs, Hendrik W. Frijlink, Rui Shi, Jian Liu, Javad Parvizi, Stephen Kates, Vincent M. Rotello, Thomas P. Schaer, Dustin Williams, David W. Grainger, Henny C. van der Mei 2020 University of Groningen

Accepting Higher Morbidity In Exchange For Sacrificing Fewer Animals In Studies Developing Novel Infection-Control Strategies., Henk J. Busscher, Willem Woudstra, Theo G. Van Kooten, Paul Jutte, Linqi Shi, Jianfeng Liu, Wouter L.J. Hinrichs, Hendrik W. Frijlink, Rui Shi, Jian Liu, Javad Parvizi, Stephen Kates, Vincent M. Rotello, Thomas P. Schaer, Dustin Williams, David W. Grainger, Henny C. Van Der Mei

Rothman Institute Faculty Papers

Preventing bacterial infections from becoming the leading cause of death by the year 2050 requires the development of novel, infection-control strategies, building heavily on biomaterials science, including nanotechnology. Pre-clinical (animal) studies are indispensable for this development. Often, animal infection outcomes bear little relation to human clinical outcome. Here, we review conclusions from pathogen-inoculum dose-finding pilot studies for evaluation of novel infection-control strategies in murine models. Pathogen-inoculum doses are generally preferred that produce the largest differences in quantitative infection outcome parameters between a control and an experimental group, without death or termination of animals due to having reached an inhumane end-point ...


Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impact Of Beta-Adrenergic Agonist Supplementation And Heat Stress On The Microbiome And Gastrointestinal Transcriptome Of Sheep, Erin M. Duffy

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Improving animal growth and efficiency are critical points of research as the world’s population and demand for agriculture products increase. Therefore, adaptions or changes in the gut are of interest to maximize growth efficiency and wellbeing of livestock. The gastrointestinal tract of the rumen plays many critical roles with the assistance of the associated microbial community. One way to improve animal performance is supplementation of β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA) which are commonly fed to cattle during the last 20-40 days of the finishing period, improving muscle growth by decreasing adipose deposition and increasing muscle accretion. Two β-AA, Ractopamine HCl (β1-AA ...


Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel 2019 Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland

Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel

Joe Smith

A common feature of human and veterinary pharmacokinetics is the importance of identifying and quantifying the key determinants of between-patient variability in drug disposition and effects. Some of these attributes are already well known to the field of human pharmacology such as bodyweight, age, or sex, while others are more specific to veterinary medicine, such as species, breed, and social behavior. Identification of these attributes has the potential to allow a better and more tailored use of therapeutic drugs both in companion and food-producing animals. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) have been purposely designed to characterize the sources of variability in ...


Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal

Biología

Los llanos Orientales se distinguen por su variedad de ecosistemas, los cuales albergan una gran diversidad de especies de mamíferos arborícolas, terrestres, voladores, acuáticos y semiacuáticos, encontrándose allí ´´especies clave´´ con mayor importancia ecológica, ya que su deterioro o desaparición podría ocasionar daños irreversibles en el ecosistema. Por su parte, los murciélagos actúan como agentes de control biológico, hacen posible la polinización y están implicados en procesos de dispersión de semillas, siendo estos, ´´especies clave´´ en el equilibrio ecosistémico preservando la biodiversidad de un bosque. Sin embargo, a pesar de su gran valor ecológico se encuentran sujetos a innumerables conflictos ...


Evaluación Molecular, De Ehrlichia Canis Y Babesia Canis En Caninos Militares De La Fuérza Aérea Colombiana, César Enrique Martínez Roa 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Evaluación Molecular, De Ehrlichia Canis Y Babesia Canis En Caninos Militares De La Fuérza Aérea Colombiana, César Enrique Martínez Roa

Maestría en Ciencias Veterinarias

La Ehrlichiosis Monocítica Canina (EMC) y la Babesiosis Canina, son patologías de distribución mundial causadas por Ehrlichia canis y Babesia canis, respectivamente, comparten vector (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) y existen reportes en Colombia de infección individual y co-infección. La Fuerza Aérea Colombiana (FAC) cuenta con caninos entrenados en detecciones. En las Unidades de clima cálido del año 2008 al 2012, se ha reportado una alta tasa de mortalidad presuntivamente EMC, sin diagnóstico confirmado. Reemplazar un animal fallecido tiene altos costos económicos e intangibles (tiempo y capacidades adquiridas), por ello surge la necesidad de confirmar la posible presencia E. canis y B. canis ...


