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Focused Ultrasound Of The Caudal Vena Cava In Dogs With Cavitary Effusions Or Congestive Heart Failure: A Prospective, Observational Study, Yen-Yu Chou, Jessica L. Ward, Lara Z. Barron, Shane D. Murphy, Melissa A. Tropf, Gregory R. Lisciandro, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Teresa C. DeFrancesco 2021 Iowa State University

Focused Ultrasound Of The Caudal Vena Cava In Dogs With Cavitary Effusions Or Congestive Heart Failure: A Prospective, Observational Study, Yen-Yu Chou, Jessica L. Ward, Lara Z. Barron, Shane D. Murphy, Melissa A. Tropf, Gregory R. Lisciandro, Lingnan Yuan, Jonathan P. Mochel, Teresa C. Defrancesco

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Introduction: Ultrasonographic indices of the inferior vena cava are useful for predicting right heart filling pressures in people.

Objectives: To determine whether ultrasonographic indices of caudal vena cava (CVC) differ between dogs with right-sided CHF (R-CHF), left-sided CHF (L-CHF), and noncardiac causes of cavitary effusion (NC).

Materials and methods: 113 dogs diagnosed with R-CHF (n = 51), L-CHF (30), or NC effusion (32) were enrolled. Seventeen of the R-CHF dogs had pericardial effusion and tamponade. Focused ultrasound was performed prospectively to obtain 2-dimensional and M-mode subxiphoid measures of CVC maximal and minimal size (CVCmax and CVCmin), CVCmax indexed to aortic dimension ...


Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Associations Among Beef Cattle Genotypes, Neospora Caninum Infection, And Reproductive Performance, Ryan James Page

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reproductive performance is crucial for sustained financial success in the beef cattle industry. This dissertation includes a population study that quantified the incidence of Neospora caninum infections in the central region of the United States and tested its relationship with reproductive performance in beef cattle. Trial one of that study concluded that 6.9% of open, replacement heifers (n = 1306) tested seropositive. The second trial in that project found that 9.6% of the breeding age females (n = 500) tested were seropositive for Neospora caninum; and that state in which the cattle lived and age impacted (P < 0.05) infection rate. Breed composition, number of farm dogs on the ranch, and use of total mixed rations were not associated (P > 0.1) with ...


Recapitulation Of The Accessible Interface Of Biopsy-Derived Canine Intestinal Organoids To Study Epithelial-Luminal Interactions, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Yejin Park, Albert E. Jergens, Woojung Shin, Soyoun Min, Todd Atherly, Dana C. Borcherding, Jinah Jang, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Hyun Jung Kim 2020 University of Texas at Austin and Iowa State University

Recapitulation Of The Accessible Interface Of Biopsy-Derived Canine Intestinal Organoids To Study Epithelial-Luminal Interactions, Yoko M. Ambrosini, Yejin Park, Albert E. Jergens, Woojung Shin, Soyoun Min, Todd Atherly, Dana C. Borcherding, Jinah Jang, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel, Hyun Jung Kim

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in canine intestinal organoids have expanded the option for building a better in vitro model to investigate translational science of intestinal physiology and pathology between humans and animals. However, the three-dimensional geometry and the enclosed lumen of canine intestinal organoids considerably hinder the access to the apical side of epithelium for investigating the nutrient and drug absorption, host-microbiome crosstalk, and pharmaceutical toxicity testing. Thus, the creation of a polarized epithelial interface accessible from apical or basolateral side is critical. Here, we demonstrated the generation of an intestinal epithelial monolayer using canine biopsy-derived colonic organoids (colonoids). We optimized the ...


Aqueous Tear Assessment In Dogs: Impact Of Cephalic Conformation, Inter‐Test Correlations, And Test‐Retest Repeatability, Hellen Bolzani, Arianne P. Oriá, Ana Claudia S. Raposo, Lionel Sebbag 2020 Federal University of Bahia

Aqueous Tear Assessment In Dogs: Impact Of Cephalic Conformation, Inter‐Test Correlations, And Test‐Retest Repeatability, Hellen Bolzani, Arianne P. Oriá, Ana Claudia S. Raposo, Lionel Sebbag

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective - To characterize diagnostic findings, test‐retest repeatability, and correlations among lacrimal tests in dogs of diverse cephalic conformations.

Animal studied - Fifty healthy dogs (25 brachycephalic, 25 nonbrachycephalic).

Procedures - A series of diagnostics were performed in each dog, allowing for a 10‐minute interval between tests and repeating each test 24 hours later under similar conditions: corneal tactile sensation (CTS), strip meniscometry test (SMT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT), Schirmer tear test‐1 without (STT‐1) or with nasolacrimal stimulation (NL‐STT1), and Schirmer tear test‐2 (STT‐2).

