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10,154 full-text articles. Page 1 of 143.

Purification And Characterization Of A Fish Granzymea Involved In Cell-Mediated Immunity, Yuta Matsuura, Takeshi Yabu, Hajime Shiba, Teruyuki Nakanishi 2016 Nihon University

Purification And Characterization Of A Fish Granzymea Involved In Cell-Mediated Immunity, Yuta Matsuura, Takeshi Yabu, Hajime Shiba, Teruyuki Nakanishi

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise von G Jørgensen 2016 The University of Maine

Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise Von G Jørgensen

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Induced Inflammation In The Atlantic Salmon Intestine And Epithelial Responses, Håvard Bjørgen, Erling Olaf Koppang, Magne Kaldhusdal, Torfinn Moldal, Ole-Bendik Dale 2016 Norwegian school of Veterinary medicine

Induced Inflammation In The Atlantic Salmon Intestine And Epithelial Responses, Håvard Bjørgen, Erling Olaf Koppang, Magne Kaldhusdal, Torfinn Moldal, Ole-Bendik Dale

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Characterization And Functional Analysis Of Interleukin-12 In Amberjack Seriola Dumarili, Megumi Matsumoto Miss, Kyosuke Araki Dr, Kazuma Hayashi Mr, Hiroaki Suetake Dr, Atsushi Yamamoto Dr 2016 Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Japan

Characterization And Functional Analysis Of Interleukin-12 In Amberjack Seriola Dumarili, Megumi Matsumoto Miss, Kyosuke Araki Dr, Kazuma Hayashi Mr, Hiroaki Suetake Dr, Atsushi Yamamoto Dr

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Induction Of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses After Vaccination With Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Nocardia Seriolae In Amberjack Seriola Dumerili, Kyosuke Araki, Megumi Matsumoto, Kazuma Hayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto 2016 Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Japan

Induction Of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses After Vaccination With Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Nocardia Seriolae In Amberjack Seriola Dumerili, Kyosuke Araki, Megumi Matsumoto, Kazuma Hayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Flow Rate And Gas Mixture On The Welfare Of Weaned And Neonate Pigs During Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, C. D. Hagen, Chong Wang, T. M. Widowski, Anna Johnson, Suzanne T. Millman 2016 Iowa State University

Effects Of Flow Rate And Gas Mixture On The Welfare Of Weaned And Neonate Pigs During Gas Euthanasia, Larry J. Sadler, C. D. Hagen, Chong Wang, T. M. Widowski, Anna Johnson, Suzanne T. Millman

Chong Wang

The objectives of this study were to assess efficacy and welfare implications of gas euthanasia when applied to weaned and neonate pigs. Parameters associated with welfare, which were measured before loss of consciousness, included open-mouth breathing, ataxia, righting response, and escape attempts. Two age groups (weaned and neonate) were assessed in 9 gas treatments arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial design, with 2 gas types (CO2 = 100% CO2 and 50:50 = 50:50 CO2:argon) and 4 flow rates (box volume exchange/min: slow = 20%; medium = 35%; fast = 50%; prefill = prefilled followed by 20%) and a control ...


Evaluating Approaches To Measuring Ocular Pain In Bovine Calves With Corneal Scarification And Ibk-Associated Corneal Ulcerations, Reneé Dewell, Suzanne T. Millman, Stacie A. Gould, Kyle L. Tofflemire, R. David Whitley, Rebecca L. Parsons, Eric W. Lowe, FangFang Liu, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor 2016 Iowa State University

Evaluating Approaches To Measuring Ocular Pain In Bovine Calves With Corneal Scarification And Ibk-Associated Corneal Ulcerations, Reneé Dewell, Suzanne T. Millman, Stacie A. Gould, Kyle L. Tofflemire, R. David Whitley, Rebecca L. Parsons, Eric W. Lowe, Fangfang Liu, Chong Wang, Annette O'Connor

Chong Wang

The objective of this experiment was to describe the magnitude and variation of measures of ocular pain in cattle experiencing corneal scarification and corneal ulcerations associated with experimentally induced IBK. In our study, pressure algometry may be appropriate to quantify ocular pain in calves. This information will enable appropriate design of studies for assessing the extent of ocular pain associated with ophthalmic abnormalities in cattle and efficacy of pain mitigation strategies.


Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...


