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Plasma Concentrations Of Fenbendazole (Fbz) And Oxfendazole In Alpacas (Lama Pacos) After Single Intravenous And Oral Dosing Of Fbz, Jeffrey Lakritz, Daniel Linden, David E. Anderson, Terri A. Specht 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Plasma Concentrations Of Fenbendazole (Fbz) And Oxfendazole In Alpacas (Lama Pacos) After Single Intravenous And Oral Dosing Of Fbz, Jeffrey Lakritz, Daniel Linden, David E. Anderson, Terri A. Specht

David Edgar Anderson, DVM, MS, DACVS

The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ) and oxfendazole (OFZ) after intravenous (iv) and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg) to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL) of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min), and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss) was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg). The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after ...


Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown 2015 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tulsa

Ectoparasitism Shortens The Breeding Season In A Colonial Bird, Charles R. Brown, Mary Bomberger Brown

Papers in Natural Resources

When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host’s breeding season—and thus the host’s opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively short (eight to nine week) breeding season, with birds rarely nesting late in the summer. Colonies at which ectoparasitic swallow bugs ...


Crypto Prevention, Brian K. Whitlock 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Crypto Prevention, Brian K. Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

No abstract provided.


Pregnancy Diagnosis In Cattle, Samantha L. Collins, Brian K. Whitlock 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pregnancy Diagnosis In Cattle, Samantha L. Collins, Brian K. Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

No abstract provided.


Efficacy Of Intravenous Administration Of Combined Acid Suppressants In Healthy Dogs, M Katherine Tolbert, Adesola Odunayo, R S. Howell, E E. Peters, Ann Reed 2015 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Efficacy Of Intravenous Administration Of Combined Acid Suppressants In Healthy Dogs, M Katherine Tolbert, Adesola Odunayo, R S. Howell, E E. Peters, Ann Reed

M Katherine Tolbert DVM, PhD, DACVIM

Background Short-term intravenous co-administration of famotidine and pantoprazole is used by some veterinarians to treat gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill dogs. However, clinical studies have not evaluated the efficacy of combination acid suppressant treatment in dogs.

Hypothesis/Objectives To compare the effect of intravenous co-administration of famotidine and pantoprazole to monotherapy with pantoprazole on intragastric pH in dogs. We hypothesized that single agent pantoprazole would be more effective than combination with famotidine.

Animals Twelve healthy adult colony dogs.

Methods Randomized, 2-way crossover design. All dogs received placebo (0.9% saline) for 24 hours followed by 1.0 mg/kg IV ...


Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, James S. Adelman, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke 2015 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Repeated Stressors In Adulthood Increase The Rate Of Biological Ageing, James S. Adelman, Michaela Hau, Mark F. Haussmann, Timothy J. Greives, Christa Matlack, David Costantini, Michael Quetting, Ana C. Miranda, Jesko Partecke

James S. Adelman

Individuals of the same age can differ substantially in the degree to which they have accumulated tissue damage, akin to bodily wear and tear, from past experiences. This accumulated tissue damage reflects the individual’s biological age and may better predict physiological and behavioural performance than the individual‘s chronological age. However, at present it remains unclear how to reliably assess biological age in individual wild vertebrates. We exposed hand-raised adult Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) to a combination of repeated immune and disturbance stressors for over one year to determine the effects of chronic stress on potential biomarkers of biological ...


Response Rate And Stakeholder Attitude Towards Use Of Interactive Electronic Audience Response (Clickers) In Beef Extension Programming, Patrick J. Gunn, Daniel D. Loy, Grant A. Dewell, Christopher A. Clark, Beth E. Doran, Russell M. Euken, Denise L. Schwab, Joe Sellers, Patrick B. Wall 2015 Iowa State University

Response Rate And Stakeholder Attitude Towards Use Of Interactive Electronic Audience Response (Clickers) In Beef Extension Programming, Patrick J. Gunn, Daniel D. Loy, Grant A. Dewell, Christopher A. Clark, Beth E. Doran, Russell M. Euken, Denise L. Schwab, Joe Sellers, Patrick B. Wall

Animal Industry Report

Effectively measuring short-term impact, particularly a change in knowledge resulting from extension programming can prove to be challenging. Clicker-based technology, when used properly, is one alternative that may allow educators to better evaluate this aspect of the logic model. While the potential interface between clicker technology and extension programming has been regularly hypothesized about, the success of use and stakeholder attitude towards such technology in an extension setting has not been well defined to date. Based on data collected during Iowa Beef Center winter extension programming, clicker-based technology yielded increased participant response rates when compared to hand-written program evaluations. Moreover ...


Final Report On Rubber Mats On Concrete Slats In Deep Pit Confinement Buildings For Finishing Cattle, Russell M. Euken, Grant A. Dewell, Reneé D. Dewell 2015 Iowa State University

Final Report On Rubber Mats On Concrete Slats In Deep Pit Confinement Buildings For Finishing Cattle, Russell M. Euken, Grant A. Dewell, Reneé D. Dewell

Animal Industry Report

Confinement housing of beef cattle is becoming more common due to increased environmental concerns and the desire to capture potential efficiencies in cattle performance and manure value. Deep pit facilities with slatted floors are being built, however one of the disadvantages may be the negative effect on feet and legs health, resulting in performance consequences for cattle housed on concrete slats for extended periods of time. Rubber mats designed to be installed over the concrete slats are being used to increase cattle comfort. No comparable data has been gathered in typical U.S feeding situations to measure potential benefit of ...