Results - Mean ± SD test ...


Examining Traumatic Bone Fracture Healing Versus Surgical Osteotomies In Canines And Resulting Rates Of Infection, Grace Gsellman 2020 The University of Akron

Examining Traumatic Bone Fracture Healing Versus Surgical Osteotomies In Canines And Resulting Rates Of Infection, Grace Gsellman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The development of osteomyelitis after surgical osteotomies and fracture repair in canines can propose serious health risks, ultimately leading to additional intervention from veterinarians that can become costly for pet owners and effect prognosis for the patient. Preventive measures are currently implemented during surgery and postoperatively. However, infection rates still range from 3.0% to 7.9% (Clark et al., 2018). By examining traumatic bone fracture healing versus surgical osteotomies in canines through the collection of both clinical and radiographic medical records, our primary objective was to further understand the physiological mechanism by which osteomyelitis develops. Limitations related to the ...


Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With close to 5,000 captive tigers in the United States, it is vital to ensure that these tigers are receiving adequate welfare whether they are in an accredited facility, or privately owned. The goal of this study was to assess whether captive tigers at a rescue facility with experience being transported outside of the facility would respond differently to the presentation of their transport vehicle than their naïve counterparts who had only been transported within the facility. The behavior of 5 naïve and 7 experienced tigers (n = 12) located at Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge in Eureka Springs, Arkansas was ...


Behavioural Risks In Female Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones, Melissa J. Starling, Anne Fawcett, Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Paul McGreevy 2019 University of Sydney

Behavioural Risks In Female Dogs With Minimal Lifetime Exposure To Gonadal Hormones, Melissa J. Starling, Anne Fawcett, Bethany Wilson, James Serpell, Paul Mcgreevy

Physiology Collection

Spaying of female dogs is a widespread practice, performed primarily for population control. While the consequences of early spaying for health are still being debated, the consequences for behaviour are believed to be negligible. The current study focused on the reported behaviour of 8981 female dogs spayed before 520 weeks (ten years) of life for reasons other than behavioural management, and calculated their percentage lifetime exposure to gonadal hormones (PLGH) as a proportion of their age at the time of being reported to the online Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). We found that 23 behaviours differed between entire ...


Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in poultry research continue to add knowledge and understanding to an already technical industry. Such information has led to new developments in early feeding strategies which provide nutrients to broiler chicks while in the egg or during transport. This wealth of knowledge in poultry research extends beyond chickens and is utilized for other species, such as quail and pheasants, including how fertile eggs are stored and incubated. However, methods of early feeding broilers have not been investigated in industry relevant approaches to understand its effects, including how timing of feed access interacts with the hatch window. As well, quail ...


The Physiological Consequences Of Crib-Biting In Horses In Response To An Acth Challenge Test, S. Briefer Freymond, D. Bardou, Elodie F. Briefer, R. Bruckmaier, N. Fouché, J. Fleury, A.-L. Maigrot, A. Ramseyer, K. Zuberbühler, I. Bachmann 2019 Swiss National Stud Farm

The Physiological Consequences Of Crib-Biting In Horses In Response To An Acth Challenge Test, S. Briefer Freymond, D. Bardou, Elodie F. Briefer, R. Bruckmaier, N. Fouché, J. Fleury, A.-L. Maigrot, A. Ramseyer, K. Zuberbühler, I. Bachmann

Elodie Briefer, PhD

Stereotypies are repetitive and relatively invariant patterns of behavior, which are observed in a wide range of species in captivity. Stereotypic behavior occurs when environmental demands produce a physiological response that, if sustained for an extended period, exceeds the natural physiological regulatory capacity of the organism, particularly in situations that include unpredictability and uncontrollability. One hypothesis is that stereotypic behavior functions to cope with stressful environments, but the existing evidence is contradictory. To address the coping hypothesis of stereotypies, we triggered physiological reactions in 22 horses affected by stereotypic behavior (crib-biters) and 21 non-crib-biters (controls), using an ACTH challenge test ...


Can Assisted Reproductive Technologies Help Conserve 300 Million Years Of Evolution? A First Attempt At Developing These Technologies For Male Reptiles, Sean M. Perry 2019 Louisiana State University

Can Assisted Reproductive Technologies Help Conserve 300 Million Years Of Evolution? A First Attempt At Developing These Technologies For Male Reptiles, Sean M. Perry

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Biodiversity loss is the most critical environmental problem threatening ecosystem, animal, and human health today. Increases in extinction rates have been observed over the past 50 years, with reptile losses occurring twelve times faster than traditional extinction rates. This demonstrated biodiversity loss is secondary to climate change, habitat destruction, infectious disease, invasive species, poaching, and unsustainable trade. Approximately 20% of all reptiles are threatened with extinction and population declines are approaching rates similar to the current amphibian extinction crisis. Preventing the extinction of reptiles will require humans to acknowledge these losses and develop plans to preserve these evolutionary sentinel species ...


