Physiologic Effects Of Nasopharyngeal Administration Of Supplemental Oxygen At Various Flow Rates In Healthy Neonatal Foals, David M. Wong, Cody J. Alcott, Chong Wang, Bonnie L. Hay-Kraus, Benjamin R. Buchanan, Charles W. Brockus
Objective—To evaluate the effects of various flow rates of oxygen administered via 1 or 2 nasal cannulae on the fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (Fio2) and other arterial blood gas variables in healthy neonatal foals.
Animals—9 healthy neonatal (3- to 4-day-old) foals.
Procedures—In each foal, a nasal cannula was introduced into each naris and passed into the nasopharynx to the level of the medial canthus of each eye; oxygen was administered at 4 flow rates through either 1 or both cannulae (8 treatments/foal). Intratracheal Fio2, intratracheal end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and arterial ...
Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst
The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in pigs of different age groups, to determine if 25(OH)D concentrations varied with season, and to assess the quality of vitamin D supplements used in swine diets from multiple commercial suppliers. Serum samples (n = 1200) submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for routine surveillance were assayed for serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D premix samples were obtained from suppliers and analyzed at two laboratories over a 9-month period. In all age categories, 25(OH)D concentrations in numerous serum samples were lower ...
Endoscopic Assessment Of The Duodenum In Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 2016 Iowa State University
Endoscopic Assessment Of The Duodenum In Dogs With Inflammatory Bowel Disease, J. E. Slovak, Chong Wang, J. A. Morrison, K. L. Deitz, Dana N. Levine, C. Otoni, R. R. King, L. E. Gerber, K. R. Hanson, A. P. Lundberg, Albert E. Jergens
Background: Endoscopy is performed for direct inspection of the mucosa and acquisition of biopsies in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Aim: To evaluate the interobserver agreement in the endoscopic assessment of duodenal mucosa in dogs with IBD. Methods: Thirty-five archived endoscopic images of grossly normal (n = 6) and inflamed (n = 29) duodenal mucosa were displayed to 3 expert and 5 trainee endoscopists. Each image was assessed independently by endoscopists for mucosal abnormalities using established indices (of hyperemia, granularity, friability, lymphatic dilatation, and erosions) or interpreted as normal mucosa (trial 1). A repeated trial (trial 2) was performed with the ...
Associations Between Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis At Weaning And Ultrasongraphically Measured Body Composition Traits In Yearling Cattle, Lucas D. Funk, James M. Reecy, Chong Wang, Richard G. Tait Jr., Annette M. O'Connor
Objective—To assess associations between infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) diagnosed at weaning and production traits in yearling beef calves.
Design—Retrospective population-based cohort study.
Animals—1,882 Angus calves.
Procedures—Angus calves from 1 farm were evaluated over 7 years. The association between yearling body production traits and detection of IBK lesions at weaning was evaluated.
Results—Yearlings that had evidence of IBK at weaning had less 12th rib fat depth, ribeye area, and body weight than did cohorts without evidence of IBK. Average daily gain was greater in cattle that had IBK lesions at weaning, but this did not ...
A Live-Attenuated And An Inactivated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus (Pcv)1-2 Vaccine Are Both Effective At Inducing A Humoral Immune Response And Reducing Pcv2 Viremia And Intrauterine Infection In Female Swine Of Breeding Age, 2016 Iowa State University
A Live-Attenuated And An Inactivated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus (Pcv)1-2 Vaccine Are Both Effective At Inducing A Humoral Immune Response And Reducing Pcv2 Viremia And Intrauterine Infection In Female Swine Of Breeding Age, Michelle Hemann, Nathan M. Beach, Xiang-Jin Meng, Chong Wang, Patrick G. Halbur, Tanja Opriessnig
The objective of this pilot study was to determine the efficacy of inactivated (1 or 2 dose) and live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus (PCV)1-2 vaccines in sows using the PCV2-spiked semen model. Thirty-five sows were randomly divided into 6 groups: negative and positive controls, 1 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-VAC-PCV2), 2 dose inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (2-VAC-PCV2), 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine unchallenged (1-LIVE-VAC), and 1 dose live-attenuated PCV1-2 vaccine challenged (1-LIVE-VAC-PCV2). The inactivated PCV1-2 vaccine induced higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies in dams. All vaccination strategies provided good protection against PCV2 viremia in dams, whereas the majority of ...
