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A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman 2019 Iowa State University

A Latent Spatial Piecewise Exponential Model For Interval-Censored Disease Surveillance Data With Time-Varying Covariates And Misclassification, Yaxuan Sun, Chong Wang, William Q. Meeker, Max Morris, Marisa L. Rotolo, Jeffery Zimmerman

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Understanding the dynamics of disease spread is critical to achieving effective animal disease surveillance. A major challenge in modeling disease spread is the fact that the true disease status cannot be known with certainty due to the imperfect diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the tests used to generate the disease surveillance data. Other challenges in modeling such data include interval censoring, relating disease spread to distance between units, and incorporating time-varying covariates, which are the unobserved disease statuses. We propose a latent spatial piecewise exponential model (PEX) with misclassification of events to address the challenges in modeling such disease surveillance ...


The Advancements Of Feline Renal Allograft Transplantation Techniques And Treatments, Morgan Simon 2018 Liberty University

The Advancements Of Feline Renal Allograft Transplantation Techniques And Treatments, Morgan Simon

Senior Honors Theses

In recent years, kidney transplants have become a viable treatment option for chronic kidney disease in felines. Chronic kidney disease is the leading disease in geriatric cats with 20% of these geriatric cats being affected. Feline kidney transplantation has been met with many different issues regarding ethics, diagnosis, methods, and complications. There are some individuals that believe kidney transplants should not be done in felines because consent from the feline cannot be obtained. The diagnosis of chronic kidney disease has been on the rise in recent years which may be due to new classification standards. There have been many different ...


Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer 2018 Western Oregon University

Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer

PURE Insights

Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...


Assessment Of Recent Cases Of Animal Hoarding In Germany: The Challenge For Animal Shelters And Public Authorities, Sophie Arnold, Henriette Mackensen, Evelyn Ofensberger, Brigitte Rusche 2018 German Animal Welfare Association (Deutscher Tierschutzbund e.V.), Animal Welfare Academy

Assessment Of Recent Cases Of Animal Hoarding In Germany: The Challenge For Animal Shelters And Public Authorities, Sophie Arnold, Henriette Mackensen, Evelyn Ofensberger, Brigitte Rusche

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

Animal hoarding is a severe problem in the field of human-animal interaction. The goal of this study was to assess the current situation of animal hoarding in Germany. Reports of animal hoarding cases were collected from animal shelters and public media between January 2012 and December 2015; 120 cases were analyzed. A total of 9,174 animals were hoarded during the investigated time period. The results showed that cases involving cats were most common, followed by cases involving dogs and small mammals. The average number (x¯) of animals hoarded per case was 76 (x˜ = 43). Small mammals were hoarded in ...


Clinical Features Of Cats With Aqueous Tear Deficiency: A Retrospective Case Series Of 10 Patients (17 Eyes), Lisa K. Uhl, Akihiko Saito, Hiroko Iwashita, David J. Maggs, Jonathan P. Mochel, Lionel Sebbag 2018 Iowa State University

Clinical Features Of Cats With Aqueous Tear Deficiency: A Retrospective Case Series Of 10 Patients (17 Eyes), Lisa K. Uhl, Akihiko Saito, Hiroko Iwashita, David J. Maggs, Jonathan P. Mochel, Lionel Sebbag

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objectives

The aim of this study was to describe the clinical findings, diagnostic test results and response to therapy of cats with Schirmer tear test 1 (STT-1) values below the reference interval.

Methods

The medical records of three institutions were searched for cats with ocular surface disease and STT-1 values/min, confirmed at two or more separate visits.

Results

Ten cats (17 eyes) were included. The mean ± SD (range) age and STT-1 values in affected eye(s) were 6.1 ± 5.7 (0.2–16) years and 2.4 ± 3.1 (0–8) mm/min, respectively. Concurrent ocular surface disease ...


Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger 2018 Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Checklist Of Bloodfeeding Mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) From The Wings Of Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) In The Manú Biosphere Reserve, Peru, Donald D. Gettinger

MANTER: Journal of Parasite Biodiversity

A survey collection of mites of the family Spinturnicidae from Peruvian bats includes 11 species of Periglischrus (acutisternus, gameroi, grandisoma, herrerai, hopkinsi, iheringi, micronycteridis, ojasti, paracutisternus, paravargasi, and ramirezi) and 2 Spinturnix (americanus and bakeri); almost all represent new locality records. This survey collection is available for further study at the following repositories: The Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; and the Laboratório de Espeleobiologia y Acarologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. When spinturnicid mites are collected to avoid cross-contamination by mites among species of bats, parasitic associations are ...


Complete Genome Sequences Of Four Staphylococcus Aureus Sequence Type 398 Isolates From Four Goats With Osteomyelitis, Mohamed A. Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Rebecca E. Rifkin, Remiqiusz M. Grzeskowiak, Alexandru S. Biris, David A. Anderson 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Complete Genome Sequences Of Four Staphylococcus Aureus Sequence Type 398 Isolates From Four Goats With Osteomyelitis, Mohamed A. Abouelkhair, Stephen A. Kania, David A. Bemis, Rebecca E. Rifkin, Remiqiusz M. Grzeskowiak, Alexandru S. Biris, David A. Anderson

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences

Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of multiple infections, including bacteremia, infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and prosthetic device infections. We report here the first whole-genome sequence for four S. aureus sequence type 398 isolates from clinical cases of osteomyelitis in four goats with a history of orthopedic surgery.


Photography-Based Method For Assessing Fluorescein Clearance Test In Dogs, Arianne Pontes Oriá, Miriam Flores Rebouças, Emanoel Martins Filho, Francisco de Assis Dórea Neto, Ana Cláudia Raposo, Lionel Sebbag 2018 Federal University of Bahia

Photography-Based Method For Assessing Fluorescein Clearance Test In Dogs, Arianne Pontes Oriá, Miriam Flores Rebouças, Emanoel Martins Filho, Francisco De Assis Dórea Neto, Ana Cláudia Raposo, Lionel Sebbag

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Background: The fluorescein clearance test (FCT) provides insight into the tear film dynamics. The purpose of this study was to describe an inexpensive and practical method for assessing FCT in dogs, using photography and software analysis, and to assess the retention time of 1 vs. 2 eye drops on the canine ocular surface.

Methods: (i) In vivo - Eight healthy German Shepherd dogs were recruited. Following topical anesthesia with 0.5% proxymetacaine, each eye sequentially received (1 week apart) either 1 drop (35 μL) or 2 drops (70 μL) of 0.5% fluorescein. A Schirmer strip was inserted in the ventral ...


The Effect Of The Nematode Trapping Fungus Duddingtonia Flagrans Against Gastronintestinal Nematodes Of Exotic Ruminant Hoofstock At Disney's(R) Animal Kingdom Lodge, Kristen Renee Young 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Effect Of The Nematode Trapping Fungus Duddingtonia Flagrans Against Gastronintestinal Nematodes Of Exotic Ruminant Hoofstock At Disney's(R) Animal Kingdom Lodge, Kristen Renee Young

LSU Master's Theses

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) can severely affect the performance of ruminant animals and may lead to an animal’s death in a severe, untreated infection. Zoological parks, which have used anthelmintic drugs for treatment of GIN, are now seeing evidence of drug resistant parasites (Garretson et al., 2009). Duddingtonia flagrans, a nematophagous fungus, has shown a reduction in larvae of coprocultures of exotic ruminants through feed administration at Disney's® Animal Kingdom Lodge (DAKL) and has potential to biologically control forage larvae (Terry, 2013). This study evaluated the effectiveness of Duddingtonia flagrans, administered to exotic ruminant hoofstock at a daily dose ...


