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Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth 2017 Iowa State University

Comparison Of Humoral And T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses To A Single Dose Of Bovela® Live Double Deleted Bvdv Vaccine Or To A Field Bvdv Strain, Ratree Platt, Lyle Kesl, Christian Guidarini, Chong Wang, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types ...


Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Central Role Of Vasotocin In The Neuroendocrine Regulation Of Stress Responses And Food Intake In Chickens, Gallus Gallus, Gurueswar Nagarajan

Theses and Dissertations

It is well known that arginine vasotocin (AVT) in birds is involved in physiological homeostasis such as cardiovascular, osmotic regulation as well as reproductive functions. Pertinent to these physiological functions, AVT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the hypothalamus have been found associated with hemorrhage, dehydration, oviposition and other physiological regulation. Evidence, however, suggests that AVT also plays significant roles in modulating behavior, memory, stress, and food intake. This dissertation research addresses the latter two neuroendocrine functions of AVT in detail within the chicken brain. First, the functional role of AVT-ir neurons in conjunction with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-ir neurons in ...


Trap-Neuter-Return Programs And The Importance Of Associated Public Awareness, Nicolette Sliwa 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Trap-Neuter-Return Programs And The Importance Of Associated Public Awareness, Nicolette Sliwa

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

The focus of this paper is to describe a typical Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) program and highlight the major pros and cons surrounding this somewhat controversial method of managing the overwhelming free-roaming cat population. The effects of the species’ overabundance on the environment and human health are also discussed. Citing studies completed on TNR programs around the globe as well as mathematical models, the effectiveness of this method is compared to other, currently used alternatives. Finally, it has been suggested that the general awareness level a neighborhood possesses about the true goals of TNR programs has a potentially significant impact on the ...


Is The Effectiveness Of Lecture Capture Related To Teaching Approach Or Content Type?, Jared A. Danielson, Vanessa Preast, Holly Bender, Lesya M. Hassall 2017 Iowa State University

Is The Effectiveness Of Lecture Capture Related To Teaching Approach Or Content Type?, Jared A. Danielson, Vanessa Preast, Holly Bender, Lesya M. Hassall

Lesya Hassall

The purpose of two related studies was to explore the relationships between course characteristics (teaching approach, content type, and level of curricular coordination), lecture-capture implementation, and learning in a veterinary medical education environment. Two hundred and twenty two students and 35 faculty members participated in the first study, which surveyed respondents regarding their perception of lecture-capture use and impact on learning. Four hundred and ninety one students participated in the second study, which compared scores on a standardized test of basic science knowledge among groups experiencing various levels of lecture-capture implementation. Students were most likely to view captured lectures in ...


Leaders Of The Pack: Women And The Future Of Veterinary Medicine, Julie Kumble, Donald F. Smith 2017 Purdue University

Leaders Of The Pack: Women And The Future Of Veterinary Medicine, Julie Kumble, Donald F. Smith

Purdue University Press Book Previews

Veterinary medicine has undergone sweeping changes in the last few decades. Women now account for 55 percent of the active veterinarians in the field, and nearly 80 percent of veterinary students are women. However, average salaries have dropped as this shift has occurred, and even with women in the vast majority, only 25 percent of leadership roles are held by women.

These trends point to gender-based inequality that veterinary medicine, a profession that tilts so heavily toward women, is struggling to address. How will the profession respond? What will this mean for our students and schools? What will it mean ...


Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio 2017 Dr. Michael Ruscio

Do You Really Want A Hunter-Gatherer Microbiota? Perils And Pitfalls For Your Gut, Michael Ruscio

Journal of Evolution and Health

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Effects Of Temperature And Diet In Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Development, Melina Florez-Cuadros 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Temperature And Diet In Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Development, Melina Florez-Cuadros

Dissertations and Student Research in Entomology

Stable flies are among the most important blood feeding ectoparasites of cattle worldwide. The livestock industry is losing more than $2 billion dollar annually in the United States alone. Moist decaying vegetative material with bacteria supports larval development. Temperature and diet quality are important factors for stable fly development, affecting development rates, adult survival, and size, but how temperature affects adult size and interacts with nutrition is unknown. This study characterizes the relationship of temperature and diet quality in the development of stable flies. Two statistical models were used to analyze the effect of temperature alone (Lysyk, 1998) and temperature-diet ...


Twenty-Four Hour Holter Monitoring In Finishing Cattle Housed Outdoors, D. A. Frese, J. D. Thomason, C. D. Reinhardt, S. J. Bartle, D. N. Rethorst, G. H. Loneragan, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Twenty-Four Hour Holter Monitoring In Finishing Cattle Housed Outdoors, D. A. Frese, J. D. Thomason, C. D. Reinhardt, S. J. Bartle, D. N. Rethorst, G. H. Loneragan, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring, in the form of Holter monitoring, has been used in human and veterinary medicine for decades as an aid in the diagnosis and determination of appropriate therapy of heart rhythm disturbances. Within veterinary medicine, Holter monitors have been primarily used in companion animal species, yet little attention has been given to food animal species. Moreover, the heart rhythm in clinically normal cattle fed high concentrate diets and housed outdoors in confined drylot facilities has not been previously reported. In order to properly identify pathologic arrhythmias in cattle, the normal rhythm and arrhythmia prevalence in healthy cattle should ...