Bacterial Isolates, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns, And Factors Associated With Infection And Outcome In Foals With Septic Arthritis: 83 Cases (1998–2013), Kate L. Hepworth-Warren, David M. Wong, Caroline V. Fulkerson, Chong Wang, Yaxuan Sun
Objective—To determine clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results associated with septic arthritis in foals ≤ 180 days old.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—83 foals with septic arthritis.
Procedures—Medical records at 2 teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2013 were searched to identify those for foals ≤ 180 days old with confirmed infection of ≥ 1 synovial structure. Data extracted from the records included signalment, clinicopathologic information, bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results, and outcome. Data were analyzed for all foals as a single population and for foals stratified into 3 age groups (≤ 7 days, 8 to ...
Effect Of Cold Compression Therapy On Postoperative Pain, Swelling, Range Of Motion, And Lameness After Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy In Dogs, 2016 Affiliated Veterinary Specialists
Effect Of Cold Compression Therapy On Postoperative Pain, Swelling, Range Of Motion, And Lameness After Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy In Dogs, Kevin A. Drygas, Scott R. Mcclure, Robert L. Goring, Antonio Pozzi, Sheilah A. Robertson, Chong Wang
Objective—To evaluate the effect of cold compression therapy (CCT) on postoperative pain, lameness, range of motion of the stifle joint, and swelling following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs. Design—Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Animals—34 client-owned dogs with unilateral deficiency of a cranial cruciate ligament undergoing TPLO. Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 17 dogs) received CCT in the 24-hour period following TPLO. Group 2 (n = 17 dogs) received no CCT. Degree of lameness, range of motion, and circumference of the stifle joint were measured before surgery and 1,14, and 28 ...
Effect Of Injection Tool On Incidence Of Head And Neck Abscesses At Slaughter, 2016 Pfizer Animal Health
Effect Of Injection Tool On Incidence Of Head And Neck Abscesses At Slaughter, Doug King, Tom Painter, Derald J. Holtkamp, Paul Dubois, Chong Wang
Objective: To test the effect of injection device (conventional syringe and needle versus needle-free injection device [NFID]) on the incidence of head and neck abscesses at slaughter. Materials and methods: Pigs raised under antibiotic-free (ABF) conditions (n=3424) were vaccinated first with combined Mycoflex and Circoflex (Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc, St Joseph, Missouri) and second with ER Bac Plus (Pfizer Inc, Pfizer Animal Health, New York, New York), each via either conventional syringe and needle (Needle) or NFID. The first vaccination was given on the right side of the neck 1 day post weaning and the second on the left ...
Agreement Between Arterial Partial Pressure Of Carbon Dioxide And Saturation Of Hemoglobin With Oxygen Values Obtained By Direct Arterial Blood Measurements Versus Noninvasive Methods In Conscious Healthy And Ill Foals, 2016 Iowa State University
Agreement Between Arterial Partial Pressure Of Carbon Dioxide And Saturation Of Hemoglobin With Oxygen Values Obtained By Direct Arterial Blood Measurements Versus Noninvasive Methods In Conscious Healthy And Ill Foals, David M. Wong, Cody J. Alcott, Chong Wang, Jennifer L. Bornkamp, Jessica L. Young, Brett A. Sponseller
Objective—To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Petco2) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) with direct measurements of Paco2 and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (Sao2) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Design—Validation study. Animals—10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Procedures—Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of Paco2 and Pao2 along with Sao2. Concurrently, Petco2 was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris ...
A Method To Quantify Infectious Airborne Pathogens At Concentrations Below The Threshold Of Quantification By Culture, Timothy D. Cutler, Chong Wang, Steven J. Hoff, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman
In aerobiology, dose-response studies are used to estimate the risk of infection to a susceptible host presented by exposure to a specific dose of an airborne pathogen. In the research setting, host- and pathogen-specific factors that affect the dose-response continuum can be accounted for by experimental design, but the requirement to precisely determine the dose of infectious pathogen to which the host was exposed is often challenging. By definition, quantification of viable airborne pathogens is based on the culture of micro-organisms, but some airborne pathogens are transmissible at concentrations below the threshold of quantification by culture. In this paper we ...
