Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, 2017 Queen Mary University of London
Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity In A Free-Ranging Mammal: Effects Of Dominance Rank And Personality, Elodie F. Briefer, James A. Oxley, Alan G. Mcelligott
Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.
Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity allows animals to effectively respond to internal and external stimuli in everyday challenges via changes in, for example, heart and respiration rate. Various factors, ranging from social such as dominance rank to internal such as personality or affective states can impact animal physiology. Our knowledge of the combinatory effects of social and internal factors on ANS basal activity and reactivity, and of the importance that each factor has in determining physiological parameters, is limited, particularly in nonhuman, free-ranging animals. In this study, we tested the effects of dominance rank and personality (assessed ...
Pathogenicity Of An Emergent, Ovine Abortifacient Campylobacter Jejuni Clone Orally Inoculated Into Pregnant Guinea Pigs, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger
Objective—To compare pathogenicity of an emergent abortifacient Campylobacter jejuni (IA 3902) with that of reference strains after oral inoculation in pregnant guinea pigs. Animals—58 pregnant guinea pigs. Procedures—12 animals were challenged IP with C jejuni IA 3902 along with 5 sham-inoculated control animals to confirm abortifacient potential. Once pathogenicity was confirmed, challenge via oral inoculation was performed whereby 12 guinea pigs received IA 3902, 12 received C jejuni isolated from ovine feces (OF48), 12 received a fully sequenced human C jejuni isolate (NCTC 11168), and 5 were sham-inoculated control animals. After abortions, guinea pigs were euthanized; samples ...
Comparison Of Two Commercial Ovine Campylobacter Vaccines And An Experimental Bacterin In Guinea Pigs Inoculated With Campylobacter Jejuni, Eric R. Burrough, Orhan Sahin, Paul J. Plummer, Kevin D. Diverde, Qijing Zhang, Michael J. Yaeger
Objective—To compare efficacy of 2 commercial ovine Campylobacter vaccines and an experimental bacterin in guinea pigs following IP inoculation with Campylobacter jejuni IA3902. Animals—51 female guinea pigs. Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups and administered a commercial Campylobacter vaccine labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis in sheep via two 5-mL doses 14 days apart (vaccine A; n = 13), another labeled for prevention of campylobacteriosis via two 2-mL doses (vaccine B; 12), an experimental bacterin prepared from the challenge strain (12), or a sham vaccine (14). Ten days later, animals were challenged ...
Structural And Functional Analysis Of The Transcriptional Regulator Rv3066 Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, 2017 Iowa State University
Structural And Functional Analysis Of The Transcriptional Regulator Rv3066 Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Jani Reddy Bolla, Sylvia V. Do, Feng Long, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Hsiang-Ting Lei, Xiao Chen, Jillian E. Gerkey, Daniel C. Murphy, Kanagalaghatta R. Rajashankar, Qijing Zhang, Edward W. Yu
The Mmr multidrug efflux pump recognizes and actively extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents, and promotes the intrinsic resistance to these antimicrobials in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The expression of Mmr is controlled by the TetR-like transcriptional regulator Rv3066, whose open reading frame is located downstream of the mmr operon. To understand the structural basis of Rv3066 regulation, we have determined the crystal structures of Rv3066, both in the absence and presence of bound ethidium, revealing an asymmetric homodimeric two-domain molecule with an entirely helical architecture. The structures underscore the flexibility and plasticity of the regulator essential for multidrug recognition. Comparison ...
Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, 2017 China Agricultural University
Transferable Multiresistance Plasmids Carrying Cfr In Enterococcus Spp. From Swine And Farm Environment, Yang Liu, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Yun Li, Zhangqi Shen, Qijing Zhang, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen
Seventy-seven porcine Enterococcus isolates with florfenicol MICs of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. Three isolates—Enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), Enterococcus thailandicus W3, and Enterococcus faecalis W9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. The SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three isolates differed distinctly. In addition, E. faecalis W9-2 was assigned to a new multilocus sequence type ST469. Mating experiments and Southern blot analysis indicated that cfr ...