Evaluations Of Health In Sympatric Free-Ranging Saguinus Imperator And Leontocebus Weddelli Using Neopterin, Urinalysis, And Blood Chemistry Analyses, Alexandra J. Sacco 2019 Central Washington University

Evaluations Of Health In Sympatric Free-Ranging Saguinus Imperator And Leontocebus Weddelli Using Neopterin, Urinalysis, And Blood Chemistry Analyses, Alexandra J. Sacco

All Master's Theses

This thesis is composed of one journal-ready article and one chapter that includes a preliminary interpretation of data for later publication. In summary, this thesis proposes the use of three different methods of evaluating the health status of New World Monkeys: urinary neopterin measurement, blood chemistry analyses, and urinalysis. Chapter II addresses the question of whether or not the neopterin molecule, a biomarker for cell-mediated immune system activation, is conserved across primate taxa. To do so, we collected urine samples across three New World Monkey (NWM) families including captive Leontopithecus rosalia and Pithecia pithecia, and wild populations of Leontocebus weddelli ...


Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal 2019 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Diversidad Y Distribución De Mamíferos Voladores En El Corregimiento De Punto Nuevo Municipio De Yopal, Casanare Y Su Impacto En La Comunidad, Karen Lorena Navarro Leal

Biología

Los llanos Orientales se distinguen por su variedad de ecosistemas, los cuales albergan una gran diversidad de especies de mamíferos arborícolas, terrestres, voladores, acuáticos y semiacuáticos, encontrándose allí ´´especies clave´´ con mayor importancia ecológica, ya que su deterioro o desaparición podría ocasionar daños irreversibles en el ecosistema. Por su parte, los murciélagos actúan como agentes de control biológico, hacen posible la polinización y están implicados en procesos de dispersión de semillas, siendo estos, ´´especies clave´´ en el equilibrio ecosistémico preservando la biodiversidad de un bosque. Sin embargo, a pesar de su gran valor ecológico se encuentran sujetos a innumerables conflictos ...


An Ethogram For Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae), Jennifer Mather, Jean S. Alupay 2018 University of Lethbridge

An Ethogram For Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae), Jennifer Mather, Jean S. Alupay

Jennifer Mather, PhD

The present paper constructs a general ethogram for the actions of the flexible body as well as the skin displays of octopuses in the family Octopodidae. The actions of 6 sets of structures (mantle–funnel, arms, sucker–stalk, skin–web, head, and mouth) combine to produce behavioral units that involve positioning of parts leading to postures such as the flamboyant, movements of parts of the animal with relation to itself including head bob and grooming, and movements of the whole animal by both jetting in the water and crawling along the substrate. Muscular actions result in 4 key changes in ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Carbon Dioxide And Medical Air For Abdominal Insufflation On Respiratory Parameters In Xylazine-Sedated Sheep Undergoing Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination, J. D. Haan, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Swanand R. Sathe 2018 Iowa State University

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Carbon Dioxide And Medical Air For Abdominal Insufflation On Respiratory Parameters In Xylazine-Sedated Sheep Undergoing Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination, J. D. Haan, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus, Swanand R. Sathe

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

AIMS: To determine if abdominal insufflation with medical air will improve oxygenation and ventilation parameters when compared to insufflation with CO2 in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI).

METHODS: Forty-seven sheep underwent oestrus synchronisation and were fasted for 24 hours prior to laparoscopic AI. Each animal was randomised to receive either CO2 or medical air for abdominal insufflation. An auricular arterial catheter was placed and utilised for serial blood sampling. Respiratory rates (RR) and arterial blood samples were collected at baseline, after xylazine (0.1 mg/kg I/V) sedation, 2 minutes after Trendelenburg positioning, 5 minutes after abdominal ...


Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild 2018 Nelson Mandela Africa Institution of Science and Technology

Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...