Evaluation Of Disinfection Protocols To Reduce Virus Transmission Via Livestock Transport Vehicles Using Model Trailers And Experimental Conditions, 2016 Innovative Agriculture Solutions
Evaluation Of Disinfection Protocols To Reduce Virus Transmission Via Livestock Transport Vehicles Using Model Trailers And Experimental Conditions, Peter T. Schneider, Jianqiang Zhang, Alejandro Ramirez, Chong Wang, Derald J. Holtkamp
Objective: To determine the efficacy of accelerated hydrogen peroxide disinfectant and combined glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium disinfectant after a high-pressure wash against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in experimental settings mimicking field conditions commonly experienced on livestock trailers.
Materials and methods: Aluminum model livestock trailers (1:61) were contaminated with PRRSV- and TGEV-spiked feces. Each model trailer underwent a simple washing procedure and an assigned disinfectant application. Four environmental swabs were collected per trailer at five time points and tested by PRRSV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and TGEV polymerase chain reaction (PCR ...
Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, 2016 Rockhurst University
Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.
Journal of Evolution and Health
As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...
The Three Rs: The Way Forward, 2016 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods
The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. Van Der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. Van Zutphen
Martin Stephens, Ph.D.
This is the report of the eleventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), which was established in 1991 by the European Commission. ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal ...
Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens
Martin Stephens, Ph.D.
Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.
This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...
Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, 2016 The Humane Society of the United States
Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan
Martin Stephens, Ph.D.
While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress ...
Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, 2016 The Humane Society of the United States
Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin L. Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew N. Rowan
Martin Stephens, Ph.D.
Approaches and challenges to refining and reducing animal use in regulatory testing are reviewed. Regulatory testing accounts for the majority of animals reported in the most painful and/or distressful categories in the United States and Canada. Refinements in testing, including the use of humane endpoints, are of increasing concern. Traditional approaches to reduction (e.g., improving experimental design) are being supplemented with complementary approaches, such as the use of tier testing to eliminate some chemicals prior to in vivo testing. Technological advances in telemetry and noninvasive techniques will help decrease either the demand for animals in testing or animal ...
Effectiveness Of A Computer-Based Tutorial For Teaching How To Make A Blood Smear., 2016 Iowa State University
Effectiveness Of A Computer-Based Tutorial For Teaching How To Make A Blood Smear., Vanessa Preast, Jared A. Danielson, Holly Bender, Maury Bousson
Computer-aided instruction (CAI) was developed to teach veterinary students how to make blood smears. This instruction was intended to replace the traditional instructional method in order to promote efficient use of faculty resources while maintaining learning outcomes and student satisfaction.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a computer-aided blood smear tutorial on 1) instructor's teaching time, 2) students' ability to make blood smears, and 3) students' ability to recognize smear quality.
Three laboratory sessions for senior veterinary students were taught using traditional methods (control group) and 4 sessions were taught using ...
A Novel Educational Tool For Teaching Diagnostic Reasoning And Laboratory Data Interpretation To Veterinary (And Medical) Students., Holly Bender, Jared A. Danielson
The Diagnostic Pathfinder was designed to help students learn diagnostic problem solving by supporting them in explaining relationships among history and physical examination findings, data abnormalities, and the underlying mechanisms of disease. The Pathfinder has been used to teach diagnostic problem solving to veterinary students since 2001 and is currently in use at 10 colleges of veterinary medicine. This article describes how the Pathfinder works and summarizes results from studies exploring the effect of Pathfinder use on learning and satisfaction. Pathfinder characteristics are described in terms of their influence on cognitive load, and strategies are provided for effective implementation.
Is The Effectiveness Of Lecture Capture Related To Teaching Approach Or Content Type?, 2016 Iowa State University
Is The Effectiveness Of Lecture Capture Related To Teaching Approach Or Content Type?, Jared A. Danielson, Vanessa Preast, Holly Bender, Lesya M. Hassall
The purpose of two related studies was to explore the relationships between course characteristics (teaching approach, content type, and level of curricular coordination), lecture-capture implementation, and learning in a veterinary medical education environment. Two hundred and twenty two students and 35 faculty members participated in the first study, which surveyed respondents regarding their perception of lecture-capture use and impact on learning. Four hundred and ninety one students participated in the second study, which compared scores on a standardized test of basic science knowledge among groups experiencing various levels of lecture-capture implementation. Students were most likely to view captured lectures in ...
Purification And Characterization Of A Fish Granzymea Involved In Cell-Mediated Immunity, 2016 Nihon University
Purification And Characterization Of A Fish Granzymea Involved In Cell-Mediated Immunity, Yuta Matsuura, Takeshi Yabu, Hajime Shiba, Teruyuki Nakanishi
2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology
No abstract provided.