Risk Assessment For Food Safety: Application And Evaluation Of Haccp In Hog Slaughter And Processing, Helen H. Jensen, George W. Beran, Terry Proescholdt, Laurian Unnevehr, James S. Dickson, Patricia Batres-Marquez 2016 Iowa State University

Risk Assessment For Food Safety: Application And Evaluation Of Haccp In Hog Slaughter And Processing, Helen H. Jensen, George W. Beran, Terry Proescholdt, Laurian Unnevehr, James S. Dickson, Patricia Batres-Marquez

Helen Jensen

New federal regulations focus control at the processing plant level. The project described in this article is designed to evaluate the microbial reductions and costs associated with the use of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system in large pork slaughter and processing plants. The objectives are to measure the efficiency of HACCP systems in achieving lower microbial counts in pork processing, to measure the marginal costs associated with different levels of pathogen reduction in pork processing and to determine implications for mandated HACCP adoption on industry costs. The study considers specific control points or technologies that are ...


Where Are The Veterinarian Shortage Areas Anyway?, Tong Wang, David A. Hennessy, Annette M. O'Connor 2016 Iowa State University

Where Are The Veterinarian Shortage Areas Anyway?, Tong Wang, David A. Hennessy, Annette M. O'Connor

David Hennessy

This paper describes an econometric model to evaluate factors associated with a county’s likelihood of being designated as a private practice shortage area under the United States’ Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). Study determinants of equilibrium food animal veterinarian location choices were also evaluated and used as a benchmark to assess the shortage designation process. On the whole the program appears to perform quite well. For several states, however, VMLRP shortage designations are inconsistent with the model of food animal veterinarian shortages. Comparative shortage is generally more severe in states that have no VMLRP designated private practice shortage ...


Persistent Colonization Of Sheep By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Other E. Coli Pathotypes, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, T. A. Casey, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Persistent Colonization Of Sheep By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Other E. Coli Pathotypes, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, T. A. Casey, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness in humans. Ruminants appear to be more frequently colonized by STEC than are other animals, but the reason(s) for this is unknown. We compared the frequency, magnitude, duration, and transmissibility of colonization of sheep by E. coli O157:H7 to that by other pathotypes of E. coli. Young adult sheep were simultaneously inoculated with a cocktail consisting of two strains of E. coliO157:H7, two strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and one strain of enteropathogenic E. coli. Both STEC strains and ETEC 2041 were given at ...


Long Polar Fimbriae Contribute To Colonization By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Vivo, Dianna Jordan, Nancy A. Cornick, Alfredo G. Torres, Evelyn A. Dean-Nystrom, James B. Kaper, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Long Polar Fimbriae Contribute To Colonization By Escherichia Coli O157:H7 In Vivo, Dianna Jordan, Nancy A. Cornick, Alfredo G. Torres, Evelyn A. Dean-Nystrom, James B. Kaper, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

The contribution of long polar fimbriae to intestinal colonization by Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated in sheep, conventional pigs, and gnotobiotic piglets.E. coli O157:H7 strains with lpfA1 and lpfA2 mutated were recovered in significantly lower numbers and caused fewer attachment and effacement lesions than the parent strain.


Shiga Toxin And Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phage Do Not Facilitate Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Colonization In Sheep, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Vijay Sharma 2016 Iowa State University

Shiga Toxin And Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phage Do Not Facilitate Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Colonization In Sheep, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Vijay Sharma

Nancy Cornick

Isogenic strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, missing either stx2 or the entire Stx2-encoding phage, were compared with the parent strain for their abilities to colonize sheep. The absence of the phage or of the Shiga toxin did not significantly impact the magnitude or duration of shedding of E. coli O157:H7.


Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection: Temporal And Quantitative Relationships Among Colonization, Toxin Production, And Systemic Disease, Nancy A. Cornick, Ilze Matise, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli Infection: Temporal And Quantitative Relationships Among Colonization, Toxin Production, And Systemic Disease, Nancy A. Cornick, Ilze Matise, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Edema disease, a naturally occurring disease of swine caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), was used as a model for the sequence of events that occur in the pathogenesis of STEC infection. The mean time from production of levels of Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e) detectable in the feces (day 1) to the onset of clinical disease (neurologic disturbances or death) was 5 days (range, 3–9). Bacterial colonization and titers of Stx2e in the ileum peaked at 4 days after inoculation in pigs without signs of clinical disease and at 6 days after inoculation in clinically affected pigs. Animals ...


