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Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare.

Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process.

Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel 2017 University of California, Davis

Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel

Science Seminar Series

Peter J. Havel of the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis will speak on his research on Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical and clinical studies at this Science Seminar Series lecture.


Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known that arginine vasotocin (AVT) in birds is involved in physiological homeostasis such as cardiovascular, osmotic regulation as well as reproductive functions. Pertinent to these physiological functions, AVT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the hypothalamus have been found associated with hemorrhage, dehydration, oviposition and other physiological regulation. Evidence, however, suggests that AVT also plays significant roles in modulating behavior, memory, stress, and food intake. This dissertation research addresses the latter two neuroendocrine functions of AVT in detail within the chicken brain. First, the functional role of AVT-ir neurons in conjunction with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-ir neurons in ...


The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson 2017 University of Akron

The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson

Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of methamphetamine combined with hypoxia on the development and function of the cardiovascular system in Danio rerio embryos. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of the drug and decreased oxygen concentration would result in decreased cardiac parameters due to underdevelopment of the ventricle and vessels resulting from cardiomyopathy and lack of blood flow to tissues. It was found that methamphetamine exposure correlated to an increase in stroke volume, caudal artery and vein diameters and RBC velocities alone, while having a multiplicative effect of increasing arterial RBC velocity when combined ...


Vmed 646: Animal Physiology Ii—A Peer Review Of Teaching Project Benchmark Portfolio, Renee M. McFee 2017 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Vmed 646: Animal Physiology Ii—A Peer Review Of Teaching Project Benchmark Portfolio, Renee M. Mcfee

UNL Faculty Course Portfolios

This Peer Review of Teaching Project portfolio focuses on the Animal Physiology II course which is required for first year veterinary medicine students. Weekly quizzes assess baseline knowledge and had been administered individually and in groups. I hypothesized the discontinuation of group quizzes would increase student effort when preparing for quizzes. Unit exams involve scenario-based questions and require students to apply information. I hypothesized the implementation of group exams would help under-performing students improve their ability to apply information they had learned. Exams were still taken individually prior to being taken in groups to encourage adequate preparation. Student impacts were ...


An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka 2017 University of Kentucky

An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The mare experiences a transient innate immune response to breeding, the resolution of which is crucial for optimal fertility. The majority of mares are able to modulate this inflammation in a timely fashion, but a subpopulation exists which fail to do so and are considered susceptible to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE). Seminal plasma has been shown to modulate aspects of this inflammation. Recently, two seminal plasma proteins have garnered interest for their immune modulating properties: cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and lactoferrin. These proteins have been found to alter the binding between sperm and neutrophils based on sperm viability in vitro ...


Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, Cassandra M. V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Haley A. Carr, Colleen M. Alvarez, Daniel I. Rubenstein 2017 Iowa State University

Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, Cassandra M. V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Haley A. Carr, Colleen M. Alvarez, Daniel I. Rubenstein

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Due to the extirpation of their natural predators, feral horse populations have expanded across the United States, necessitating their management. Contraception of females (mares) with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) is a popular option; however, effects to physiology and behavior can be substantial. On Shackleford Banks, North Carolina, USA, treated mares have exhibited cycling during the non-breeding season and demonstrated decreased fidelity to the band stallion, but PZP's long-term effects on mare physiology and behavior remain largely unexplored. After the contraception program was suspended in this population, we examined how prior exposure to varying levels of PZP treatment impacted (1 ...


Follicular Dynamics In Insulin Resistant Mares, Julio Cesar Prado 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Follicular Dynamics In Insulin Resistant Mares, Julio Cesar Prado

Masters Theses

Obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to prolonged interovulatory period, aberrations in the estrous cycle, and continuous reproductive activity during the non-breeding season. EMS has been determined to influence the intrafollicular environment of mare ovaries. In humans, insulin resistance has been linked to polycystic ovaries as part of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). A study was conducted to determine 1) the impact of insulin resistance on follicle growth and size at ovulation, and 2) whether predicted ovulatory follicles respond to hCG administration in Insulin-resistant (IR) mares. Mares were selected for the study based on insulin sensitivity and separated into an ...


Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.

Results: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, we propose that this ...


Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. McElligott 2016 Queen Mary University of London

Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity allows animals to effectively respond to internal and external stimuli in everyday challenges via changes in, for example, heart and respiration rate. Various factors, ranging from social such as dominance rank to internal such as personality or affective states can impact animal physiology. Our knowledge of the combinatory effects of social and internal factors on ANS basal activity and reactivity, and of the importance that each factor has in determining physiological parameters, is limited, particularly in nonhuman, free-ranging animals. In this study, we tested the effects of dominance rank and personality (assessed ...


The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting 2016 Murray State University

The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting

Scholars Week

Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with respiratory cancers in canines, with the predisposed locations determined by the cephalic ratio (head length / head width). Exposure to SHS is frequently measured by analyzing urine or blood samples for the nicotine by-product cotinine. We investigated the suitability of saliva as an alternative source for cotinine analyses in dogs because obtaining saliva is less invasive and cotinine concentrations from SHS exposure are instantaneously measurable in saliva compared to other collection methods. Specifically, we tested for a quantitative relationship between cephalic ratio and the salivary concentration of cotinine. Our null hypothesis was that there ...


Impact Of Carprofen Administration On Stress And Nociception Responses Of Calves To Cautery Dehorning, M. L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Nicholas K. Van Engen, Suzanne T. Millman, R. Gehring, Chong Wang, E. A. Voris, Larry W. Wulf, Lea Labeur, Walter H. Hsu, Johann F. Coetzee 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Carprofen Administration On Stress And Nociception Responses Of Calves To Cautery Dehorning, M. L. Stock, L. A. Barth, Nicholas K. Van Engen, Suzanne T. Millman, R. Gehring, Chong Wang, E. A. Voris, Larry W. Wulf, Lea Labeur, Walter H. Hsu, Johann F. Coetzee

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of carprofen administered immediately before cautery dehorning on nociception and stress. Forty Holstein calves aged approximately 6 to 8 wk old were either placebo treated and sham dehorned (n = 10) or cautery dehorned following administration of carprofen (1.4 mg/kg) subcutaneously (n = 10) or orally (n = 10) or a subcutaneous and oral placebo (n = 10) in a randomized, controlled trial. All animals were given a cornual nerve block using lidocaine before dehorning. Response variables including mechanical nociception threshold, ocular temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and ...


Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F. Othman, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Noninvasive Assessment Of Cardiac Abnormalities In Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis By Magnetic Resonance Microscopy Imaging In The Mouse, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, Arunakumar Gangaplara, David Steffen, Shadi F. Othman, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the myocardium, but only ~10% of those affected show clinical manifestations of the disease. To study the immune events of myocardial injuries, various mouse models of myocarditis have been widely used. This study involved experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) induced with cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc)-α 334-352 in A/J mice; the affected animals develop lymphocytic myocarditis but with no apparent clinical signs. In this model, the utility of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) as a non-invasive modality to determine the cardiac structural and functional changes in animals immunized with Myhc-α 334-352 is shown. EAM and ...


Use Of Alivecor Heart Monitor For Heart Rate And Rhythm Evaluation In Dairy Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalis Bubalis), Joe Smith, Jessica Ward, Tara Urbano, Mikaela Mueller 2016 Iowa State University

Use Of Alivecor Heart Monitor For Heart Rate And Rhythm Evaluation In Dairy Water Buffalo Calves (Bubalis Bubalis), Joe Smith, Jessica Ward, Tara Urbano, Mikaela Mueller

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Smartphone-based ECG recording devices are a promising new diagnostic in veterinary medicine. However, these devices have not yet been demonstrated to work in water buffalo. A commercial, non-invasive, smartphone-based ECG (AliveCor Vet TM) monitoring device was field tested on water buffalo calves. Six neonatal water buffalo calves had an ECG simultaneously recorded with a standard medical ECG recorder and the AliveCor Vet device. A correlation of 0.75053 was observed between average heart rates obtained between AliveCor recordings when compared to those from the 6 lead ECG. 100% Rhythm agreement was met for all 12 recordings. The recordings of 4 ...


