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All Articles in Veterinary Physiology

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Miniature Companion Pig Sedation And Anesthesia, Joseph Smith, Reza Seddighi 2022 UTK CVM

Miniature Companion Pig Sedation And Anesthesia, Joseph Smith, Reza Seddighi

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Large Animal Clinical Sciences

  • Miniature companion pigs (MCP) are increasing in popularity, and as such, there is an increased need for veterinarians trained in sedation and anesthesia for the species.
  • MCPs have several species-specific qualities that can complicate injectable drug administration and create challenges for inhalational anesthesia (eg, with endotracheal intubation).
  • General anesthetic complications, such as hypothermia and hypotension, are commonly described in miniature companion pigs, so monitoring of vital parameters during anesthetic procedures and recovery is crucial.


No Difference In Corticosterone Concentrations Between Missouri Three-Toed Box Turtles Living In An Urban And A Rural Site, Bennett A. Lamczyk, Jamie L. Palmer, Corinne P. Kozlowski, Stephen Blake, Sharon L. Deem 2022 College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois

No Difference In Corticosterone Concentrations Between Missouri Three-Toed Box Turtles Living In An Urban And A Rural Site, Bennett A. Lamczyk, Jamie L. Palmer, Corinne P. Kozlowski, Stephen Blake, Sharon L. Deem

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Baseline health data for species of conservation concern are important for understanding threats to the long-term viability of populations. One indication of health is physiological stress among individuals. Corticosterone (CORT) is frequently used to quantify stress in free-living reptile populations, as high values may be associated with reduced fitness. Herein, we describe and validate methods for quantifying blood CORT levels in three-toed box turtles (Terrapene mexicana triunguis). We subsequently use this information to evaluate stress levels in 2 populations of free-living three-toed box turtles in Missouri, USA. To our knowledge, this is the first quantification of CORT levels in the ...


Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige DeJarnett 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige Dejarnett

Sociology and Criminology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pets have historically been viewed as family members, children, property, or economic resources. However, research surrounding animal maltreatment has expressed this issue as an individually-based problem, rather than a community-based phenomenon. Correlations have been found between animal cruelty, antisocial behaviors, and future interpersonal violence, whether this correlation be a predictive relationship, or a resultant relationship. Past research has also found correlations between animal treatment practices and the rural/urban differences of this behavior. However, there are many community-based indicators that have not been explored to understand the distribution of animal maltreatment. This study aims to explore these ideas by analyzing ...


Comparative Study Of Anesthesia’S Effect On Baroreceptor Reflex And Sympathetic Nerve Activity In Adult Rats, John Harbin 2021 East Tennessee State University

Comparative Study Of Anesthesia’S Effect On Baroreceptor Reflex And Sympathetic Nerve Activity In Adult Rats, John Harbin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Anesthesia affects the central nervous system and can suppress cardiovascular activity. In this study, we compared two anesthetics, urethane and alpha-chloralose, to better understand their effect on sympathetic control of blood pressure, as well as how they would affect baroreceptor response and blood pressure in adult rats. To do this we performed baroreceptor tests in adult rats under isoflurane anesthesia and then either urethane (I.V. 1.25 g/kg, n=2) or alpha-chloralose (100 mg/kg, n=2). We found that baroreceptor responses were not significantly different between urethane or alpha-chloralose anesthesia. However, significant depression of baseline blood pressure ...


Determining The Effects Of Exogenous Human Chorionic Gonadotropin And Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin On Plasma Testosterone, Testicular Volume, And Semen Production In Leopard Geckos (Eublepharis Macularius), Alexandra Mason 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Determining The Effects Of Exogenous Human Chorionic Gonadotropin And Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin On Plasma Testosterone, Testicular Volume, And Semen Production In Leopard Geckos (Eublepharis Macularius), Alexandra Mason

LSU Master's Theses

Planet earth has now entered into its sixth mass extinction as a result of expanding human populations, posing an unprecedented threat to biologic diversity. Climate change, habitat fragmentation, wildlife trade, pollution, and biological invasions are just a few consequences of human activities that have directly contributed to unprecedented species extinctions. While widespread amphibian declines have gained more recent attention, it has been proposed that reptiles may be in even greater danger of extinction worldwide. Unfortunately, many reptiles are destined to go extinct before many of their basic biologic traits, including reproductive methods, have even been determined.