Functional Genomics And Immunologic Tools: The Impact Of Viral And Host Genetic Variations On The Outcome Of Zika Virus Infection, Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C. Frank, Justin G. Julander, Aaron L. Olsen, Irina A. Polejaeva, Christopher J. Davies, Kenneth L. White, Young-Min Lee 2018 Utah State University

Functional Genomics And Immunologic Tools: The Impact Of Viral And Host Genetic Variations On The Outcome Of Zika Virus Infection, Sang-Im Yun, Byung-Hak Song, Jordan C. Frank, Justin G. Julander, Aaron L. Olsen, Irina A. Polejaeva, Christopher J. Davies, Kenneth L. White, Young-Min Lee

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) causes no-to-mild symptoms or severe neurological disorders. To investigate the importance of viral and host genetic variations in determining ZIKV infection outcomes, we created three full-length infectious cDNA clones as bacterial artificial chromosomes for each of three spatiotemporally distinct and genetically divergent ZIKVs: MR-766 (Uganda, 1947), P6-740 (Malaysia, 1966), and PRVABC-59 (Puerto Rico, 2015). Using the three molecularly cloned ZIKVs, together with 13 ZIKV region-specific polyclonal antibodies covering nearly the entire viral protein-coding region, we made three conceptual advances: (i) We created a comprehensive genome-wide portrait of ZIKV gene products and their related species, with several previously ...


Relationship Of The Mucosal Microbiota To Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Small Cell Intestinal Lymphoma In Cats, Kayode Garraway, Chad M. Johannes, Angela Bryan, John Peauroi, Giacomo Rossi, Min Zhang, Chong Wang, Karin Allenspach, Albert E. Jergens 2018 Iowa State University

Relationship Of The Mucosal Microbiota To Gastrointestinal Inflammation And Small Cell Intestinal Lymphoma In Cats, Kayode Garraway, Chad M. Johannes, Angela Bryan, John Peauroi, Giacomo Rossi, Min Zhang, Chong Wang, Karin Allenspach, Albert E. Jergens

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background: The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in healthy cats is altered in IBD. Little research has been performed to identify whether specific bacterial groups are associated with small cell GI lymphoma (LSA).

Hypothesis: Mucosal bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceae and Fusobacterium spp., are abundant in intestinal biopsies of cats with small cell GI LSA compared to cats with IBD.

Animals: Fourteen cats with IBD and 14 cats with small cell GI LSA.

Methods: Retrospective case control study. A search of the medical records was performed to identify cats diagnosed with IBD and with GI LSA. Bacterial groups identified by FISH in GI biopsies ...


Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

The World Health Organization, estimated that 22.9% of children under the age of 5 are stunted. The etiology of stunting is multifactorial and is associated with poor linear growth, villous atrophy, dysbiosis, and increased intestinal permeability. Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces nutrient deficiencies and increases intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and decreases growth rates. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if chickens consuming a rye based diet exhibited a similar pathophysiology of stunted children to develop a relevant animal model. Therefore, early or late phase malnutrition was induced determine the effects of malnutrition on performance, bone mineralization ...


The Efficiency Of Melatonin In Inhibiting Haemonchus Contortus Development, Stephanie M. McAvoy 2018 University of Maine

The Efficiency Of Melatonin In Inhibiting Haemonchus Contortus Development, Stephanie M. Mcavoy

Honors College

Haemonchus contortus (HC) is a pathogenic nematode that causes sheep morbidity through anemia, edema, and weight loss. It’s the most economically devastating parasite to sheep industries, with increasing global temperatures and anthelmintic resistance increasing HC residing areas and life spans. HC enter hypobiosis, a state comparable to hibernation during the fall when day length decreases. In this state of arrested development, the sheep are not taxed. Hypobiosis occurs in late fall and early winter. Melatonin, with its release having a direct relationship to length of night, is highest during this period. Combining melatonin’s relationship to the seasons, along ...


Surveillance For Respiratory And Diarrheal Pathogens At The Human-Pig Interface In Sarawak, Malaysia, Laura K. Borkenhagen, Kerry A. Mallinson, Rick W. Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D. Anderson, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Sarah E. Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G. Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F. Lowe, Kristen K. Coleman, Gregory C. Gray 2018 Duke University

Surveillance For Respiratory And Diarrheal Pathogens At The Human-Pig Interface In Sarawak, Malaysia, Laura K. Borkenhagen, Kerry A. Mallinson, Rick W. Tsao, Siaw-Jing Ha, Wei-Honn Lim, Teck-Hock Toh, Benjamin D. Anderson, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Sarah E. Philo, Kuek-Sen Chong, William G. Lindsley, Alejandro Ramirez, James F. Lowe, Kristen K. Coleman, Gregory C. Gray

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background The large livestock operations and dense human population of Southeast Asia are considered a hot-spot for emerging viruses.