Severe Impairment Of Male Reproductive Organ Development In A Low Smn Expressing Mouse Model Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Natalia N. Singh, Joonbae Seo, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ravindra N. Singh 2016 Iowa State University

Severe Impairment Of Male Reproductive Organ Development In A Low Smn Expressing Mouse Model Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Eric W. Ottesen, Matthew D. Howell, Natalia N. Singh, Joonbae Seo, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Ravindra N. Singh

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN), a multifunctional protein essential for higher eukaryotes. While SMN is one of the most scrutinized proteins associated with neurodegeneration, its gender-specific role in vertebrates remains unknown. We utilized a mild SMA model (C/C model) to examine the impact of low SMN on growth and development of mammalian sex organs. We show impaired testis development, degenerated seminiferous tubules, reduced sperm count and low fertility in C/C males, but no overt sex organ phenotype in C/C females. Underscoring an increased requirement for SMN expression, wild ...


Differential Gene Expression In Equine Cartilaginous Tissues And Induced Chondrocytes, Emma N. Adam 2016 University of Kentucky

Differential Gene Expression In Equine Cartilaginous Tissues And Induced Chondrocytes, Emma N. Adam

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthritis, is a major cause of lameness and morbidity in horses, humans, and dogs. There are no truly satisfactory cures for this widespread problem and current treatments all have limitations or unwanted side effects.

New cell-based strategies to repair joint surface lesions have generated a high level of interest, but have yet to achieve the full restoration of articular cartilage structure and function. Currently used therapy cells include autologous chondrocytes and adult mesenchymal cells such as bone marrow derived cells and adipose derived cells. Unfortunately, the resultant repair tissue is biomechanically inferior fibrocartilage. A critical gap ...


Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. McElligott 2015 Queen Mary University of London

Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. Mcelligott

ETH

Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity allows animals to effectively respond to internal and external stimuli in everyday challenges via changes in, for example, heart and respiration rate. Various factors, ranging from social such as dominance rank to internal such as personality or affective states can impact animal physiology. Our knowledge of the combinatory effects of social and internal factors on ANS basal activity and reactivity, and of the importance that each factor has in determining physiological parameters, is limited, particularly in nonhuman, free-ranging animals. In this study, we tested the effects of dominance rank and personality (assessed ...


Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human ...


The Physiological Consequences Of Crib-Biting In Horses In Response To An Acth Challenge Test, S. Briefer Freymond, D. Bardou, E. F. Briefer, R. Bruckmaier, N. Fouché, J. Fleury, A.-L. Maigrot, A. Ramseyer, K. Zuberbühler, I. Bachmann 2015 Swiss National Stud Farm

The Physiological Consequences Of Crib-Biting In Horses In Response To An Acth Challenge Test, S. Briefer Freymond, D. Bardou, E. F. Briefer, R. Bruckmaier, N. Fouché, J. Fleury, A.-L. Maigrot, A. Ramseyer, K. Zuberbühler, I. Bachmann

Physiology

Stereotypies are repetitive and relatively invariant patterns of behavior, which are observed in a wide range of species in captivity. Stereotypic behavior occurs when environmental demands produce a physiological response that, if sustained for an extended period, exceeds the natural physiological regulatory capacity of the organism, particularly in situations that include unpredictability and uncontrollability. One hypothesis is that stereotypic behavior functions to cope with stressful environments, but the existing evidence is contradictory. To address the coping hypothesis of stereotypies, we triggered physiological reactions in 22 horses affected by stereotypic behavior (crib-biters) and 21 non-crib-biters (controls), using an ACTH challenge test ...


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