Lachnospira Pectinoschiza Sp. Nov., An Anaerobic Pectinophile From The Pig Intestine, Nancy A. Cornick, N. S. Jensen, D. A. Stahl, P. A. Hartman, M. J. Allison 2016 Iowa State University

Lachnospira Pectinoschiza Sp. Nov., An Anaerobic Pectinophile From The Pig Intestine, Nancy A. Cornick, N. S. Jensen, D. A. Stahl, P. A. Hartman, M. J. Allison

Nancy Cornick

Pectinophiles are bacteria that utilize pectin and only a few related compounds as substrates. Obligately anaerobic pectinophiles have been isolated from the intestinal tracts and gingivae of humans and from the rumina of cattle. We isolated three strains of pectinophilic bacteria from colonic contents of pigs but were unable to isolate pectinophiles from the rumen contents of four sheep, even when the animals were fed a high-pectin diet. The pectinophiles isolated from pigs were strictly anaerobic, motile, gram-positive rods (0.36 to 0.56 by 2.4 to 3.1 μm). Pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and gluconate were the only substrates ...


Therapeutic Use Of A Receptor Mimic Probiotic Reduces Intestinal Shiga Toxin Levels In A Piglet Model Of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Shannon J. Hostetter, Amy F. Helgerson, James C. Paton, Adrienne W. Paton, Nancy A. Cornick 2016 Iowa State University

Therapeutic Use Of A Receptor Mimic Probiotic Reduces Intestinal Shiga Toxin Levels In A Piglet Model Of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Shannon J. Hostetter, Amy F. Helgerson, James C. Paton, Adrienne W. Paton, Nancy A. Cornick

Nancy Cornick

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a systemic and potentially fatal complication of gastroenteritis secondary to Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal damage. Shiga toxin (Stx), the toxin principle in HUS, is produced locally within the gut following EHEC colonization and is disseminated via the vasculature. Clinical development of HUS currently has no effective treatment and is a leading cause of renal failure in children. Novel post-exposure therapies are currently needed for HUS; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a Stx receptor mimic probiotic in ...


Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho 2016 Iowa State University

Grazing Management Effects On Sediment, Phosphorus, And Pathogen Loading Of Streams In Cool-Season Grass Pastures, Kirk A. Schwarte, James R. Russell, John Kovar, Daniel G. Morrical, Steve Ensley, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Nancy A. Cornick, Yong Il Cho

Nancy Cornick

Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater (P < 0.10) proportions of applied precipitation and amounts of sediment and P transported in runoff from bare sites than from vegetated sites across grazing treatments. Similar differences were observed comparing vegetated sites in CSU and RS pastures with vegetated sites in CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, andEscherichia coli O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces ...


In Vivo Transduction Of An Stx-Encoding Phage In Ruminants, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Volker Mai, Jennifer M. Ritchie, David W. K. Acheson 2016 Iowa State University

In Vivo Transduction Of An Stx-Encoding Phage In Ruminants, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Volker Mai, Jennifer M. Ritchie, David W. K. Acheson

Nancy Cornick

We assessed the ability of a kanamycin-marked Stx phage to move into a commensal, ovine Escherichia coli strain in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. Transduction was detected in 19/24 sheep tested, resulting in the recovery of 47 transductants. Subtherapeutic doses of the quinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin did not increase the rate of transduction.


Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Po157 Genes In Biofilm Development In Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Edl933, Supraja Puttamreddy, Nancy A. Cornick, F. Chris Minion 2016 Iowa State University

Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis Reveals A Role For Po157 Genes In Biofilm Development In Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Edl933, Supraja Puttamreddy, Nancy A. Cornick, F. Chris Minion

Nancy Cornick

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, a world-wide human food-borne pathogen, causes mild to severe diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The ability of this pathogen to persist in the environment contributes to its dissemination to a wide range of foods and food processing surfaces. Biofilms are thought to be involved in persistence, but the process of biofilm formation is complex and poorly understood in E. coli O157:H7. To better understand the genetics of this process, a mini-Tn5 transposon insertion library was constructed in strain EDL933 and screened for biofilm-negative mutants using a microtiter plate assay. Ninety-five of 11 ...


Intervention With Shiga Toxin (Stx) Antibody After Infection By Stx-Producing Escherichia Coli, Ilze Matise, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon 2016 Iowa State University

Intervention With Shiga Toxin (Stx) Antibody After Infection By Stx-Producing Escherichia Coli, Ilze Matise, Nancy A. Cornick, Sheridan L. Booher, James E. Samuel, Brad T. Bosworth, Harley W. Moon

Nancy Cornick

Shiga toxins (Stxs) produced by Escherichia coli (STEC) cause systemic vascular damage, manifested as hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans and as edema disease in pigs. Edema disease, a naturally occurring disease of pigs, was used to determine whether Stx antibodies, administered after infection and after the onset of Stx production, could prevent the systemic vascular damage and clinical disease caused by Stxs. A total of 119 STEC-infected pigs were treated with low, medium, or high doses of Stx antibody or with placebo. After inoculation with STEC, antibodies or placebo was injected intraperitoneally at 2 days postinoculation (DPI; low dose) or ...


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