Differences In Efficacy Between Gamithromycin, Tilmicosin, And Tulathromycin As Metaphylactic Treatments In High Risk Calves For Bovine Respiratory Disease, T. Miller, M. E. Hubbert, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Differences In Efficacy Between Gamithromycin, Tilmicosin, And Tulathromycin As Metaphylactic Treatments In High Risk Calves For Bovine Respiratory Disease, T. Miller, M. E. Hubbert, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The cost of Bovine Respiratory Disease to the beef industry due to death, poorer conversions, and therapy is estimated to cost more than $3 billion per year. Identifying and mitigating Bovine Respiratory Disease in cattle can be difficult due to the increased susceptibility for Bovine Respiratory Disease in high risk cattle. One management option to minimize an outbreak of respiratory disease is the use of metaphylaxis, the mass treatment of a group of calves to reduce the incidence and adverse effects of respiratory disease on high risk animals. Criteria used to determine the necessity of metaphylactic treatment against Bovine Respiratory ...


Antioxidant Feeding Does Not Impact Incidence Or Severity Of Liver Abscesses, H. C. Muller, C. L. Van Bibber-Krueger, J. S. Drouillard 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Antioxidant Feeding Does Not Impact Incidence Or Severity Of Liver Abscesses, H. C. Muller, C. L. Van Bibber-Krueger, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Liver abscesses are a large source of economic loss in feedlot cattle. Not only do liver abscesses lead to a decrease in feedlot performance, but these livers are condemned in the abattoir and can also lead to a further decrease in carcass value due to trim loss. Tylosin phosphate is a metaphylactic macrolide drug that effectively decreases the occurrence of liver abscesses. The drug is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for over-the-counter use. However, in January 2017 the FDA will require a veterinary feed directive for medically important antibiotics (antibiotics that are used in human health) used in ...


Producer Opinions On Antibiotic Use In The Beef Industry, T. Lee, C. D. Reinhardt, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Producer Opinions On Antibiotic Use In The Beef Industry, T. Lee, C. D. Reinhardt, E. F. Schwandt, D. U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Antibiotic use in the beef industry is of increasing interest to consumers and has become a point of discussion for producers, veterinarians, and professional scientists in recent years. With the vast amount of information available on the internet and social media, consumers are becoming more knowledgeable about beef production practices and the use of antibiotics in the food animal industries. Furthermore, scientists have devoted a large amount of time and money to research to investigate consumer opinions and perspectives about management practices used in food animal production. However, many of these investigations fail to include the opinions and perspectives of ...


Intermittent Feeding Of Tylan Reduces Use Of In-Feed Antibiotics While Still Controlling Incidence Of Liver Abscesses In Finishing Steers, H. C. Muller, R. G. Amachawadi, H. M. Scott, J. S. Drouillard 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Intermittent Feeding Of Tylan Reduces Use Of In-Feed Antibiotics While Still Controlling Incidence Of Liver Abscesses In Finishing Steers, H. C. Muller, R. G. Amachawadi, H. M. Scott, J. S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Liver abscesses are a cause of concern for many feedlots across the country as they lead to a decrease in feedlot performance of finishing cattle as well as a decrease in the final carcass value. Loss in carcass value is due to not only the abscessed liver being condemned, but also due to trim loss associated with the condemned liver. The macrolide drug tylosin phosphate is the drug of choice for metaphylactic treatment of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle. The Food and Drug Administration approved the drug for over-the-counter use, however, from January 2017 all medically important (used in human ...


Route Of Mannheimia Haemolytica And Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine Administration Does Not Affect Health Or Performance Of Receiving Heifers, T. Spore, M. E. Corrigan, T. R. Parks, C. S. Weibert, M. L. DeTray, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi 2017 Kansas State University

Route Of Mannheimia Haemolytica And Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine Administration Does Not Affect Health Or Performance Of Receiving Heifers, T. Spore, M. E. Corrigan, T. R. Parks, C. S. Weibert, M. L. Detray, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Light weight stocker calves often experience health problems shortly after arrival to feeding facilities. Preventative health programs are routinely administered to calves upon arrival to reduce the incidence of Bovine Respiratory Disease. The major route of vaccine administration in cattle is via injection through either intramuscular or subcutaneous routes. Several products have been introduced that utilize the intranasal route of vaccine administration. There are several reasons why intranasal vaccine administration may be more beneficial: 1) Intranasal vaccine administration alleviates concerns that injections pose for Beef Quality Assurance programs. 2) Intranasal vaccine administration may be less stressful on the animal. 3 ...


Zelnate On Arrival Could Decrease The Likelihood Of Subsequent Pulls In Suspect Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex Cases, T. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, G. A. Hanzlicek, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, J. E. Sears, Dale Blasi 2017 Kansas State University

Zelnate On Arrival Could Decrease The Likelihood Of Subsequent Pulls In Suspect Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex Cases, T. Spore, S. P. Montgomery, G. A. Hanzlicek, W. R. Hollenbeck, R. N. Wahl, J. E. Sears, Dale Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Antimicrobial metaphylaxis is an important tool used for the prevention of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex; a disease with a large economic impact that typically affects newly-weaned beef calves that are marketed and transported a distance from their origin.

