30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman
Celebration of Learning
There are no controlled studies of acetaminophen toxicity in horses. The objective was to test the hypotheses that oral acetaminophen administered at a dosage 25% higher than that sometimes used in horses would result in measurable hepatic toxicity as seen in humans and other species. Six healthy adult horses were administered 25 mg/kg acetaminophen powder in corn syrup twice daily for 30 days. Three other horses served as negative controls receiving only corn syrup. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained on days 7 and 1 before treatment; on treatment days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26 ...
Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, 2018 University of Wyoming
Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson
Honors Theses AY 17/18
This Cost Benefit Analysis is in reference to the new 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations and addresses the effect these updates have had on samples received at the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Before 2017 in Wyoming, either a culture or PCR could be performed to test a bull for the presence of Trichomonas. New regulations now require PCR diagnoses to take place. This project covers data collected at the WSVL from 2012 through 2017. Both culture and PCR data were analyzed for 2012 to 2016. Data was split into pre- and post-regulation changes, and then divided further into ...
The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, 2018 University of Rhode Island
The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, Katelynn Cameron, Maria L. Hoffman Phd
Senior Honors Projects
The efficiency of the dairy industry relies heavily on the production of healthy calves. However, dairy operations experience high rates of calf mortality due to digestive and respiratory issues. One factor that could predispose calves to disease is the effects of maternal programming caused by high maternal milk production during pregnancy. We hypothesized that calves born to high producing dams will exhibit increased oxidative stress as well as increased circulating triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. Cows (n = 17) that produced ≥ 14,865 kg of milk during their lactations were classified as high producers. Alternately, cows (n = 18) that produced ≤ 10 ...
Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle
Theses and Dissertations
Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...
Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, Julie Atchley
Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses
Effects of Fescue Toxicosis on Whole Blood Gene Expression in Beef Cattle
The consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue causes negative effects on the growth, reproduction, longevity, and overall health of beef cattle; this condition, termed fescue toxicosis by researchers and producers today, costs the United States over $1 billion in losses each year. To mitigate these production losses, it is important for producers to understand how fescue toxicosis affects gene expression and physiological pathways in beef cattle. This study examined the whole blood gene expression and affected pathways in beef cows grazing both endophyte-infected (toxic) tall fescue and (non-toxic) tall ...
Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, 2018 Murray State University
Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey
Honors College Theses
This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...
Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, 2018 Utah State University
Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz
All Graduate Theses and Dissertations
Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...
Fetal Demise And Failed Antibody Therapy During Zika Virus Infection Of Pregnant Macaques, 2018 University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine
Fetal Demise And Failed Antibody Therapy During Zika Virus Infection Of Pregnant Macaques, Diogo M. Magnani, Thomas F. Rogers, Nicholas J. Maness, Nathan D. Grubaugh, Nathan Beutler, Varian K. Bailey, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Martin J. Gutman, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Jaclyn M. Kwal, Michael J. Ricciardi, Tereance A. Myers, Justin G. Julander, Rudolf P. Bohm, Margaret H. Gilbert, Faith Schiro, Pyone P. Aye, Robert V. Blair, Mauricio A. Martins, Kathrine P. Falkenstien, Amitinder Kaur, Christine L. Curry, Esper G. Kallas, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Pascal J. Goldschmidt-Clermont, Stephen S. Whitehead, Kristian G. Andersen, Myrna C. Bonaldo, Andrew A. Lackner, Antonito T. Panganiban, Dennis R. Burton, David I. Watkins
Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women is associated with pathologic complications of fetal development. Here, we infect pregnant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a minimally passaged ZIKV isolate from Rio de Janeiro, where a high rate of fetal development complications was observed. The infection of pregnant macaques with this virus results in maternal viremia, virus crossing into the amniotic fluid (AF), and in utero fetal deaths. We also treated three additional ZIKV-infected pregnant macaques with a cocktail of ZIKV-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) at peak viremia. While the nmAbs can be effective in clearing the virus from the maternal ...
Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), 2018 Iowa State University
Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications
As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...
Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, 2018 Washington University in St Louis
Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson
Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters
Tick-borne diseases spread through enzootic transmission cycles that often involve ticks parasitizing bird hosts. Some avian species are competent reservoirs, amplifying the pathogens that cause tick-borne illnesses in humans. Prescribed burns in forests have the potential to reduce tick-borne disease risk if they limit interactions between ticks and infectious wildlife hosts. Although prescribed burns are increasingly being used for a variety of habitat management purposes, little is known about how they affect tick-host interactions. We hypothesize that if prescribed fires reduce tick abundance, then birds in burned forest plots will host fewer ticks than birds in unburned forest plots. Experimental ...
Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis
Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo
Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...
An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, 2018 Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine
An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, Cole Barrett Sandow
LSU Master's Theses
INTRODUCTION-Laminitis and synovitis are two common causes of equine lameness. Laminitis is most often associated with hyperinsulinemia and osteoarthritis is most commonly the result of synovitis. The objective is to evaluate biomechanical and pathophysiologic events regarding laminitis and synovitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS-The first study evaluated biomechanical effects of insulin on lamellar strength. For this experiment, lamellar explants were harvested, incubated in media only (serving as a control) or media with a high concentration of insulin for 8 hours. After incubation, structural integrity was evaluated with a mechanical testing device. Data included load to failure (N), stress to failure (MPa), elongation ...
Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, 2018 Eastern Kentucky University
Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion
EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship
Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...
Best1 Gene Therapy Corrects A Diffuse Retina-Wide Microdetachment Modulated By Light Exposure, 2018 University of Pennsylvania
Best1 Gene Therapy Corrects A Diffuse Retina-Wide Microdetachment Modulated By Light Exposure, Karina E. Guziewicz, Artur V. Cideciyan, William A. Beltran, András M. Komáromy, Valerie L. Dufour, Malgorzata Swider, Simone Iwabe, Alexander Sumaroka, Brian T. Kendrick, Gordon Ruthel, Vince A. Chiodo, Elise Heon, William W. Hauswirth, Samuel G. Jacobson, Gustavo D. Aguirre
Departmental Papers (Vet)
Mutations in the BEST1 gene cause detachment of the retina and degeneration of photoreceptor (PR) cells due to a primary channelopathy in the neighboring retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The pathophysiology of the interaction between RPE and PR cells preceding the formation of retinal detachment remains not well-understood. Our studies of molecular pathology in the canine BEST1 disease model revealed retina-wide abnormalities at the RPE-PR interface associated with defects in the RPE microvillar ensheathment and a cone PR-associated insoluble interphotoreceptor matrix. In vivo imaging demonstrated a retina-wide RPE-PR microdetachment, which contracted with dark adaptation and expanded upon exposure to a ...
Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Complete Genome Sequences Of Three Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius Strains Isolated From Botswana, Mohamed Adel Salaheldin Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Matthew C. Riley, Riley Thompson
Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences
We report here the first whole-genome sequences for 3 strains of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (112N, 113N, and 114N) isolated in Africa. Samples of this opportunistic pathogen were collected from nasal swabs obtained from healthy carrier dogs in Botswana. The sequence information will facilitate spatial phylogenetic comparisons of staphylococcal species and other bacteria at the genome level.
Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, 2018 University of Sydney
Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul Mcgreevy, Michael Valenzuela
Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.
Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N = 13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r = 0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of ...
Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, 2018 Nelson Mandela Africa Institution of Science and Technology
Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild
Animal Science Publications
The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...
Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, 2018 Iowa State University
Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson
Michael J. Kimber
The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...
A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro
Michael J. Kimber
The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...
Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, 2018 Iowa State University
Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson
Michael J. Kimber
Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.
Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp
Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media