Early Inflammation Disorder In Neonatal Calves, Lucas A. Krueger, Donald C. Beitz, Robert L. Stuart, Judith R. Stabel 2015 Iowa State University

Early Inflammation Disorder In Neonatal Calves, Lucas A. Krueger, Donald C. Beitz, Robert L. Stuart, Judith R. Stabel

Animal Industry Report

In the present study, 30 Holstein calves were acquired at birth and were randomly subjected to one of six treatments. One treatment group was colostrum deprived (CD) and five other treatment groups were fed colostrum replacer (CR). Of the five CR groups, one group was not further supplemented (CR), one received vitamin A (CR-A), one received vitamin D (CR-D), one received vitamin E (CR-E), and one received vitamins A, D, and E (CR-ADE). Additionally, all calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium, subsp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and d 3 of age. One d after birth, CD calves exhibited lower IgG1 ...


Bacterial Causes Of Digital Dermatitis (Dd) In Dairy Cattle, Adam C. Krull, Jan K. Shearer, Patrick J. Gorden, Vickie L. Cooper, Gregory J. Phillips, Paul J. Plummer 2015 Iowa State University

Bacterial Causes Of Digital Dermatitis (Dd) In Dairy Cattle, Adam C. Krull, Jan K. Shearer, Patrick J. Gorden, Vickie L. Cooper, Gregory J. Phillips, Paul J. Plummer

Animal Industry Report

Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle throughout the world. Despite 35 years of research, the definitive cause of the disease process is still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that multiple bacterial species are associated with lesions, with spirochetes being the most reliably identified organism. This study utilized total DNA sequencing of 48 staged DD biopsy specimens collected during a 3-year longitudinal study of disease progression in dairy cattle. Over 175 million sequences were obtained and used to identify the bacterial species that were present in the biopsies. There was no evidence of a ...


Thymus Transcriptome Response To Avian Pathogenic E. Coli (Apec) Infection, Hongyan Sun, Peng Liu, Lisa K. Nolan, Susan J. Lamont 2015 Iowa State University

Thymus Transcriptome Response To Avian Pathogenic E. Coli (Apec) Infection, Hongyan Sun, Peng Liu, Lisa K. Nolan, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Industry Report

Colibacillosis, caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), is responsible for multi-million dollar losses in the poultry industry every year in the United States. Therefore, it is important to understand the functional genomics of avian response to APEC, to find effective control strategies. The transcriptome characterizes genetic elements that are expressed. The thymus transcriptomes of 24 birds with known challenge status, necropsy day, and pathology level were sequenced using RNA-Seq. Many innate immune response pathways were significantly changed. Differentially expressed (DE) genes analysis showed APEC infection affected immune homeostasis through impairing the engagement of regulatory signal transduction pathways for T ...


Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2015 Iowa State University

Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this experiment was to determine the distance of nursery pigs snout and tails from a human observer when classified as touched, orientated to the human or s not-orientated during a human-animal interaction test using a digital image collection methodology. A complete randomized experimental design was utilized in this study where the pen of pigs was the experimental unit. Two methods, a human observer and a digital image, were assigned within rooms to all pens. Two treatments were compared for snout and tail distance (n = 27). There was a difference in proximity between the observer’s index finger ...


Gilt And Barrow Approachability Behavior To A Human Observer, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2015 Iowa State University

Gilt And Barrow Approachability Behavior To A Human Observer, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this experiment was to determine if nursery pig sex affected how many pigs touched and orientated to the human or were classified as not-orientated during a human-animal interaction test using a live human observation and a digital image collection methodology. A complete randomized experimental design was utilized in this study where the pen of pigs was the experimental unit. Two methods, a human observer and a digital image, were assigned within rooms to all pens. Two treatments were compared, TRT One; barrows (n = 14 pens) and TRT two; gilts (n = 13 pens). There was a trend towards ...


Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson 2015 Iowa State University

Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to evaluate approachability of gilts divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) to a novel human. Twenty low-RFI and 19 high-RFI gilts were tested using a human approach test. Testing occurred over two consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1900 hours. Gilts were tested individually within a 4.9 x 2.4 m test arena. Throughout the test, latency to first enter, duration of time spent, and frequency of entrances within 1 m and 0.5 m of the human were recorded. These results suggest that divergent selection for RFI did not alter gilt approach ...


