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Veterinary Microbiology and Immunobiology Commons

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Vaginal Microbiome And Serum Metabolite Differences In Late Gestation Commercial Sows At Risk For Pelvic Organ Prolapse, Zoë E. Kiefer, Lucas R. Koester, Lucas Showman, Jamie M. Studer, Amanda L. Chipman, Aileen F. Keating, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Jason W. Ross 2021 Iowa State University

Vaginal Microbiome And Serum Metabolite Differences In Late Gestation Commercial Sows At Risk For Pelvic Organ Prolapse, Zoë E. Kiefer, Lucas R. Koester, Lucas Showman, Jamie M. Studer, Amanda L. Chipman, Aileen F. Keating, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Jason W. Ross

Animal Science Publications

Sow mortality attributable to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) has increased in the U.S. swine industry and continues to worsen. Two main objectives of this study were, (1) to develop a perineal scoring system that can be correlated with POP risk, and (2) identify POP risk-associated biological factors. To assess POP risk during late gestation, sows (n = 213) were scored using a newly developed perineal scoring (PS) system. Sows scored as PS1 (low), PS2 (moderate), or PS3 (high) based on POP risk. Subsequently, 1.5, 0.8, and 23.1% of sows scored PS1, PS2, or PS3, respectively, experienced POP ...


Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. DeLiberto 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.

We report a wildlife epidemiologic investigation of mammals captured on or near properties in Utah, USA, where outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in farmed mink. Mink farms are relatively common in the United States, and most are small family farms. The US ...


Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor 2021 Boise State University

Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated on complex process ...


Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. VerCauteren 2021 USDA APHIS NWRC

Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the 21st century, invasive animals rank second only to habitat destruction as the greatest threat to global biodiversity. Socially-acceptable and cost-effective strategies are needed to reduce the negative economic and environmental impacts of invasive animals. We investigated the potential for sodium nitrite (SN; CAS 7632-00-0) to serve as an avian toxicant for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). We also assessed the non-target hazard of an experimental formulation of SN that is being developed as a toxicant for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa L.). In gavage experiments with European starlings, we identified a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2021 Iowa State University

Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter hepaticus was recently identified as the etiological agent of chicken spotty liver disease. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of C. hepaticus strain USA52 from the United States. The genome comprises a chromosome of 1,509,100 bp with an average GC content of 28.02%.


Xylanase Modulates The Microbiota Of Ileal Mucosa And Digesta Of Pigs Fed Corn-Based Arabinoxylans Likely Through Both A Stimbiotic And Prebiotic Mechanism, Amy L. Petry, John F. Patience, Lucas R. Koester, Nichole F. Huntley, Michael R. Bedford, Stephan Schmitz-Esser 2021 Iowa State University

Xylanase Modulates The Microbiota Of Ileal Mucosa And Digesta Of Pigs Fed Corn-Based Arabinoxylans Likely Through Both A Stimbiotic And Prebiotic Mechanism, Amy L. Petry, John F. Patience, Lucas R. Koester, Nichole F. Huntley, Michael R. Bedford, Stephan Schmitz-Esser

Animal Science Publications

The experimental objective was to characterize the impact of insoluble corn-based fiber, xylanase, and an arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide on ileal digesta and mucosa microbiome of pigs. Three replicates of 20 gilts were blocked by initial body weight, individually-housed, and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF), a 30% corn bran high-fiber control (HF), HF+100 mg/kg xylanase (HF+XY), and HF+50 mg/kg arabinoxylan oligosaccharide (HF+AX). Gilts were fed their respective treatments for 46 days. On day 46, pigs were euthanized and ileal digesta and mucosa were collected. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA ...


Modeling Mongoose Rabies In The Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach To Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, Patrick A. Leighton 2021 Université de Montréal

Modeling Mongoose Rabies In The Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach To Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, Patrick A. Leighton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We applied the model-guided fieldwork framework to the Caribbean mongoose rabies system by parametrizing a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, and by performing an uncertainty analysis designed to identify parameters for which additional empirical data are most needed. Our analysis revealed important variation in output variables characterizing rabies dynamics, namely rabies persistence, exposure level, spatiotemporal distribution, and prevalence. Among epidemiological parameters, rabies transmission rate was the most influential, followed by rabies mortality and location, and size of the initial infection. The most influential landscape parameters included habitat-specific carrying capacities, landscape heterogeneity, and the level of resistance to dispersal associated with topography. Movement ...


A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber 2021 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose ...