In order to mitigate ...


Condition Factor Of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Caged In Lakes Sampaloc, Calibato, And Mohicap In San Pablo, Laguna, Casey Joelle D. Detalo 2021 University of the Philippines Los Baños

Condition Factor Of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) Caged In Lakes Sampaloc, Calibato, And Mohicap In San Pablo, Laguna, Casey Joelle D. Detalo

Undergraduate Theses

This study was conducted to compare the condition factor of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) caged in Lakes Sampaloc, Calibato, Mohicap, and Yambo in San Pablo, Laguna. The condition factor ranged from 1.50+ 0.10 to 1.96 +0.21. All values corresponded to good to excellent condition of fish. The CF from the UPLB Limnological Station and Yambo Lake was found to be significantly lower than those in Sampaloc, Calibato, and Mohicap. This may be attributed to the trophic conditions in Sampaloc, Calibato, and Mohicap. The nutrient levels in the eutrophic Calibato Lake and mesotrophic Sampaloc and Mohicap ...


Occurrence Of Pulmonary Arteritis With Lungworm Infections In Gray Seals From New England, 2013-2020, Jillian R. Broadhurst, Inga Sidor DVM, MS, DACVP 2021 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Occurrence Of Pulmonary Arteritis With Lungworm Infections In Gray Seals From New England, 2013-2020, Jillian R. Broadhurst, Inga Sidor Dvm, Ms, Dacvp

Honors Theses and Capstones

Gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) are a common pinniped species in New England coastal waters. Parasitic infection is an important cause of mortality for this species, and lungworm species are frequently implicated in cases of respiratory infection, especially in pups and weanling seals. The most common of these is Otostrongylus circumlitus, a large nematode found in the bronchi and bronchioles of affected seals. The full life cycle is unknown but its presence in lungs and sometimes pulmonary arteries suggests that migration via arterial circulation occurs. Signs and microscopic findings are widely variable; our cases included dyspnea, bloody mucoid oral and nasal ...


Effect Of Feed Additives And Toxic Elements On Swine Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Immune Function And Reproductive Performance, Richard A. Mudarra Hernández 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Feed Additives And Toxic Elements On Swine Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Immune Function And Reproductive Performance, Richard A. Mudarra Hernández

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To evaluate the effects of peptide in combination of zinc oxide (Zno) or acidifiers (Exp 1), and gossypol (G) from cottonseed meal (CSM) ( Exp 2&3) on growth performance, complete blood cell counts (Exp 1, 2&3), nutrient digestibility (Exp 1), plasma gossypol (Exp 2&3) and semen quality (Exp 3), weaned pigs (Exp 1), growing gilts (Exp 2) and growing boars (Exp 3) were randomly allotted to dietary treatments. Treatments for Exp 1 during phase 1&2 were: (1) Positive Control (PC), formulated to meet NRC (2012) nutrient requirements; (2) Negative control (NC), fish meal was reduced to achieve -0.13% SID lysine; (3) NC + 0.25% peptide plus high level of zinc (0.25PZ); (4) NC + 0.50% peptide plus high level of zinc (0.5PZ); (5) 0.25% peptide (0.25P); (6) 0.50% peptide (0.5P); (7) 0.25% peptide + 0.1% sodium butyrate and 0.5% benzoic acid (PSB). In phase 3, all pigs were fed a common diet. Treatments ...


Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reproductive performance is crucial for sustained financial success in the beef cattle industry. This dissertation includes a population study that quantified the incidence of Neospora caninum infections in the central region of the United States and tested its relationship with reproductive performance in beef cattle. Trial one of that study concluded that 6.9% of open, replacement heifers (n = 1306) tested seropositive. The second trial in that project found that 9.6% of the breeding age females (n = 500) tested were seropositive for Neospora caninum; and that state in which the cattle lived and age impacted (P < 0.05) infection rate. Breed composition, number of farm dogs on the ranch, and use of total mixed rations were not associated (P > 0.1) with ...


