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Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild 2018 Nelson Mandela Africa Institution of Science and Technology

Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...


Review: Effects Of Ractopamine Hydrochloride (Paylean) On Welfare Indicators For Market Weight Pigs, M. J. Ritter, A. K. Johnson, M. E. Benjamin, S. N. Carr, M. Ellis, L. Faucitano, T. Grandin, J. L. Salak-Johnson, D. U. Thomson, C. Goldhawk, M. S. Calvo-Lorenzo 2017 Elanco Animal Health

Review: Effects Of Ractopamine Hydrochloride (Paylean) On Welfare Indicators For Market Weight Pigs, M. J. Ritter, A. K. Johnson, M. E. Benjamin, S. N. Carr, M. Ellis, L. Faucitano, T. Grandin, J. L. Salak-Johnson, D. U. Thomson, C. Goldhawk, M. S. Calvo-Lorenzo

Animal Science Publications

This review summarizes the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) dose (5, 7.5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) on market weight pig welfare indicators. Ractopamine hydrochloride (trade name Paylean) is a β-adrenergic agonist that was initially approved in the U.S. in 1999 at doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg to improve feed efficiency and carcass leanness. However, anecdotal reports suggested that RAC increased the rate of non-ambulatory (fatigued and injured) pigs at U.S. packing plants. This led to the addition of a caution statement to the Paylean label, and a series of research studies investigating the effects ...


Lead Poisoning In Bald Eagles Admitted To Wildlife Rehabilitation Facilities In Iowa, 2004–2014, Taylor Yaw, Kay Neumann, Linette Bernard, Jodeane Cancilla, Terese Evans, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Bianca Zaffarano 2017 Iowa State University

Lead Poisoning In Bald Eagles Admitted To Wildlife Rehabilitation Facilities In Iowa, 2004–2014, Taylor Yaw, Kay Neumann, Linette Bernard, Jodeane Cancilla, Terese Evans, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Bianca Zaffarano

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Eleven years (2004–2014) of bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus data from four independent, state and federally permitted wildlife rehabilitators in Iowa were assessed for the prevalence of elevated lead levels in blood or tissue samples. The relationship between blood lead concentrations and recorded information (age, season, radiographs, and clinical outcome) was investigated. Adult birds had higher blood lead concentrations than immature and juvenile birds. Highest blood lead levels were found during October–January. Bald eagles with positive radiographs for metallic opacities in the digestive tract had higher blood and tissue lead concentrations than those with negative results or those on ...


Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity allows animals to effectively respond to internal and external stimuli in everyday challenges via changes in, for example, heart and respiration rate. Various factors, ranging from social such as dominance rank to internal such as personality or affective states can impact animal physiology. Our knowledge of the combinatory effects of social and internal factors on ANS basal activity and reactivity, and of the importance that each factor has in determining physiological parameters, is limited, particularly in nonhuman, free-ranging animals. In this study, we tested the effects of dominance rank and personality (assessed ...


Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Growth Performance Of Pigs In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress, Wendy M. Rauw, E. Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C. M. Dekkers, John F. Patience, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Lance H. Baumgard 2017 Iowa State University

Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Growth Performance Of Pigs In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress, Wendy M. Rauw, E. Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C. M. Dekkers, John F. Patience, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Lance H. Baumgard

Animal Science Publications

Heat stress (HS) is one of the costliest issues in the U.S. pork industry. Aims of the present study were to determine the consequences of repeated exposure to HS on growth performance, and the effects of a high fiber diet, the genetic potential for high lean tissue accretion, and the genetic potential for residual feed intake (RFI) on resilience to HS. Barrows (n = 97) from three genetic lines (commercial, high RFI, low RFI) where subjected three times to a 4-day HS treatment (HS1, HS2, and HS3) which was preceded by a 9-day neutral (TN) adaptation period (TN1) and alternated ...


Equine Arteritis Virus Has Specific Tropism For Stromal Cells And Cd8+ T And Cd21+ B Lymphocytes But Not For Glandular Epithelium At The Primary Site Of Persistent Infection In The Stallion Reproductive Tract, Mariano Carossino, Alan T. Loynachan, Igor F. Canisso, Richard Frank Cook, Juliana Roberta Campos, Bora Nam, Yun Young Go, Edward L. Squires, Mats H. T. Troedsson, Thomas W. Swerczek, Fabio Del Piero, Ernest F. Bailey, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya 2017 University of Kentucky

Equine Arteritis Virus Has Specific Tropism For Stromal Cells And Cd8+ T And Cd21+ B Lymphocytes But Not For Glandular Epithelium At The Primary Site Of Persistent Infection In The Stallion Reproductive Tract, Mariano Carossino, Alan T. Loynachan, Igor F. Canisso, Richard Frank Cook, Juliana Roberta Campos, Bora Nam, Yun Young Go, Edward L. Squires, Mats H. T. Troedsson, Thomas W. Swerczek, Fabio Del Piero, Ernest F. Bailey, Peter J. Timoney, Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has a global impact on the equine industry as the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of equids. A distinctive feature of EAV infection is that it establishes long-term persistent infection in 10 to 70% of infected stallions (carriers). In these stallions, EAV is detectable only in the reproductive tract, and viral persistence occurs despite the presence of high serum neutralizing antibody titers. Carrier stallions constitute the natural reservoir of the virus as they continuously shed EAV in their semen. Although the accessory sex glands have been implicated as ...


Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman 2017 Iowa State University

Swine Respiratory Disease Minimally Affects Responses Of Nursery Pigs To Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, Locke A. Karriker, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, Kent J. Schwartz, Tina M. Widowski, Chong Wang, Suzanne T. Millman

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

Objectives: To assess effects of swine respiratory disease (SRD) on nursery pig responses during gas euthanasia and to compare responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) and argon (Ar) gas euthanasia in terms of efficacy and welfare. Materials and methods: Fifty-four pigs identified for euthanasia were classified as having SRD or euthanized for other reasons (OT). These pigs were distributed among three treatments: prefill CO2 (P-CO2), gradual fill CO2(G-CO2), and prefill Ar (P-Ar). Behavioral and physiological indicators of efficacy and welfare were assessed directly and from video. Modified atmosphere CO2 and O2concentrations (%) were collected throughout the process. Results: Respiratory disease status ...


Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel 2017 University of California, Davis

Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel

Science Seminar Series

Peter J. Havel of the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis will speak on his research on Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical and clinical studies at this Science Seminar Series lecture.


Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known that arginine vasotocin (AVT) in birds is involved in physiological homeostasis such as cardiovascular, osmotic regulation as well as reproductive functions. Pertinent to these physiological functions, AVT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the hypothalamus have been found associated with hemorrhage, dehydration, oviposition and other physiological regulation. Evidence, however, suggests that AVT also plays significant roles in modulating behavior, memory, stress, and food intake. This dissertation research addresses the latter two neuroendocrine functions of AVT in detail within the chicken brain. First, the functional role of AVT-ir neurons in conjunction with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-ir neurons in ...


Measured And Calculated Variables Of Global Oxygenation In Healthy Neonatal Foals, David M. Wong, Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, Beatrice T. Sponseller, Joan M. Howard, Chong Wang 2017 Iowa State University

Measured And Calculated Variables Of Global Oxygenation In Healthy Neonatal Foals, David M. Wong, Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, Beatrice T. Sponseller, Joan M. Howard, Chong Wang

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

OBJECTIVE To assess multiple central venous and arterial blood variables that alone o r in conjunction with one another reflect global oxygenation status in healthy neonatal foals.

ANIMALS 11 healthy neonatal foals.

PROCEDURES Central venous and arterial blood samples were collected from healthy neonatal foals at 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours after birth. Variables measured from central venous and arterial blood samples included oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen, lactate concentration, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and pH. Calculated variables included venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide gap, estimated oxygen ext raction ratio, ratio of partial pressure of ...


The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson 2017 University of Akron

The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson

Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of methamphetamine combined with hypoxia on the development and function of the cardiovascular system in Danio rerio embryos. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of the drug and decreased oxygen concentration would result in decreased cardiac parameters due to underdevelopment of the ventricle and vessels resulting from cardiomyopathy and lack of blood flow to tissues. It was found that methamphetamine exposure correlated to an increase in stroke volume, caudal artery and vein diameters and RBC velocities alone, while having a multiplicative effect of increasing arterial RBC velocity when combined ...


Vmed 646: Animal Physiology Ii—A Peer Review Of Teaching Project Benchmark Portfolio, Renee M. McFee 2017 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Vmed 646: Animal Physiology Ii—A Peer Review Of Teaching Project Benchmark Portfolio, Renee M. Mcfee

UNL Faculty Course Portfolios

This Peer Review of Teaching Project portfolio focuses on the Animal Physiology II course which is required for first year veterinary medicine students. Weekly quizzes assess baseline knowledge and had been administered individually and in groups. I hypothesized the discontinuation of group quizzes would increase student effort when preparing for quizzes. Unit exams involve scenario-based questions and require students to apply information. I hypothesized the implementation of group exams would help under-performing students improve their ability to apply information they had learned. Exams were still taken individually prior to being taken in groups to encourage adequate preparation. Student impacts were ...