Spatial Transferability Of Expert Opinion Models For American Beaver Habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, Jimmy D. Taylor 2021 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State & Siskiyou County Department of Agriculture

Spatial Transferability Of Expert Opinion Models For American Beaver Habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, Jimmy D. Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Species distribution models and habitat suitability models (HSMs) have become a popular tool in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the ability to predict species spatial distributions at sites beyond the data source sites (i.e., spatial transferability) is critical for the applications of HSMs in the management and conservation of rare or endangered species. The main objective of our study was to assess the predictive performance and spatial transferability of expert opinion models (EOMs). To build EOMs, we identified through extensive literature reviews 17 key landscape variables to characterize habitat use by American beaver (Castor canadensis). We developed 31 pairwise ...


Multi-Level Movement Response Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) To Removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin 2021 USDA APHIS, Fort Collins, CO

Multi-Level Movement Response Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) To Removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Lethal removal of invasive species, such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa), is often the most efficient approach for reducing their negative impacts. Wild pigs are one of the most widespread and destructive invasive mammals in the USA. Lethal management techniques are a key approach for wild pigs and can alter wild pig spatial behavior, but it is unclear how wild pigs respond to the most common removal technique, trapping.We investigated the spatial behavior of wild pigs following intensive removal of conspecifics via trapping at three sites within the Savannah River Site, SC, USA. We evaluated changes in wild ...


Food Habits Of Wintering Double-Crested Cormorants In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Mississippi State University

Food Habits Of Wintering Double-Crested Cormorants In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Given its ubiquity, it is not surprising that agriculture, including fin fish aquaculture, contributes to food webs worldwide and is used by numerous wildlife for foraging and meeting other needs. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) impact United States commercial aquaculture and are considered the primary avian predator in catfish (Ictalurus spp.) aquaculture facilities in the Mississippi Delta. Recent changes in aquaculture practices, regulatory policies, and decreased overall hectares in production prompted this study that assessed cormorant consumption of catfish in relation to their night roosts through surveys and diet analysis. Cormorants were collected from night roosts from October through April 2016 ...


Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Substantial economic losses of farmed catfish to fish-eating birds such as the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, continue to be reported on U.S. catfish farms. An economic analysis was conducted of the on-farm effects of both the increased expenditures to scare fish-eating birds from catfish farms and of the value of the catfish that were consumed by cormorants. A survey was conducted of U.S. catfish farmers in the Delta region of Mississippi and Arkansas, to obtain farm-level data on expenditures to scare birds. Estimations of the lost revenue from catfish consumed by cormorants were developed from a concurrent study ...


Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin 2021 NWRC, USDA APHIS

Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Robust methods of predicting how gene drive systems will interact with ecosystems is essential for safe deployment of gene drive technology. We describe how quantitative tools can reduce risk uncertainty, streamline empirical research, guide risk management, and promote cross-sector collaboration throughout the process of gene drive technology development and implementation.

Gene drive technologies, although diverse in design and mode of action, are molecular architectures that promote the transmission of genetic information between generations. In theory, the release of one gene-drive-modified organism (GDMO) has the potential to irreversibly alter species, ecosystems, and environmental processes at a global scale (although in practice ...


Population Genomic Transformations Induced By Isolation Of Wild Bird Avian Influenza Viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) In Embryonated Chicken Eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, Zaid Abdo 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO

Population Genomic Transformations Induced By Isolation Of Wild Bird Avian Influenza Viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) In Embryonated Chicken Eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, Zaid Abdo

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Isolation and cultivation of wild-type viruses in model organism cells or tissues is standard practice in virology. Oftentimes, the virus host species is distantly related to the species from which the culture system was developed. Thus, virus culture in these tissues and cells basically constitutes a host jump, which can lead to genomic changes through genetic drift and/or adaptation to the culture system. We directly sequenced 70 avian influenza virus (Orthomyxoviridae) genomes from oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs collected from wild bird species and paired virus isolates propagated from the same samples following isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. The data ...


Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie McKee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Estimation Of Wildlife Damage From Federal Crop Insurance Data, Sophie Mckee, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Aaron M. Anderson

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Wildlife damage to crops is a persistent and costly problem for many farmers in the USA. Most existing estimates of crop damage have relied on direct assessment methods such as field studies conducted by trained biologists or surveys distributed to farmers. In this paper, we describe a new method of estimating wildlife damage that exploits federal crop insurance data. We focused our study on four crops: corn, soybean, wheat, and cotton, chosen because of their economic importance and their vulnerability to wildlife damage.

RESULTS: We determined crop-raiding hot spots across the USA over the 2015–2019 period and identified ...