Examining Traumatic Bone Fracture Healing Versus Surgical Osteotomies In Canines And Resulting Rates Of Infection, Grace Gsellman 2020 The University of Akron

Examining Traumatic Bone Fracture Healing Versus Surgical Osteotomies In Canines And Resulting Rates Of Infection, Grace Gsellman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The development of osteomyelitis after surgical osteotomies and fracture repair in canines can propose serious health risks, ultimately leading to additional intervention from veterinarians that can become costly for pet owners and effect prognosis for the patient. Preventive measures are currently implemented during surgery and postoperatively. However, infection rates still range from 3.0% to 7.9% (Clark et al., 2018). By examining traumatic bone fracture healing versus surgical osteotomies in canines through the collection of both clinical and radiographic medical records, our primary objective was to further understand the physiological mechanism by which osteomyelitis develops. Limitations related to the ...


Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With close to 5,000 captive tigers in the United States, it is vital to ensure that these tigers are receiving adequate welfare whether they are in an accredited facility, or privately owned. The goal of this study was to assess whether captive tigers at a rescue facility with experience being transported outside of the facility would respond differently to the presentation of their transport vehicle than their naïve counterparts who had only been transported within the facility. The behavior of 5 naïve and 7 experienced tigers (n = 12) located at Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge in Eureka Springs, Arkansas was ...


Behavioural Risks In Female Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones, Melissa J. Starling, Anne Fawcett, Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney

Behavioural Risks In Female Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones, Melissa J. Starling, Anne Fawcett, Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Paul Mcgreevy

Physiology Collection

Spaying of female dogs is a widespread practice, performed primarily for population control. While the consequences of early spaying for health are still being debated, the consequences for behaviour are believed to be negligible. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 8981 female dogs spayed before 520 weeks (ten years) of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). We found that 23 behaviours differed between entire ...


Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in poultry research continue to add knowledge and understanding to an already technical industry. Such information has led to new developments in early feeding strategies which provide nutrients to broiler chicks while in the egg or during transport. This wealth of knowledge in poultry research extends beyond chickens and is utilized for other species, such as quail and pheasants, including how fertile eggs are stored and incubated. However, methods of early feeding broilers have not been investigated in industry relevant approaches to understand its effects, including how timing of feed access interacts with the hatch window. As well, quail ...


The Physiological Consequences Of Crib-Biting In Horses In Response To An Acth Challenge Test, S. Briefer Freymond, D. Bardou, Elodie F. Briefer, R. Bruckmaier, N. Fouché, J. Fleury, A.-L. Maigrot, A. Ramseyer, K. Zuberbühler, I. Bachmann 2019 Swiss National Stud Farm

The Physiological Consequences Of Crib-Biting In Horses In Response To An Acth Challenge Test, S. Briefer Freymond, D. Bardou, Elodie F. Briefer, R. Bruckmaier, N. Fouché, J. Fleury, A.-L. Maigrot, A. Ramseyer, K. Zuberbühler, I. Bachmann

Elodie Briefer, PhD

Stereotypies are repetitive and relatively invariant patterns of behavior, which are observed in a wide range of species in captivity. Stereotypic behavior occurs when environmental demands produce a physiological response that, if sustained for an extended period, exceeds the natural physiological regulatory capacity of the organism, particularly in situations that include unpredictability and uncontrollability. One hypothesis is that stereotypic behavior functions to cope with stressful environments, but the existing evidence is contradictory. To address the coping hypothesis of stereotypies, we triggered physiological reactions in 22 horses affected by stereotypic behavior (crib-biters) and 21 non-crib-biters (controls), using an ACTH challenge test ...


Can Assisted Reproductive Technologies Help Conserve 300 Million Years Of Evolution? A First Attempt At Developing These Technologies For Male Reptiles, Sean M. Perry 2019 Louisiana State University

Can Assisted Reproductive Technologies Help Conserve 300 Million Years Of Evolution? A First Attempt At Developing These Technologies For Male Reptiles, Sean M. Perry

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Biodiversity loss is the most critical environmental problem threatening ecosystem, animal, and human health today. Increases in extinction rates have been observed over the past 50 years, with reptile losses occurring twelve times faster than traditional extinction rates. This demonstrated biodiversity loss is secondary to climate change, habitat destruction, infectious disease, invasive species, poaching, and unsustainable trade. Approximately 20% of all reptiles are threatened with extinction and population declines are approaching rates similar to the current amphibian extinction crisis. Preventing the extinction of reptiles will require humans to acknowledge these losses and develop plans to preserve these evolutionary sentinel species ...


Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal

Biología

Los llanos Orientales se distinguen por su variedad de ecosistemas, los cuales albergan una gran diversidad de especies de mamíferos arborícolas, terrestres, voladores, acuáticos y semiacuáticos, encontrándose allí ´´especies clave´´ con mayor importancia ecológica, ya que su deterioro o desaparición podría ocasionar daños irreversibles en el ecosistema. Por su parte, los murciélagos actúan como agentes de control biológico, hacen posible la polinización y están implicados en procesos de dispersión de semillas, siendo estos, ´´especies clave´´ en el equilibrio ecosistémico preservando la biodiversidad de un bosque. Sin embargo, a pesar de su gran valor ecológico se encuentran sujetos a innumerables conflictos ...


Evaluations Of Health In Sympatric Free-Ranging Saguinus Imperator And Leontocebus Weddelli Using Neopterin, Urinalysis, And Blood Chemistry Analyses, Alexandra J. Sacco 2019 Central Washington University

Evaluations Of Health In Sympatric Free-Ranging Saguinus Imperator And Leontocebus Weddelli Using Neopterin, Urinalysis, And Blood Chemistry Analyses, Alexandra J. Sacco

All Master's Theses

This thesis is composed of one journal-ready article and one chapter that includes a preliminary interpretation of data for later publication. In summary, this thesis proposes the use of three different methods of evaluating the health status of New World Monkeys: urinary neopterin measurement, blood chemistry analyses, and urinalysis. Chapter II addresses the question of whether or not the neopterin molecule, a biomarker for cell-mediated immune system activation, is conserved across primate taxa. To do so, we collected urine samples across three New World Monkey (NWM) families including captive Leontopithecus rosalia and Pithecia pithecia, and wild populations of Leontocebus weddelli ...


An Ethogram For Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae), Jennifer Mather, Jean S. Alupay 2018 University of Lethbridge

An Ethogram For Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae), Jennifer Mather, Jean S. Alupay

Jennifer Mather, PhD

The present paper constructs a general ethogram for the actions of the flexible body as well as the skin displays of octopuses in the family Octopodidae. The actions of 6 sets of structures (mantle–funnel, arms, sucker–stalk, skin–web, head, and mouth) combine to produce behavioral units that involve positioning of parts leading to postures such as the flamboyant, movements of parts of the animal with relation to itself including head bob and grooming, and movements of the whole animal by both jetting in the water and crawling along the substrate. Muscular actions result in 4 key changes in ...


Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, PhD

Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity allows animals to effectively respond to internal and external stimuli in everyday challenges via changes in, for example, heart and respiration rate. Various factors, ranging from social such as dominance rank to internal such as personality or affective states can impact animal physiology. Our knowledge of the combinatory effects of social and internal factors on ANS basal activity and reactivity, and of the importance that each factor has in determining physiological parameters, is limited, particularly in nonhuman, free-ranging animals. In this study, we tested the effects of dominance rank and personality (assessed ...


Rehabilitation Of An Injured Golden Eagle (Aquila Chrysaetos): A Case Study, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-i- Abbas, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz 2017 Centre for Bioresource Research (CBR), Islamabad

Rehabilitation Of An Injured Golden Eagle (Aquila Chrysaetos): A Case Study, Fida Muhammad Khan, Fakhar-I- Abbas, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz

Journal of Bioresource Management

Habitat destruction and anthropogenic activities cause wild birds to migrate towards urban areas in search of food and sometimes nesting in high-roof buildings, where they are caught by local people using different techniques and are further used for hunting or recreational purposes. An injured Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) was found entangled in bushes near the vicinity of Balkasar Research Complex, Chakwal, Pakistan. After complete physical examination, a wound on the right wing and closed leg fracture was diagnosed. The successful treatment was done by anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial drugs with careful monitoring. Splint was adjusted after aligning the fractured bones to ...


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