Association Of Vocalizations And Swine Behavior During A Human Approach Test, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Sarah J. Myers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Suzanne T. Millman, Anna K. Johnson 2015 Iowa State University

Association Of Vocalizations And Swine Behavior During A Human Approach Test, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Sarah J. Myers, Nicholas K. Gabler, Suzanne T. Millman, Anna K. Johnson

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to determine if the duration and total number of pig vocalizations when divided into low and high call categories was related to pig behaviors during a fear test. Twenty barrows and 20 gilts were tested over two consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1900 hours using a human approach test (HAT). Throughout the test, vocalizations and behavior were recorded. These results suggest that while high calls are typically the primary measure of stress vocalizations, low calls are also meaningful measures during the stressor of HAT.


Barrow And Gilt Vocalizations During A Human Approach Test, Sarah J. Myers, Jessica D. Colpoys, Johanna Sholar, Nicholas K. Gabler, Suzanne T. Millman, Anna K. Johnson 2015 Iowa State University

Barrow And Gilt Vocalizations During A Human Approach Test, Sarah J. Myers, Jessica D. Colpoys, Johanna Sholar, Nicholas K. Gabler, Suzanne T. Millman, Anna K. Johnson

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to investigate differences between barrow and gilt vocalizations during a fear test. Twenty barrows and 20 gilts were tested over two consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1900 hours using a human approach test (HAT). Throughout the test, vocalizations were recorded. Gilts expressed a greater number of low calls compared to barrows; however, barrows expressed a greater number of high calls compared to gilts. Further research should be done to better understand vocalization differences between barrows and gilts during a HAT.


Identifying Sow Lameness Using An Embedded Microcomputer Based Force Plate System In A Commercial Setting, Brady M. McNeil, Joseph D. Stock, Julia A. Calderón Díaz, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Tom Parsons 2015 Iowa State University

Identifying Sow Lameness Using An Embedded Microcomputer Based Force Plate System In A Commercial Setting, Brady M. Mcneil, Joseph D. Stock, Julia A. Calderón Díaz, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Tom Parsons

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to determine if an embedded microcomputer based force plate system (force plate) could adequately detect lameness among breeding herd females in a commercial environment. The force plate was installed in a group sow housing system for 21 days. Force distribution measurements were obtained for each sow limb daily; these were then compared to visual lameness observations. During the 21 day period minor adjustments were made to the force plate system. Results indicate that the force plate measurement was not different from the visual observations taken for lameness. This provides evidence that the force plate ...


Methods For Inactivating Pedv In Hog Trailers, Paul R. Thomas, Alejandro Ramierez, Jianqiang Zhang, Joshua S. Ellingson, Jacqueline N. Myers 2015 Iowa State University

Methods For Inactivating Pedv In Hog Trailers, Paul R. Thomas, Alejandro Ramierez, Jianqiang Zhang, Joshua S. Ellingson, Jacqueline N. Myers

Animal Industry Report

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) was first described in England in 1971 in growing pigs and the causative agent, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), was identified in 1978. The virus spread to the rest of Europe where it caused outbreaks of diarrhea and significant losses throughout the 1970s and 1980s. PEDV is considered endemic to Europe today, but does not cause widespread significant disease. In parts of Asia outbreaks were recognized first in 1982 and have continued to occur since. In May of 2013 PEDV was identified in swine for the first time in the United States. The virus has caused ...


A Comparison Of The Genetic Factors Influencing Host Response To Infection With One Of Two Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Nicholas Boddicker, Bob Rowland, Joan Lunney, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2015 Iowa State University

A Comparison Of The Genetic Factors Influencing Host Response To Infection With One Of Two Isolates Of Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Andrew S. Hess, Nicholas Boddicker, Bob Rowland, Joan Lunney, Graham Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Host genetic differences in viral load (VL) and weight gain (WG) during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) challenge were assessed for thirteen trials of ~200 commercial crossbred piglets each, from several different commercial suppliers. Piglets were experimentally infected with PRRSV isolates NVSL-97-7895 (NVSL) or KS-2006-72109 (KS06). VL and WG were moderately heritable and were antagonistically related for both virus isolates. The genetic correlation of host response to NVSL with host response to KS06 was high for both VL and WG. Consistent with previous findings, animals that were heterozygous (AB) for the WUR10000125 (WUR) marker on Chromosome 4 (SSC4 ...


Survey-Based Examination Of Demographics, Potential Causes And Treatments Of Aberrant Behavior Syndrome(Berserk Male Syndrome) In Camelids, Stephen R. Ball, Katherine Way, Jennifer A. Schleining, Suzanne T. Millman 2015 Iowa State University

Survey-Based Examination Of Demographics, Potential Causes And Treatments Of Aberrant Behavior Syndrome(Berserk Male Syndrome) In Camelids, Stephen R. Ball, Katherine Way, Jennifer A. Schleining, Suzanne T. Millman

Animal Industry Report

The objective of this study was to examine potential signs, causal factors and treatment interventions for camelids displaying Aberrant Behavior Syndrome (ABS), also known as Berserk Male Syndrome. A survey was developed for camelid owners and veterinarians with camelid experience using Survey Monkey software. Respondents were asked to describe the behaviors associated with the most recent case of ABS they were involved with, information about the animal displaying ABS, and evaluation of the efficacy of treatment interventions used. The majority of respondents identified a general demographic of an intact male camelid raised by its biological mother with daily or weekly ...


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