There are questions involving the potential benefit of Zelnate, a novel non-antibiotic technology designed to activate an animal’s natural immunity to fight Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex, being used either solely or in combination with metaphylaxis at the time of initial processing of high risk calves. More knowledge is also needed regarding the possible effects of repeated use of Zelnate when subsequent ...


Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez de León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats 2017 Iowa State University

Interaction Of Plant Essential Oil Terpenoids With The Southern Cattle Tick Tyramine Receptor: A Potential Biopesticide Target, Aaron D. Gross, Kevin B. Temeyer, Tim A. Day, Adalberto A. Pérez De León, Michael J. Kimber, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

An outbreak of the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, (Canestrini), in the United States would have devastating consequences on the cattle industry. Tick populations have developed resistance to current acaricides, highlighting the need to identify new biochemical targets along with new chemistry. Furthermore, acaricide resistance could further hamper control of tick populations during an outbreak. Botanically-based compounds may provide a safe alternative for efficacious control of the southern cattle tick. We have developed a heterologous expression system that stably expresses the cattle tick's tyramine receptor with a G-protein chimera, producing a system that is amenable to high-throughput screening ...


Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello 2017 Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Detoxification Of Mitochondrial Oxidants And Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated By Thioredoxin-2 And Peroxiredoxin-3 During Hyperoxic Injury, Benjamin J. Forred, Darwin R. Daugaard, Brianna K. Titus, Ryan R. Wood, Miranda J. Floen, Michelle L. Booze, Peter F. Vitiello

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during ...


Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Alejandro Ramirez, Julia A. Calderón Díaz 2017 Iowa State University

Dynamic Space Requirements Of Lame And Non-Lame Sows As They Lie And Stand, Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Alejandro Ramirez, Julia A. Calderón Díaz

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to calculate the dynamic space requirements to lie down and stand up of lame and non-lame sowsusing two separate measurement methods.Eighty-fivemultiparous sowswere moved from their home stall to a testingpen where they were video recorded for one lying-standing sequence at 30,60,and 90 days of gestation. The digital video camera was affixed onto the ceiling immediately above the testing pen and the sow was filmed until she laiddown and stoodup one time, or if 2.5 hours elapsed from the start of recording. Sows were lameness scored using a 3-point scaleon the ...


Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, Cassandra M. V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Haley A. Carr, Colleen M. Alvarez, Daniel I. Rubenstein 2017 Iowa State University

Lingering Effects Of Contraception Management On Feral Mare (Equus Caballus) Fertility And Social Behavior, Cassandra M. V. Nuñez, James S. Adelman, Haley A. Carr, Colleen M. Alvarez, Daniel I. Rubenstein

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Due to the extirpation of their natural predators, feral horse populations have expanded across the United States, necessitating their management. Contraception of females (mares) with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) is a popular option; however, effects to physiology and behavior can be substantial. On Shackleford Banks, North Carolina, USA, treated mares have exhibited cycling during the non-breeding season and demonstrated decreased fidelity to the band stallion, but PZP's long-term effects on mare physiology and behavior remain largely unexplored. After the contraception program was suspended in this population, we examined how prior exposure to varying levels of PZP treatment impacted (1 ...


Intransal Immunization Of Pigs With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Like Particles Plus 2’, 3’ –Cgamp Vaccigrade™ Adjuvant Exacerbates Viremia After Virus Challenge, Alexandria Marie Van Noort 2017 South Dakota State University

Intransal Immunization Of Pigs With Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Like Particles Plus 2’, 3’ –Cgamp Vaccigrade™ Adjuvant Exacerbates Viremia After Virus Challenge, Alexandria Marie Van Noort

Theses and Dissertations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically devastating virus that causes a persistent infection and spreads quickly. The virus causes abortions in sows and respiratory diseases in young piglets. Current PRRSV vaccines appear to provide limited cross-protection. A virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine is made up of key PRRSV structural proteins, which could be cross protective among the different strains. We tested PRRSV VLPs as a vaccine candidate with a 2’, 3’-cGAMP VacciGradeTM adjuvant against pigs infected with PRRSV after intranasal immunization to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy by the VLPs and adjuvant. The VLPs ...


The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson 2017 University of Akron

The Effects Of Methamphetamine Exposure On Cardiovascular Development In Combination With Hypoxia In Danio Rerio, Sarah Donaldson

Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of methamphetamine combined with hypoxia on the development and function of the cardiovascular system in Danio rerio embryos. It was hypothesized that the combined effect of the drug and decreased oxygen concentration would result in decreased cardiac parameters due to underdevelopment of the ventricle and vessels resulting from cardiomyopathy and lack of blood flow to tissues. It was found that methamphetamine exposure correlated to an increase in stroke volume, caudal artery and vein diameters and RBC velocities alone, while having a multiplicative effect of increasing arterial RBC velocity when combined ...


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