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks 2019 Missouri State University

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Kisspeptin Modulates Luteinizing Hormone Release And Ovarian Follicular Dynamics In Pre-Pubertal And Adult Murrah Buffaloes, Vishalkumar Pottapenjera, Srinivasa R. Rajanala, Chandrasekhar Reddy, Arunakumari Gangineni, Kiran Avula, Sandeep K. Bejjanki, Sriravali Sathagopam, Surabhi Kesharwani, Sathya Velmurugan 2018 P. V. Narsimha Rao Telangana Veterinary University, India

Kisspeptin Modulates Luteinizing Hormone Release And Ovarian Follicular Dynamics In Pre-Pubertal And Adult Murrah Buffaloes, Vishalkumar Pottapenjera, Srinivasa R. Rajanala, Chandrasekhar Reddy, Arunakumari Gangineni, Kiran Avula, Sandeep K. Bejjanki, Sriravali Sathagopam, Surabhi Kesharwani, Sathya Velmurugan

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that governs the reproductive axis upstream to GnRH. We wanted to study whether kisspeptin modulates plasma LH and FSH levels and ovarian follicular dynamics in buffaloes and whether kisspeptin can be used for fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI). We carried out these studies in comparison with buserelin, a potent GnRH agonist. Kisspeptin dose-dependently increased plasma LH levels. However, the kisspeptin-induced increase in LH was short-lived as the peak reached in 15–30 min returned to basal values by 1–2 h. The kisspeptin-induced increase in LH level was less compared to buserelin-induced increase in LH level ...


Evaluation Of Oncolytic And Immunomodulatory Potential Of The Hsv-1 Live-Attenuated Vaccine Strain Vc2 In An Immunocompetent Murine Melanoma Model, Natalie Wall Fowlkes 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Evaluation Of Oncolytic And Immunomodulatory Potential Of The Hsv-1 Live-Attenuated Vaccine Strain Vc2 In An Immunocompetent Murine Melanoma Model, Natalie Wall Fowlkes

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Melanoma accounts for 90% of skin cancer-related deaths in humans. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in people is very limited. Melanoma is considered to be an immunogenic tumor, spurring interest in development of immunotherapies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Oncolytic virotherapy has been widely investigated. The first ever oncolytic virotherapy to receive FDA-approval is an HSV-1-based virus (Talimogene Laherperavec (T-Vec) or Imlygic) containing a transgene for human GM-CSF to enhance anti-tumor immune responses after injection. Durable response rate in human patients was only 16% despite impressive efficacy in anti-tumor effects in vitro and in murine tumor models. Novel viruses ...


Paclitaxel Enhances Oncolytic Potential Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 In Cancer Cells, misagh naderi 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Paclitaxel Enhances Oncolytic Potential Of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 In Cancer Cells, Misagh Naderi

LSU Master's Theses

Taxanes are spindle poisons that bind to and stabilize microtubules resulting in mitotic arrest. Herpes simplex Typ-1 (HSV-1) virions utilize the microtubular network for intracellular transport during both virus entry and virus egress from infected cells. It has been reported previously that taxanes may synergize with oncolytic herpes simplex viruses in the treatment of experimental prostate and breast tumors in mice. Other reports have indicated that taxanes may inhibit viral replication in infected cells. In this study the previously characterized Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (OSVP), which was constructed in Kousoulas lab was used in conjugation with paclitaxel (taxol ...


An Epidemiologic Study Of Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococcus Species Isolated From Equine Samples Submitted To A Diagnostic Laboratory, Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig N. Carter, Agricola Odoi 2018 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

An Epidemiologic Study Of Antimicrobial Resistance Of Staphylococcus Species Isolated From Equine Samples Submitted To A Diagnostic Laboratory, Ronita Adams, Jackie Smith, Stephen Locke, Erica Phillips, Erdal Erol, Craig N. Carter, Agricola Odoi

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Background

Antimicrobial resistance limits traditional treatment options and increases costs. It is therefore important to estimate the magnitude of the problem so as to provide empirical data to guide control efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. Retrospective data of 1711 equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the UKVDL during the time period 1993 to 2009 were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, that included 16 drugs, were performed using cultures followed ...


The Reporting Characteristics Of Bovine Respiratory Disease Clinical Intervention Trials Published Prior To And Following Publication Of The Reflect Statement, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

The Reporting Characteristics Of Bovine Respiratory Disease Clinical Intervention Trials Published Prior To And Following Publication Of The Reflect Statement, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah N. Cullen, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The goal of the REFLECT Statement (Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials in livEstoCk and food safeTy) (published in 2010) was to provide the veterinary research community with reporting guidelines tailored for randomized controlled trials for livestock and food safety. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of REFLECT Statement reporting of items 1 to 19 in controlled trials published in journals between 1970 and 2017 examining the comparative efficacy of FDA-registered antimicrobials against naturally acquired BRD (bovine respiratory disease) in weaned beef calves in Canada or the USA, and to compare the prevalence of reporting before and after 2010 ...


Induction Of Central Venous Catheter-Associated Sepsis (Cas): A Novel Sheep Model Simulating The Complex Pathophysiology Observed In Humans. A Paper To Be Submitted To Shock., Matthew Beal 2018 Iowa State University

Induction Of Central Venous Catheter-Associated Sepsis (Cas): A Novel Sheep Model Simulating The Complex Pathophysiology Observed In Humans. A Paper To Be Submitted To Shock., Matthew Beal

Creative Components

Catheter-associated blood stream infections (CABSIs) are serious, yet common, outcomes in both human and animals with indwelling catheters. The increasing rate of these infections is partially due to hindered knowledge on how to stop the spred of these pathogens, this due, in part, to inadequate animal models. Current experimental models fail to mimic various aspects of sepsis pathogenesis, diverse clinical symptomology, and in most cases lack the ability to test novel therapies for use in human medicine. In response to the urgent need for a more clinically relevant animal model of CAS, this large animal model was conceptualized and validated ...