The New Genetic Environment Of Cfr On Plasmid Pbs-02 In A Bacillus Strain, 2017 China Agricultural University
The New Genetic Environment Of Cfr On Plasmid Pbs-02 In A Bacillus Strain, Wan-Jiang Zhang, Cong-Ming Wu, Yang Wang, Zhang-Qi Shen, Lei Dai, Jing Han, Steven L. Foley, Jian-Zhong Shen, Qijing Zhang
Sir, The gene cfr, encoding a 23S rRNA methyltransferase, confers resistance to five chemically unrelated antimicrobial classes, including phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA), and has been observed mainly in staphylococcal isolates over the past decade.1–3 Our previous study reported a cfr-carrying plasmid, pBS-01, in a novel strain (BS-01) of a Bacillus species isolated from a pig farm in China.4 In our routine surveillance study on antimicrobial resistance in farm animals in 2010, another florfenicol and chloramphenicol-resistant Bacillus species strain (named BS-02) from swine faeces was identified. Gram staining, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA ...
Synergistic Effects Of Anti-Cmea And Anti-Cmeb Peptide Nucleic Acids On Sensitizing Campylobacter Jejuni To Antibiotics, Yang Mu, Zhangqi Shen, Byeonghwa Jeon, Lei Dai, Qijing Zhang
The CmeABC efflux pump in Campylobacter jejuni confers resistance to structurally divergent antimicrobials, and inhibition of CmeABC represents a promising strategy to control antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. Antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) targeting the three components of CmeABC were evaluated for inhibition of CmeABC expression. The result revealed a synergistic effect of the PNAs targeting CmeA and CmeB on sensitizing C. jejuni to antibiotics. This finding further demonstrates the feasibility of using PNAs to potentiate antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter.
Mutational And Transcriptomic Changes Involved In The Development Of Macrolide Resistance In Campylobacter Jejuni, Haihong Hao, Zonghui Yuan, Zhangqi Shen, Jing Han, Orhan Sahin, Peng Liu, Qijing Zhang
Macrolide antibiotics are important for clinical treatment of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Development of resistance to this class of antibiotics in Campylobacter is a complex process, and the dynamic molecular changes involved in this process remain poorly defined. Multiple lineages of macrolide-resistant mutants were selected by stepwise exposure of C. jejuni to escalating doses of erythromycin or tylosin. Mutations in target genes were determined by DNA sequencing, and the dynamic changes in the expression of antibiotic efflux transporters and the transcriptome of C. jejuni were examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and DNA microarray analysis. Multiple types of mutations ...
High Incidence And Endemic Spread Of Ndm-1-Positive Enterobacteriaceae In Henan Province, China, 2017 Zhengzhou University
High Incidence And Endemic Spread Of Ndm-1-Positive Enterobacteriaceae In Henan Province, China, Shangshang Qin, Ying Fu, Qijing Zhang, Hui Qi, Jian Guo Wen, Hui Xu, Lijuan Xu, Li Zeng, Hao Tian, Lijuan Rong, Yonghong Li, Lihong Shan, Hongde Xu, Yunsong Yu, Xianju Feng, Hong-Min Liu
The emergence and spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to human health. In China, the blaNDM-1 gene has been reported mostly in Acinetobacter spp. but is rarely found in Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we report a high incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-producing CRE in Henan Province in China. Sixteen (33.3%) of the 48 CRE isolates obtained from patients during June 2011 to July 2012 were positive for blaNDM-1, and the gene was found to be carried on plasmids of various sizes (∼55 to ∼360 kb). These plasmids were readily transferrable to ...
Fitness Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter And Salmonella, 2017 Iowa State University
Fitness Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter And Salmonella, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin, Patrick F. Mcdermott, Sophie Payot
Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most commonly reported bacterial causes of human foodborne infections, and increasing proportions of these pathogens become resistant to medically important antimicrobial agents, imposing a burden on public health. Acquisition of resistance to antibiotics affects the adaptation and evolution of Salmonella and Campylobacter in various environments. Many resistance-conferring mutations entail a biological fitness cost, while others (e.g. fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter) have no cost or even enhanced fitness. In Salmonella, the fitness disadvantage due to antimicrobial resistance can be restored by acquired compensatory mutations, which occur both in vitro and in vivo. The compensated or ...
Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, 2017 Iowa State University
Genomic Insights Into Campylobacter Jejuni Virulence And Population Genetics, Zuowei Wu, Kathy Mou, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni has long been recognized as a main food-borne pathogen in many parts of the world. Natural reservoirs include a wide variety of domestic and wild birds and mammals, whose intestines offer a suitable biological niche for the survival and dissemination of the organism. Understanding the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of C. jejuni is vital to prevent and control Campylobacter-associated infections. The recent progress in sequencing techniques has allowed for a rapid increase in our knowledge of the molecular biology and the genetic structures of Campylobacter. Single-molecule realtime (SMRT) sequencing, which goes beyond four-base sequencing, revealed ...
Identification Of A Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance To Organic Arsenic In Campylobacter Jejuni, 2017 Iowa State University
Identification Of A Novel Membrane Transporter Mediating Resistance To Organic Arsenic In Campylobacter Jejuni, Zhangqi Shen, Taradon Luangtongkum, Zhiyi Qiang, Byeonghwa Jeon, Liping Wang, Qijing Zhang
Although bacterial mechanisms involved in the resistance to inorganic arsenic are well understood, the molecular basis for organic arsenic resistance has not been described. Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing gastroenteritis in humans, is highly prevalent in poultry and is reportedly resistant to the arsenic compound roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzenearsonic acid), which has been used as a feed additive in the poultry industry for growth promotion. In this study, we report the identification of a novel membrane transporter (named ArsP) that contributes to organic arsenic resistance in Campylobacter. ArsP is predicted to be a membrane permease containing eight transmembrane helices, distinct ...
Multi-Omics Approaches To Deciphering A Hypervirulent Strain Of Campylobacter Jejuni, 2017 Iowa State University
Multi-Omics Approaches To Deciphering A Hypervirulent Strain Of Campylobacter Jejuni, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Peng Liu, William G. Miller, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni clone SA recently emerged as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States and is also associated with foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. A distinct phenotype of this clone is its ability to induce bacteremia and abortion. To facilitate understanding the pathogenesis of this hypervirulent clone, we analyzed a clinical isolate (IA3902) of clone SA using multi-omics approaches. The genome of IA3902 contains a circular chromosome of 1,635,045 bp and a circular plasmid of 37,174 bp. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that IA3902 is most closely related to C. jejuni NCTC11168, which is a reference ...
Phenotypic And Genotypic Evidence For L-Fucose Utilization By Campylobacter Jejuni, 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture
Phenotypic And Genotypic Evidence For L-Fucose Utilization By Campylobacter Jejuni, Wayne T. Muroaka, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni remains among the leading causes of bacterial food-borne illness. The current understanding of Campylobacter physiology suggests that it is asaccharolytic and is unable to catabolize exogenous carbohydrates. Contrary to this paradigm, we provide evidence for l-fucose utilization by C. jejuni. The fucose phenotype, shown in chemically defined medium, is strain specific and linked to an 11-open reading frame (ORF) plasticity region of the bacterial chromosome. By constructing a mutation in fucP (encoding a putative fucose permease), one of the genes in the plasticity region, we found that this locus is required for fucose utilization. Consistent with their function ...
Identification Of A Novel Genomic Island Conferring Resistance To Multiple Aminoglycoside Antibiotics In Campylobacter Coli, 2017 China Agricultural University
Identification Of A Novel Genomic Island Conferring Resistance To Multiple Aminoglycoside Antibiotics In Campylobacter Coli, Shangshang Qin, Yang Wang, Qijing Zhang, Xia Chen, Zhangqi Shen, Fengru Deng, Congming Wu, Jianzhong Shen
Historically, the incidence of gentamicin resistance in Campylobacter has been very low, but recent studies reported a high prevalence of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter isolated from food-producing animals in China. The reason for the high prevalence was unknown and was addressed in this study. PCR screening identified aminoglycoside resistance genes aphA-3 and aphA-7 and the aadE–sat4–aphA-3 cluster among 41 Campylobacter isolates from broiler chickens. Importantly, a novel genomic island carrying multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes was identified in 26 aminoglycoside resistant Campylobacter coli strains. Sequence analysis revealed that the genomic island was inserted between cadF and COO1582 on the C. coli ...