Chemosensory Structure And Function In The Filarial Nematode, Brugia Malayi, Lisa M. Fraser, R. Isai Madriz, Divyaa Srinivasan, Mostafa Zamanian, Lyric C. Bartholomay, Michael J. Kimber 2018 Iowa State University

Chemosensory Structure And Function In The Filarial Nematode, Brugia Malayi, Lisa M. Fraser, R. Isai Madriz, Divyaa Srinivasan, Mostafa Zamanian, Lyric C. Bartholomay, Michael J. Kimber

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Nematode chemosensory behaviors underlie fundamental processes and activities in development, reproduction, tropisms and taxes. For parasitic species, chemosensation is essential for host seeking and host and tissue invasion behaviors. Such fundamental biology presents an attractive target for developing behavior-blocking anthelminthic drugs, but the anatomy and functional relevance of parasitic nematode chemosensory machinery are poorly understood. The goals of this study were to better understand the chemosensory apparatus and behaviors of infectious stage Brugia malayi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), a mosquito-borne nematode and etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that amphids, the major chemosensory organs, are present on adult B ...


Lead Poisoning In Bald Eagles Admitted To Wildlife Rehabilitation Facilities In Iowa, 2004–2014, Taylor Yaw, Kay Neumann, Linette Bernard, Jodeane Cancilla, Terese Evans, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Bianca Zaffarano 2017 Iowa State University

Lead Poisoning In Bald Eagles Admitted To Wildlife Rehabilitation Facilities In Iowa, 2004–2014, Taylor Yaw, Kay Neumann, Linette Bernard, Jodeane Cancilla, Terese Evans, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Bianca Zaffarano

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Eleven years (2004–2014) of bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus data from four independent, state and federally permitted wildlife rehabilitators in Iowa were assessed for the prevalence of elevated lead levels in blood or tissue samples. The relationship between blood lead concentrations and recorded information (age, season, radiographs, and clinical outcome) was investigated. Adult birds had higher blood lead concentrations than immature and juvenile birds. Highest blood lead levels were found during October–January. Bald eagles with positive radiographs for metallic opacities in the digestive tract had higher blood and tissue lead concentrations than those with negative results or those on ...


Review: Effects Of Ractopamine Hydrochloride (Paylean) On Welfare Indicators For Market Weight Pigs, M. J. Ritter, A. K. Johnson, M. E. Benjamin, S. N. Carr, M. Ellis, L. Faucitano, T. Grandin, J. L. Salak-Johnson, D. U. Thomson, C. Goldhawk, M. S. Calvo-Lorenzo 2017 Elanco Animal Health

Review: Effects Of Ractopamine Hydrochloride (Paylean) On Welfare Indicators For Market Weight Pigs, M. J. Ritter, A. K. Johnson, M. E. Benjamin, S. N. Carr, M. Ellis, L. Faucitano, T. Grandin, J. L. Salak-Johnson, D. U. Thomson, C. Goldhawk, M. S. Calvo-Lorenzo

Animal Science Publications

This review summarizes the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) dose (5, 7.5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) on market weight pig welfare indicators. Ractopamine hydrochloride (trade name Paylean) is a β-adrenergic agonist that was initially approved in the U.S. in 1999 at doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg to improve feed efficiency and carcass leanness. However, anecdotal reports suggested that RAC increased the rate of non-ambulatory (fatigued and injured) pigs at U.S. packing plants. This led to the addition of a caution statement to the Paylean label, and a series of research studies investigating the effects ...


Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, PhD

Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity allows animals to effectively respond to internal and external stimuli in everyday challenges via changes in, for example, heart and respiration rate. Various factors, ranging from social such as dominance rank to internal such as personality or affective states can impact animal physiology. Our knowledge of the combinatory effects of social and internal factors on ANS basal activity and reactivity, and of the importance that each factor has in determining physiological parameters, is limited, particularly in nonhuman, free-ranging animals. In this study, we tested the effects of dominance rank and personality (assessed ...


Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Growth Performance Of Pigs In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress, Wendy M. Rauw, E. Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C. M. Dekkers, John F. Patience, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Lance H. Baumgard 2017 Iowa State University

Effects Of Diet And Genetics On Growth Performance Of Pigs In Response To Repeated Exposure To Heat Stress, Wendy M. Rauw, E. Johana Mayorga, Soi Meng Lei, Jack C. M. Dekkers, John F. Patience, Nicholas K. Gabler, Steven M. Lonergan, Lance H. Baumgard

Animal Science Publications

Heat stress (HS) is one of the costliest issues in the U.S. pork industry. Aims of the present study were to determine the consequences of repeated exposure to HS on growth performance, and the effects of a high fiber diet, the genetic potential for high lean tissue accretion, and the genetic potential for residual feed intake (RFI) on resilience to HS. Barrows (n = 97) from three genetic lines (commercial, high RFI, low RFI) where subjected three times to a 4-day HS treatment (HS1, HS2, and HS3) which was preceded by a 9-day neutral (TN) adaptation period (TN1) and alternated ...


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