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Development Of An In Vivo Exsheathment Assay Of Infective L3 Haemonchus Contortus Larvae In Fistualated Sheep, Holly N. Williams, Katherine Petersson, Carly Barone 2015 University of Rhode Island

Development Of An In Vivo Exsheathment Assay Of Infective L3 Haemonchus Contortus Larvae In Fistualated Sheep, Holly N. Williams, Katherine Petersson, Carly Barone

Senior Honors Projects

Purpose: Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) hinder the sustainable production of small ruminants on pasture and parasite resistance to chemical dewormers is becoming a growing concern. Condensed tannin containing legume forages are being tested to evaluate their anti-parasitic properties and potential contribution to an overall parasite control program for small ruminants such as sheep and goats. One of the most pathogenic GIN of small ruminants is Haemonchus contortus. The final step to full infectivity of H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) is exsheathment in the rumen. The objective of this study was to establish an in-vivo exsheathment assay in fistulated sheep as ...


Relationship Between Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Secretion Capacity And Virulence In Wild Type Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, Prageeth Wijemanne, Jun Xing, Emil M. Berberov, David B. Marx, David H. Francis, Rodney A. Moxley 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Relationship Between Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Secretion Capacity And Virulence In Wild Type Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, Prageeth Wijemanne, Jun Xing, Emil M. Berberov, David B. Marx, David H. Francis, Rodney A. Moxley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The prototypic human-origin strain H10407 secretes LT via a type II secretion system(T2SS). We sought to determine the relationship between the capacity to secrete LT and virulence in porcine-origin wild type (WT) ETEC strains. Sixteen WT ETEC strains isolated from cases of severe diarrheal disease were analyzed by GM1ganglioside enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay tomeasure LT concentrations in culture supernatants. All strains had detectable LT in supernatants by 2 h of culture and 1 strain, which was particularly virulent in gnotobiotic piglets (3030-2 ...


Species-Specific And Pathotype-Specific Binding Of Bacteria To Zymogen Granule Membrane Glycoprotein 2 (Gp2), Peter Schierack, Stefan Rödiger, Rafal Kolenda, Rico Hiemann, Enrico Berger, Krzysztof Grzymajło, Alexander Swidsinski, Thomas Juretzek, Dirk Meissner, Karsten Mydlak, Dirk Reinhold, Lisa K. Nolan, Dirk Roggenbuck 2015 Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg

Species-Specific And Pathotype-Specific Binding Of Bacteria To Zymogen Granule Membrane Glycoprotein 2 (Gp2), Peter Schierack, Stefan Rödiger, Rafal Kolenda, Rico Hiemann, Enrico Berger, Krzysztof Grzymajło, Alexander Swidsinski, Thomas Juretzek, Dirk Meissner, Karsten Mydlak, Dirk Reinhold, Lisa K. Nolan, Dirk Roggenbuck

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications and Papers

With interest we read the paper by Juste et al 1 proposing the amount of zymogen-granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) on the surface of intestinal bacteria as a Crohn's disease (CD) marker. Indeed, a decreased GP2 level was found on microbes in patients with CD as compared to those of healthy controls. GP2 is a homologue to the urinary Tamm–Horsefall protein demonstrating an antimicrobial function by binding type 1-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Likewise, GP2 seems to interact with intestinal bacteria as a specific receptor of bacterial type-1 fimbriae (FimH) on intestinal microfold cells that are partaking in ...


Plasma Concentrations Of Fenbendazole (Fbz) And Oxfendazole In Alpacas (Lama Pacos) After Single Intravenous And Oral Dosing Of Fbz, Jeffrey Lakritz, Daniel Linden, David E. Anderson, Terri A. Specht 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Plasma Concentrations Of Fenbendazole (Fbz) And Oxfendazole In Alpacas (Lama Pacos) After Single Intravenous And Oral Dosing Of Fbz, Jeffrey Lakritz, Daniel Linden, David E. Anderson, Terri A. Specht

David Edgar Anderson, DVM, MS, DACVS

The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ) and oxfendazole (OFZ) after intravenous (iv) and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg) to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL) of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min), and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss) was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg). The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after ...


Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown 2015 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa

Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown

Papers in Natural Resources

When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host’s breeding season—and thus the host’s opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively short (eight to nine week) breeding season, with birds rarely nesting late in the summer. Colonies at which ectoparasitic swallow bugs ...


Crypto Prevention, Brian K. Whitlock 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Crypto Prevention, Brian K. Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

No abstract provided.


Pregnancy Diagnosis In Cattle, Samantha L. Collins, Brian K. Whitlock 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pregnancy Diagnosis In Cattle, Samantha L. Collins, Brian K. Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

No abstract provided.


Efficacy Of Intravenous Administration Of Combined Acid Suppressants In Healthy Dogs, M Katherine Tolbert, Adesola Odunayo, R S. Howell, E E. Peters, Ann Reed 2015 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Efficacy Of Intravenous Administration Of Combined Acid Suppressants In Healthy Dogs, M Katherine Tolbert, Adesola Odunayo, R S. Howell, E E. Peters, Ann Reed

M Katherine Tolbert DVM, PhD, DACVIM

Background Short-term intravenous co-administration of famotidine and pantoprazole is used by some veterinarians to treat gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill dogs. However, clinical studies have not evaluated the efficacy of combination acid suppressant treatment in dogs.

Hypothesis/Objectives To compare the effect of intravenous co-administration of famotidine and pantoprazole to monotherapy with pantoprazole on intragastric pH in dogs. We hypothesized that single agent pantoprazole would be more effective than combination with famotidine.

Animals Twelve healthy adult colony dogs.

Methods Randomized, 2-way crossover design. All dogs received placebo (0.9% saline) for 24 hours followed by 1.0 mg/kg IV ...


Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, James S. Adelman, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke 2015 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, James S. Adelman, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke

James S. Adelman

Individuals of the same age can differ substantially in the degree to which they have accumulated tissue damage, akin to bodily wear and tear, from past experiences. This accumulated tissue damage reflects the individual’s biological age and may better predict physiological and behavioural performance than the individual‘s chronological age. However, at present it remains unclear how to reliably assess biological age in individual wild vertebrates. We exposed hand-raised adult Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) to a combination of repeated immune and disturbance stressors for over one year to determine the effects of chronic stress on potential biomarkers of biological ...


Methods For Inactivating Pedv In Hog Trailers, Paul R. Thomas, Alejandro Ramierez, Jianqiang Zhang, Joshua S. Ellingson, Jacqueline N. Myers 2015 Iowa State University

Methods For Inactivating Pedv In Hog Trailers, Paul R. Thomas, Alejandro Ramierez, Jianqiang Zhang, Joshua S. Ellingson, Jacqueline N. Myers

Animal Industry Report

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) was first described in England in 1971 in growing pigs and the causative agent, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), was identified in 1978. The virus spread to the rest of Europe where it caused outbreaks of diarrhea and significant losses throughout the 1970s and 1980s. PEDV is considered endemic to Europe today, but does not cause widespread significant disease. In parts of Asia outbreaks were recognized first in 1982 and have continued to occur since. In May of 2013 PEDV was identified in swine for the first time in the United States. The virus has caused ...


A Comparison Of The Genetic Factors Influencing Host Response To Infection With One Of Two Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Nicholas Boddicker, Bob Rowland, Joan Lunney, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2015 Iowa State University

A Comparison Of The Genetic Factors Influencing Host Response To Infection With One Of Two Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Nicholas Boddicker, Bob Rowland, Joan Lunney, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Host genetic differences in viral load (VL) and weight gain (WG) during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) challenge were assessed for thirteen trials of ~200 commercial crossbred piglets each, from several different commercial suppliers. Piglets were experimentally infected with PRRSV isolates NVSL-97-7895 (NVSL) or KS-2006-72109 (KS06). VL and WG were moderately heritable and were antagonistically related for both virus isolates. The genetic correlation of host response to NVSL with host response to KS06 was high for both VL and WG. Consistent with previous findings, animals that were heterozygous (AB) for the WUR10000125 (WUR) marker on Chromosome 4 (SSC4 ...