Inefficiency Of Anthraquinone-Based Avian Repellents When Applied To Sunflower: The Importance Of Crop Vegetative And Floral Characteristics In Field Applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, Page E. Klug 2021 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Inefficiency Of Anthraquinone-Based Avian Repellents When Applied To Sunflower: The Importance Of Crop Vegetative And Floral Characteristics In Field Applications, Brandon Kaiser, Burton L. Johnson, Mike Ostlie, Scott J. Werner, Page E. Klug

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Blackbirds (Icteridae) cause significant damage to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) prompting the need for effective management tools. Anthraquinone-based repellents can reduce feeding by > 80% in laboratory settings, but require birds to learn the negative association through repellent ingestion. We evaluated an anthraquinone-based repellent applied directly to mature sunflower plants for its ability to reduce bird damage. We used captive male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) to evaluate efficacy of two anthraquinone-based formulations in varying concentrations and applied in a manner attainable by sunflower producers. We also assessed field application methods for repellent coverage and anthraquinone residues when using ground-rigs equipped ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia Rufa) Management On Conifer Stocking In Western Oregon, Jimmy D. Taylor, Vanessa M. Petro 2021 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Evaluating The Effects Of Mountain Beaver (Aplodontia Rufa) Management On Conifer Stocking In Western Oregon, Jimmy D. Taylor, Vanessa M. Petro

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) is the most primitive rodent species in North America and is endemic to the Pacific Northwest, USA. Within their range, mountain beaver cause more conflict with conifer forest regeneration than any other vertebrate species. Most damage occurs as a result of clipping and browsing new seedlings, which reduces stocking density and delays stand development. An integrated approach using trapping and a registered toxicant (baiting) has been suggested as the most efficacious means to reduce seedling loss during stand initiation. We evaluated this management strategy in intensively managed conifer stands across two mountain ranges in western Oregon ...


Temporal And Spatial Blood Feeding Patterns Of Urban Mosquitoes In The San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, Matthew W. Hopken, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole Scavo, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Zaid Abdo, Daniel Taylor, James Pierce, Donald A. Yee 2021 United States Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO

Temporal And Spatial Blood Feeding Patterns Of Urban Mosquitoes In The San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, Matthew W. Hopken, Limarie J. Reyes-Torres, Nicole Scavo, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Zaid Abdo, Daniel Taylor, James Pierce, Donald A. Yee

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Simple Summary: Understanding the biodiversity of urban ecosystems is critical for management of invasive and pest species, conserving native species, and disease control. Mosquitoes (Culicidae) are ubiquitous and abundant in urban ecosystems, and rely on blood meals taken from vertebrates. We used DNA from freshly blood-fed mosquitoes to characterize the diversity of vertebrate host species in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico. We collected two mosquito species that fed on a variety of vertebrates. Culex quinquefasciatus fed on 17 avian taxa (81.2% of blood meals), seven mammalian taxa (17.9%), and one reptilian taxon (0.85%). Aedes aegypti ...


Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni 2021 San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research

Evaluating Potential Effects Of Solar Power Facilities On Wildlife From An Animal Behavior Perspective, Rachel Y. Chock, Barbara Clucas, Elizabeth K. Peterson, Bradley Blackwell, Daniel T. Blumstein, Kathleen Church, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Gabriel Francescoli, Alison L. Greggor, Paul Kemp, Gabriela M. Pinho, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Bruce A. Schulte, Pauline Toni

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Solar power is a renewable energy source with great potential to help meet increasing global energy demands and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels. However, research is scarce on how solar facilities affect wildlife. With input from professionals in ecology, conservation, and energy, we conducted a research-prioritization process and identified key questions needed to better understand impacts of solar facilities on wildlife. We focused on animal behavior, which can be used to identify population responses before mortality or other fitness consequences are documented. Behavioral studies can also offer approaches to understand the mechanisms leading to negative interactions (e.g., collision ...


Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman 2021 APHIS

Avian Use Of Exotic Street Treescapes In Metropolitan Areas Of Phoenix, Arizona, Brian E. Washburn, Karen Hoss, David L. Bergman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Urban areas are highly modified environments that are strongly influenced by a variety of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, these areas contain unique wildlife communities typically dominated by species that are generalist in nature or highly adaptable. We examined the use of five species of exotic treescapes by exotic and native birds in metropolitan areas of Phoenix, Arizona. House Sparrows [Passer domesticus (37%)], European Starlings [Sturnus vulagris (27%)], Mourning Doves [Zenaida macroura (11%)], and Great-tailed Grackles [Quiscalus mexicanus (7%)] were the most frequently observed species during the study. Approximately two-thirds (67%) of the birds observed during the study were exotic species. Avian ...


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