Objectives To determine if the pathogens adenovirus (ADV), coronavirus (CoV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), enterovirus (EV), influenza A-D (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), and porcine rotaviruses A and C (RVA and RVC), are aerosolized at the animal-interface, and if humans working in these environments are carrying these viruses in their nasal airways.

Study This cross-sectional study took place in Sarawak, Malaysia among 11 pig farms, 2 abattoirs, and 3 animal markets in June and July of 2017. Pig ...


Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus NPro Suppresses Type I Interferon Pathway Signaling In Bovine Cells And Augments Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication, Abdulrahman Abdulaziz A. Alkheraif

Dissertations & Theses in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infections contribute to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which is a multi-factorial disorder involving co-infections of viruses and bacteria including mycoplasma. BRDC causes great economic losses to the United States feedlot industry. BVDV infection induces immunosuppression in infected animals. BVDV Npro binds and degrades the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) and effectively blocks type I interferon (type I IFN) expression in host cells. BRSV nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2, block activation of IRF-3. In calves, concurrent infection with BVDV and BRSV resulted in more severe clinical signs ...


Impact Of Flow Rate, Collection Devices, And Extraction Methods On Tear Concentrations Following Oral Administration Of Doxycycline In Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Lucas Showman, Emily M. McDowell, Ann Perera, Jonathan P. Mochel 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Flow Rate, Collection Devices, And Extraction Methods On Tear Concentrations Following Oral Administration Of Doxycycline In Dogs And Cats, Lionel Sebbag, Lucas Showman, Emily M. Mcdowell, Ann Perera, Jonathan P. Mochel

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Purpose: Compare the precision of doxycycline quantification in tear fluid collected with either Schirmer strips or polyvinyl acetal (PVA) sponges following oral drug administration.

Methods: Three dogs and 3 cats were administered doxycycline orally at a dose of 4.2–5 mg/kg every 12 h for 6 consecutive days. At day 5 and 6, blood and tear fluid were sampled to capture doxycycline trough and maximal concentrations. Tear fluid was collected 3 times (spaced 10 min apart) at each session with the absorbent material placed in the lower conjunctival fornix until the 20-mm mark was reached (Schirmer strip, one ...


The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert 2018 Iowa State University

The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Systematic reviews are increasingly using data from preclinical animal experiments in evidence networks. Further, there are ever-increasing efforts to automate aspects of the systematic review process. When assessing systematic bias and unit-of-analysis errors in preclinical experiments, it is critical to understand the study design elements employed by investigators. Such information can also inform prioritization of automation efforts that allow the identification of the most common issues. The aim of this study was to identify the design elements used by investigators in preclinical research in order to inform unique aspects of assessment of bias and error in preclinical research. Using 100 ...


30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman

Celebration of Learning

There are no controlled studies of acetaminophen toxicity in horses. The objective was to test the hypotheses that oral acetaminophen administered at a dosage 25% higher than that sometimes used in horses would result in measurable hepatic toxicity as seen in humans and other species. Six healthy adult horses were administered 25 mg/kg acetaminophen powder in corn syrup twice daily for 30 days. Three other horses served as negative controls receiving only corn syrup. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained on days 7 and 1 before treatment; on treatment days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26 ...


Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson 2018 University of Wyoming

Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson

Honors Theses AY 17/18

This Cost Benefit Analysis is in reference to the new 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations and addresses the effect these updates have had on samples received at the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Before 2017 in Wyoming, either a culture or PCR could be performed to test a bull for the presence of Trichomonas. New regulations now require PCR diagnoses to take place. This project covers data collected at the WSVL from 2012 through 2017. Both culture and PCR data were analyzed for 2012 to 2016. Data was split into pre- and post-regulation changes, and then divided further into ...


Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes 2018 University of Maine

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


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