Survey-Based Examination Of Demographics, Potential Causes And Treatments Of Aberrant Behavior Syndrome(Berserk Male Syndrome) In Camelids, Stephen R. Ball, Katherine Way, Jennifer A. Schleining, Suzanne T. Millman 2015 Iowa State University

Survey-Based Examination Of Demographics, Potential Causes And Treatments Of Aberrant Behavior Syndrome(Berserk Male Syndrome) In Camelids, Stephen R. Ball, Katherine Way, Jennifer A. Schleining, Suzanne T. Millman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to examine potential signs, causal factors and treatment interventions for camelids displaying Aberrant Behavior Syndrome (ABS), also known as Berserk Male Syndrome. A survey was developed for camelid owners and veterinarians with camelid experience using Survey Monkey software. Respondents were asked to describe the behaviors associated with the most recent case of ABS they were involved with, information about the animal displaying ABS, and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment interventions used. The majority of respondents identified a general demographic of an intact male camelid raised by its biological mother with daily or weekly ...


Accuracies Of Genomic Prediction Of Traits Associated With Lactation And Reproduction In Yorkshire And Landrace Sows, Dinesh M. Thekkoot, Bob Kemp, Max F. Rothschild, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2015 Iowa State University

Accuracies Of Genomic Prediction Of Traits Associated With Lactation And Reproduction In Yorkshire And Landrace Sows, Dinesh M. Thekkoot, Bob Kemp, Max F. Rothschild, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Genomic prediction involves statistical methods to estimate the genetic merit of selection candidates based on genetic markers spaced across the genome. The benefit of genomic prediction depends on the accuracies with which we can predict the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) of selection candidates based on their marker genotypes. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracies of GEBV for traits associated with lactation and reproduction in Yorkshire and Landrace sows. Across both breeds, genomic predictions had greater accuracy than pedigree-based predictions. This result suggests that accuracy of selection can be improved by genomic prediction and, thereby, increase ...


Accuracy Of Genomic Prediction For Prrs Antibody Response, Nick V. L. Serão, Bob Kemp, Benny Mote, Philip Willson, John Harding, Steve Bishop, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2015 Iowa State University

Accuracy Of Genomic Prediction For Prrs Antibody Response, Nick V. L. Serão, Bob Kemp, Benny Mote, Philip Willson, John Harding, Steve Bishop, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

The accuracy of genomic prediction for antibody response to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), measured as S/P ratio, was evaluated using two independent datasets of Landrace x Large White females. Results demonstrate that antibody response during a PRRS outbreak can be predicted with high accuracy using genetic markers in two regions on chromosome 7. One of these regions includes the Major Histocompatibility Complex. The high accuracy for this region indicates that marker effects are consistent across Landrace x Large White populations.


Relationship Between Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Secretion Capacity And Virulence In Wild Type Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, Prageeth Wijemanne, Jun Xing, Emil M. Berberov, David H. Francis, Rodney A. Moxley 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Relationship Between Heat-Labile Enterotoxin Secretion Capacity And Virulence In Wild Type Porcine-Origin Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, Prageeth Wijemanne, Jun Xing, Emil M. Berberov, David H. Francis, Rodney A. Moxley

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is an important virulence factor secreted by some strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The prototypic human-origin strain H10407 secretes LT via a type II secretion system(T2SS). We sought to determine the relationship between the capacity to secrete LT and virulence in porcine-origin wild type (WT) ETEC strains. Sixteen WT ETEC strains isolated from cases of severe diarrheal disease were analyzed by GM1ganglioside enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay tomeasure LT concentrations in culture supernatants. All strains had detectable LT in supernatants by 2 h of culture and 1 strain, which was particularly virulent in gnotobiotic piglets (3030-2 ...


