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Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz 2018 Utah State University

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul McGreevy, Michael Valenzuela 2018 University of Sydney

Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul Mcgreevy, Michael Valenzuela

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N = 13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r = 0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of ...


Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild 2018 Nelson Mandela Africa Institution of Science and Technology

Genetic Diversity, Breed Composition And Admixture Of Kenyan Domestic Pigs, Fidalis Denis Mujibi, Edward Okoth, Evans K. Cheruiyot, Cynthia Onzere, Richard P. Bishop, Eric M. Fèvre, Lian Thomas, Charles Masembe, Graham Plastow, Max Rothschild

Animal Science Publications

The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive ...


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2018 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Michael J. Kimber

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.

Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp

Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media

Results—Of ...


Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul 2018 The University of Edinburgh

Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul

James S. Adelman

Background

A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.

Methods

A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...


Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and incidence of seroconversion in alpacas in the United States during 2006 to 2007 and to evaluate associations between BVDV seropositive status and potential risk factors for exposure to BVDV.

Design—Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.

Sample—Blood samples from 192 alpacas > 6 months old in 39 herds from 20 states; 40 owners who completed questionnaires.

Procedures—550 US alpaca owners, stratified by state and randomly selected from a list of approximately 4,300 owners, were mailed a study description, voluntary participation request, and questionnaire. Thirty-nine owners submitted ...


A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang 2018 Iowa State University

A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OXR) in C. jejuni. We further demonstrated ...


Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2018 Iowa State University

Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This “reverse translational” approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.


Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Jonathan Mochel

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel 2018 Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland

Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

A common feature of human and veterinary pharmacokinetics is the importance of identifying and quantifying the key determinants of between-patient variability in drug disposition and effects. Some of these attributes are already well known to the field of human pharmacology such as bodyweight, age, or sex, while others are more specific to veterinary medicine, such as species, breed, and social behavior. Identification of these attributes has the potential to allow a better and more tailored use of therapeutic drugs both in companion and food-producing animals. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) have been purposely designed to characterize the sources of variability in ...


Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


Impact Of Intake On Methane Production In Growing Steers, Tom M. Winders, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Samodha C. Fernando, Richard Stowell, Galen E. Erickson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Intake On Methane Production In Growing Steers, Tom M. Winders, Bradley M. Boyd, F. Henry Hilscher, Samodha C. Fernando, Richard Stowell, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A study was conducted to evaluate the impact that level of intake has on methane and carbon dioxide production by growing steers. Two treatments were evaluated that included ad-libitum intake compared to limit-fed steers. The ad-libitum fed cattle had greater gains, similar feed efficiency and produced more methane and carbon dioxide per day, while the limit fed cattle produced more methane and carbon dioxide per pound of intake than the ad-libitum fed cattle.


Impact Of Ramaekers Immune Primer On Finishing Beef Cattle Performance And Liver Abscess Rate, Hannah C. Wilson, F. Henry Hilscher, Bradley M. Boyd, Jim C. MacDonald, Galen E. Erickson 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Ramaekers Immune Primer On Finishing Beef Cattle Performance And Liver Abscess Rate, Hannah C. Wilson, F. Henry Hilscher, Bradley M. Boyd, Jim C. Macdonald, Galen E. Erickson

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A feedlot study was conducted comparing a natural feed additive (Ramaekers Immune Primer) to Tylan or nothing on receiving and finishing performance. There were no differences for final BW, ADG, F:G, HCW, marbling, LM area, or fat thickness due to treatment. Liver abscess incidence and severity were reduced in steers fed Tylan, no differences were noted between Ramaekers Immune Primer and no additive. There was no difference in number of cattle treated for respiratory illness. Steers on the Ramaekers Immune Primer treatment had lower feed intake during the receiving period but had similar ADG and numerically better F:G ...


Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. MacDonald 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Backgrounding System On Performance And Profitability Of Yearling Beef Steers, Cody A. Welchons, Robby G. Bondurant, F. Henry Hilscher, Andrea K. Watson, Galen E. Erickson, Jim C. Macdonald

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Five summer management strategies were compared following grazing corn residue through winter. Cattle were assigned to be 1) summer finished, 2) graze bromegrass, 3) graze bromegrass and fed distillers grains at 0.6% of BW, 4) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 1.70 lb/d, or 5) backgrounded in a drylot pen to gain 2.35 lb/d. Results differed by year, however, in general as backgrounding ADG increased, days required on feed to reach an equal fat endpoint decreased. In year 1, ADG of cattle grazing bromegrass was less than cattle backgrounded in pens. There was no ...


Supplementing Rumen Undegradable Protein To Grazing Cattle, Braden C. Troyer, Bradley M. Boyd, Andrea K. Watson, Terry J. Klopfenstein 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Supplementing Rumen Undegradable Protein To Grazing Cattle, Braden C. Troyer, Bradley M. Boyd, Andrea K. Watson, Terry J. Klopfenstein

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

A pooled-analysis of previous Nebraska Beef Report Articles examined the impact of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) supplementation for cattle grazing different types of forage. Each lb of RUP supplement increased ADG by 0.63 lb/d when cattle were grazing smooth brome and 0.43 lb/d when grazing warm season grasses. Cattle did not respond to RUP when grazing summer annuals which were high (18.2%) in CP.


Statistics Used In The Nebraska Beef Report And Their Purpose, 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Statistics Used In The Nebraska Beef Report And Their Purpose

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

The purpose of beef cattle and beef product research at UNL is to provide reference information that represents the various populations (cows, calves, heifers, feeders, carcasses, retail products, etc) of beef production. Obviously, the researcher cannot apply treatments to every member of a population; therefore he/ she must sample the population. The use of statistics allows the researcher and readers of the Nebraska Beef report the opportunity to evaluate separation of random (chance) occurrences and real biological effects of a treatment. Following is a brief description of the major statistics used in the beef report. For a more detailed description ...


Effect Of Injectable Trace Mineral On Reproductive Performance In Beef Heifers, Shelby A. Springman, John Maddux, Mary E. Drewnoski, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Injectable Trace Mineral On Reproductive Performance In Beef Heifers, Shelby A. Springman, John Maddux, Mary E. Drewnoski, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

Trace minerals serve an essential role in regulating reproduction. Free-choice trace mineral supplementation is often provided to grazing beef cattle. An injectable trace-mineral solution used with free-choice trace minerals may be beneficial before breeding to improve mineral status. Therefore, Red Angus-based, May-born heifers were utilized to determine the effects of an injectable trace mineral on reproductive performance. Pregnancy rates did not differ between heifers injected with a trace mineral and heifers that received no injection. Injectable trace mineral at CIDR insertion 33 d before artificial insemination did not influence reproductive performance in heifers with adequate trace mineral status.


Impact Of Winter Supplementation Of May Calving Cows And Heifer Development System In Two Different Breeding Seasons On Subsequent Growth And Reproduction, Shelby A. Springman, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacqueline A. Musgrave, John Nollette, Andy Applegarth, Richard N. Funston 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Impact Of Winter Supplementation Of May Calving Cows And Heifer Development System In Two Different Breeding Seasons On Subsequent Growth And Reproduction, Shelby A. Springman, Alicia C. Lansford, Jacqueline A. Musgrave, John Nollette, Andy Applegarth, Richard N. Funston

Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports

In Exp. 1, May-calving cows were utilized to evaluate the effects of winter supplementation on heifer progeny. Cows grazed either dormant upland winter range with or without a protein supplement or grazed dormant meadow with or without a protein supplement. In Exp. 2, replacement heifers from March and May calving herds were offered ad libitum meadow hay and 4 lb/d supplement or grazed meadow and offered 1 lb/d supplement from mid-January to mid-April. Calf weaning BW and ADG from birth to weaning was less for calves from cows grazing winter range with no supplement compared with all other ...


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