Activation Of A Cryptic 5′ Splice Site Reverses The Impact Of Pathogenic Splice Site Mutations In The Spinal Muscular Atrophy Gene, Natalia N. Singh, Jose Bruno Del Rio-Malewski, Diou Luo, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Ravindra N. Singh 2017 Iowa State University

Activation Of A Cryptic 5′ Splice Site Reverses The Impact Of Pathogenic Splice Site Mutations In The Spinal Muscular Atrophy Gene, Natalia N. Singh, Jose Bruno Del Rio-Malewski, Diou Luo, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deletions or mutations of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene coupled with predominant skipping of SMN2 exon 7. The only approved SMA treatment is an antisense oligonucleotide that targets the intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1), located downstream of the 5′ splice site (5′ss) of exon 7. Here, we describe a novel approach to exon 7 splicing modulation through activation of a cryptic 5′ss (Cr1). We discovered the activation of Cr1 in transcripts derived from SMN1 that carries a pathogenic G-to-C mutation at the first position (G1C) of intron 7. We ...


A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh 2017 Iowa State University

A Multilayered Control Of The Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene Expression By Alu Elements, Eric W. Ottesen, Joonbae Seo, Natalia N. Singh, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Humans carry two nearly identical copies of Survival Motor Neuron gene: SMN1 and SMN2. Mutations or deletions of SMN1, which codes for SMN, cause spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a leading genetic disease associated with infant mortality. Aberrant expression or localization of SMN has been also implicated in other pathological conditions, including male infertility, inclusion body myositis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and osteoarthritis. SMN2 fails to compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to skipping of exon 7, leading to the production of SMNΔ7, an unstable protein. In addition, SMNΔ7 is less functional due to the lack of a critical C-terminus of ...


How The Discovery Of Iss-N1 Led To The First Medical Therapy For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Natalia N. Singh, Matthew D. Howell, Elliot J. Androphy, Ravindra N. Singh 2017 Iowa State University

How The Discovery Of Iss-N1 Led To The First Medical Therapy For Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Natalia N. Singh, Matthew D. Howell, Elliot J. Androphy, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a prominent genetic disease of infant mortality, is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein owing to deletions or mutations of the SMN1 gene. SMN2, a nearly identical copy of SMN1 present in humans, cannot compensate for the loss of SMN1 due to predominant skipping of exon 7 during pre-mRNA splicing. With the recent FDA approval of nusinersen (Spinraza™), the potential for correction of SMN2 exon 7 splicing as a SMA therapy has been affirmed. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide that targets intronic splicing silencer N1 (ISS-N1) discovered in 2004 at the University ...


Lasting Retinal Injury In A Mouse Model Of Blast-Induced Trauma, Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee 2017 Iowa State University

Lasting Retinal Injury In A Mouse Model Of Blast-Induced Trauma, Najiba Mammadova, Shivani Ghaisas, Gary Zenitsky, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Justin J. Greenlee, M. Heather West Greenlee

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Traumatic brain injury due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. Although secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure resulting from blast wave pressure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulting retinal pathologies. Using a compressed air-driven shock tube system, adult male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to blast wave pressure of 300 kPa (43.5 psi) per day for 3 successive days, and euthanized 30 days after injury. We assessed retinal tissues using immunofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic ...


Outcomes Of Spatially Fractionated Radiotherapy (Grid) For Bulky Soft Tissue Sarcomas In A Large Animal Model, Michael W. Nolan, Tracy L. Gieger, Alexander A. Karakashian, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Lysa P. Posner, Donald M. Roback, Judith N. Rivera, Sha Chang 2017 North Carolina State University

Outcomes Of Spatially Fractionated Radiotherapy (Grid) For Bulky Soft Tissue Sarcomas In A Large Animal Model, Michael W. Nolan, Tracy L. Gieger, Alexander A. Karakashian, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Lysa P. Posner, Donald M. Roback, Judith N. Rivera, Sha Chang

Physiology Faculty Publications

GRID directs alternating regions of high- and low-dose radiation at tumors. A large animal model mimicking the geometries of human treatments is needed to complement existing rodent systems (eg, microbeam) and clarify the physical and biological attributes of GRID. A pilot study was undertaken in pet dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas to characterize responses to GRID. Subjects were treated with either 20 Gy (3 dogs) or 25 Gy (3 dogs), delivered using 6 MV X-rays and a commercial GRID collimator. Acute toxicity and tumor responses were assessed 2, 4, and 6 weeks later. Acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ...


Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


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