First Identification Of Ndm-4-Producing Escherichia Coli St410 In China, 2017 Zhengzhou University
First Identification Of Ndm-4-Producing Escherichia Coli St410 In China, Shangshang Qin, Mengmeng Zhou, Qijing Zhang, Hengxun Tao, Yafei Ye, Huizhi Chen, Lijuan Xu, Hui Xu, Ping Wang, Xianju Feng
Dear Editor, The worldwide dissemination of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), an Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) conferring resistance to all β-lactams except monobactams, is of great concern for public health. NDM-4, which differs from NDM-1 by a single amino acid substitution (Met154Leu), was demonstrated to possess increased carbapenemase activity.
A Fluoroquinolone Resistance Associated Mutation In Gyra Affects Dna Supercoiling In Campylobacter Jejuni, 2017 Iowa State University
A Fluoroquinolone Resistance Associated Mutation In Gyra Affects Dna Supercoiling In Campylobacter Jejuni, Jing Han, Yang Wang, Orhan Sahin, Zhangqi Shen, Baoqing Guo, Jianzhong Shen, Qijing Zhang
The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant (FQR) Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQR on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQRCampylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQRCampylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type (WT) allele, which resulted in ...
Dual Repression Of The Multidrug Eﬄux Pump Cmeabc By Cosr And Cmer In Campylobacter Jejuni, 2017 Iowa State University
Dual Repression Of The Multidrug Eﬄux Pump Cmeabc By Cosr And Cmer In Campylobacter Jejuni, Tara Grinnage-Pulley, Yang Mu, Lei Dai, Qijing Zhang
During transmission and intestinal colonization, Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborne human pathogen, experiences oxidative stress. CosR, a response regulator in C. jejuni, modulates the oxidative stress response and represses expression of the CmeABC multidrug eﬄux pump. CmeABC, a key component in resistance to toxic compounds including antimicrobials and bile salts, is also under negative regulation by CmeR, a TetR family transcriptional regulator. How CosR and CmeR interact in binding to the cmeABC promoter and how CosR senses oxidative stress are still unknown. To answer these questions, we conducted various experiments utilizing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusion assays ...
Advances In Campylobacter Biology And Implications For Biotechnological Applications, 2017 Iowa State University
Advances In Campylobacter Biology And Implications For Biotechnological Applications, Byeonghwa Jeon, Wayne T. Muraoka, Qijing Zhang
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen of animal origin and a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. During the past decade, especially since the publication of the first C. jejuni genome sequence, major advances have been made in understanding the pathobiology and physiology of this organism. It is apparent that C. jejuni utilizes sophisticated mechanisms for effective colonization of the intestinal tracts in various animal species. Although Campylobacter is fragile in the environment and requires fastidious growth conditions, it exhibits great flexibility in the adaptation to various habitats including the gastrointestinal tract. This high adaptability is attributable to ...
Constitutive And Inducible Expression Of The Rrna Methylase Gene Erm(B) In Campylobacter, 2017 Iowa State University
Constitutive And Inducible Expression Of The Rrna Methylase Gene Erm(B) In Campylobacter, Fengru Deng, Jianzhong Shen, Maojun Zhang, Congming Wu, Qijing Zhang, Yang Wang
Macrolides are the antimicrobials of choice for treating human campylobacteriosis. The recent emergence of erm(B) in Campylobacter bacteria threatens the utility of this class of antibiotics. Here we report the constitutive and inducible expression of erm(B) in Campylobacter isolates derived from diarrheal patients and food-producing animals. Constitutive expression of erm(B) was associated with insertion and deletion in the regulatory region of the gene, providing the first documentation of the differential expression of erm(B) in Campylobacter bacteria.