Effect Of Wur Genotype And Prrs Vaccination On Pigs Co-Infected With Prrs And Pcv2b, Jenelle R. Dunkelberger, Nick V. L. Serão, Maureen Kerrigan, Joan Lunney, Bob Rowland, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2015 Iowa State University

Effect Of Wur Genotype And Prrs Vaccination On Pigs Co-Infected With Prrs And Pcv2b, Jenelle R. Dunkelberger, Nick V. L. Serão, Maureen Kerrigan, Joan Lunney, Bob Rowland, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Average daily gain (ADG) and viral load (VL) were evaluated for pigs co-infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2b (PCV2b). Pigs were pre-selected for WUR genotype (a marker on chromosome 4 associated with weight gain and VL under PRRSV-challenge), half were vaccinated for PRRS, and half were not. Results indicate that vaccination for PRRS resulted in slower growth prior to co-infection and that the AB WUR genotype was associated with faster growth prior to co-infection, lower PRRS VL, and lower PCV2b VL in vaccinated pigs.


Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Lisa L. Amelse, Valeria M. Tanco, Kelly A. Chameroy, F Neal Shrick 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian K. Whitlock, Joseph A. Daniel, Lisa L. Amelse, Valeria M. Tanco, Kelly A. Chameroy, F Neal Shrick

Valeria M Tanco

Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 hr) and after (1 hr) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human ...


Insuring Feedlot Health—Where Does It All Begin?, W. Mark Hilton 2015 Purdue University

Insuring Feedlot Health—Where Does It All Begin?, W. Mark Hilton

Driftless Region Beef Conference

Cattle that stay healthy in the feedlot produce greater revenue than those that become sick. Data from the Texas Ranch to Rail Program on over 16,000 calves showed healthy cattle returned $67.32 per head while calves treated one or more times returned -$20.28 per head. Let’s start at the beginning and examine factors that affect health in the feedlot.


Nonlinear Hierarchical Models For Longitudinal Experimental Infection Studies, Michael David Singleton 2015 University of Kentucky

Nonlinear Hierarchical Models For Longitudinal Experimental Infection Studies, Michael David Singleton

Theses and Dissertations--Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Experimental infection (EI) studies, involving the intentional inoculation of animal or human subjects with an infectious agent under controlled conditions, have a long history in infectious disease research. Longitudinal infection response data often arise in EI studies designed to demonstrate vaccine efficacy, explore disease etiology, pathogenesis and transmission, or understand the host immune response to infection. Viral loads, antibody titers, symptom scores and body temperature are a few of the outcome variables commonly studied. Longitudinal EI data are inherently nonlinear, often with single-peaked response trajectories with a common pre- and post-infection baseline. Such data are frequently analyzed with statistical methods ...


Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli 2015 University of Kentucky

Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The objectives of this thesis were: (1) to evaluate the downregulation of the stallion hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by a GnRH antagonist (acyline) based upon endocrine, seminal, testicular and behavioral effects, and (2) to assess recovery after treatment. Stallions were treated for 50 days (n=4; 330µg/kg acyline q 5d) and controls (n=4) received vehicle alone. Stallions were assessed pre-treatment and for 72 days after last treatment. Treatment induced declines (p<0.05) in FSH, LH, testosterone (to castrate levels) and estrone sulfate. Gonadotropins and testosterone returned to control values within nine days and estrone sulfate by 14 days after treatment discontinuation. Acyline-treated stallions failed to respond with FSH, LH and testosterone increase after exogenous GnRH stimulation (25µg gonadorelin, IV) compared to pre-treatment and control stimulation. Total sperm numbers and motility were reduced in acyline-treated stallions, as well as total seminal plasma protein and testicular volume (p<0.05). Time to ejaculation was increased in acyline group (p<0.5). Testicular, sexual behavior and most seminal parameters regained normal levels within 72 days after treatment ceased. Sperm output of acyline-treated stallions was regained within seven months after ending treatment. Acyline reversibly suppressed the stallion HPG axis, thus has potential for treating the androgen-dependent Equine-Arteritis-Virus carrier state and as behavior modulator.


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