Comparison Of Conception Rates In Beef Cattle Inseminated With Either Sexedultra™ Sex-Sorted Semen Or Conventional Semen In Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination (Ftai) Protocols, Benjamin R. Crites 2017 University of Kentucky

Comparison Of Conception Rates In Beef Cattle Inseminated With Either Sexedultra™ Sex-Sorted Semen Or Conventional Semen In Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination (Ftai) Protocols, Benjamin R. Crites

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Estrous synchronization and artificial insemination (ESAI) are reproductive technologies that cattlemen can use to improve the reproductive performance of their herds. Controlling the gender ratio of the calf-crop can also improve the opportunity for increased revenue and profit. Producers are able to shift and/or control the gender ratio of their calf crop by incorporating sex-sorted semen into their AI programs. However, decreased conception rates to AI have been previously observed when sex-sorted semen was used in comparison to conventional semen of the same sires. The objective of the first study was to determine if conception rates will differ in ...


An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka 2017 University of Kentucky

An Investigation Into Specific Seminal Plasma Proteins And Their Effect On The Innate Immune Response To Breeding In The Mare, Carleigh Elizabeth Fedorka

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The mare experiences a transient innate immune response to breeding, the resolution of which is crucial for optimal fertility. The majority of mares are able to modulate this inflammation in a timely fashion, but a subpopulation exists which fail to do so and are considered susceptible to persistent breeding-induced endometritis (PBIE). Seminal plasma has been shown to modulate aspects of this inflammation. Recently, two seminal plasma proteins have garnered interest for their immune modulating properties: cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3) and lactoferrin. These proteins have been found to alter the binding between sperm and neutrophils based on sperm viability in vitro ...


Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, Cassandra M. V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Haley A. Carr, Colleen M. Alvarez, Daniel I. Rubenstein 2017 Iowa State University

Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, Cassandra M. V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Haley A. Carr, Colleen M. Alvarez, Daniel I. Rubenstein

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Due to the extirpation of their natural predators, feral horse populations have expanded across the United States, necessitating their management. Contraception of females (mares) with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) is a popular option; however, effects to physiology and behavior can be substantial. On Shackleford Banks, North Carolina, USA, treated mares have exhibited cycling during the non-breeding season and demonstrated decreased fidelity to the band stallion, but PZP's long-term effects on mare physiology and behavior remain largely unexplored. After the contraception program was suspended in this population, we examined how prior exposure to varying levels of PZP treatment impacted (1 ...


Systematic Review Protocol: The Effects Of Glucocorticoids On Selected Hemodynamic And Biochemical Parameters In Dogs And Cats, Jessica Ward, Allison Masters, Annette O'Connor 2017 Iowa State University

Systematic Review Protocol: The Effects Of Glucocorticoids On Selected Hemodynamic And Biochemical Parameters In Dogs And Cats, Jessica Ward, Allison Masters, Annette O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Objective: The objective of this scoping review is to define the scope of literature pertaining to the effects of glucocorticoids in dogs or cats on selected parameters that may affect cardiac function or fluid balance (blood glucose, blood pressure, sodium and potassium levels, echocardiographic or invasive hemodynamic indices, or indicators of volume status). It is our intention that after evaluating the available literature, we will then make a determination of the potential to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant literature for specific interventions.


Follicular Dynamics In Insulin Resistant Mares, Julio Cesar Prado 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Follicular Dynamics In Insulin Resistant Mares, Julio Cesar Prado

Masters Theses

Obesity and insulin resistance have been linked to prolonged interovulatory period, aberrations in the estrous cycle, and continuous reproductive activity during the non-breeding season. EMS has been determined to influence the intrafollicular environment of mare ovaries. In humans, insulin resistance has been linked to polycystic ovaries as part of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). A study was conducted to determine 1) the impact of insulin resistance on follicle growth and size at ovulation, and 2) whether predicted ovulatory follicles respond to hCG administration in Insulin-resistant (IR) mares. Mares were selected for the study based on insulin sensitivity and separated into an ...


Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2016 Ontario Veterinary College

Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Meta-analysis, the statistical combination of results from multiple studies, can be used to summarize all of the available research on an intervention, etiology, descriptive, or diagnostic test accuracy question. Meta-analysis should be conducted as a component of a systematic review, to increase transparency in the selection of studies and to incorporate an evaluation of the risk of bias in the individual studies included in the meta-analysis. The process of meta-analysis may include a forest plot to graphically display the study results and the calculation of a weighted average summary effect size. Heterogeneity (differences in the effect size between studies) can ...


Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko N. Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.

Results: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, we propose that this ...


An Ethogram For Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae), Jennifer Mather, Jean S. Alupay 2016 University of Lethbridge

An Ethogram For Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae), Jennifer Mather, Jean S. Alupay

Physiology

The present paper constructs a general ethogram for the actions of the flexible body as well as the skin displays of octopuses in the family Octopodidae. The actions of 6 sets of structures (mantle–funnel, arms, sucker–stalk, skin–web, head, and mouth) combine to produce behavioral units that involve positioning of parts leading to postures such as the flamboyant, movements of parts of the animal with relation to itself including head bob and grooming, and movements of the whole animal by both jetting in the water and crawling along the substrate. Muscular actions result in 4 key changes in ...


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