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Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz 2018 Utah State University

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2018 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Michael J. Kimber

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of The Pathogenicity And Virulence Of Three Strains Of Salmonella Organisms In Calves And Pigs, Nalee Xiong, Matt T. Brewer, Tim A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Alison E. Barnhill, Steve A. Carlson

Michael J. Kimber

Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.

Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp

Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media

Results—Of ...


Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul 2018 The University of Edinburgh

Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul

James S. Adelman

Background

A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.

Methods

A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...


Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Seroprevalence Of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Alpacas In The United States And Assessment Of Risk Factors For Exposure, 2006–2007, Julie Ann C. Jarvinen, Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Objective—To estimate seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and incidence of seroconversion in alpacas in the United States during 2006 to 2007 and to evaluate associations between BVDV seropositive status and potential risk factors for exposure to BVDV.

Design—Cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.

Sample—Blood samples from 192 alpacas > 6 months old in 39 herds from 20 states; 40 owners who completed questionnaires.

Procedures—550 US alpaca owners, stratified by state and randomly selected from a list of approximately 4,300 owners, were mailed a study description, voluntary participation request, and questionnaire. Thirty-nine owners submitted ...


A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang 2018 Iowa State University

A Mutator Phenotype Promoting The Emergence Of Spontaneous Oxidative Stress-Resistant Mutants In Campylobacter Jejuni, Lei Dai, Orhan Sahin, Yizhi Tang, Qijing Zhang

Qijing Zhang

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. As a microaerophilic organism, C. jejuni must be able to defend against oxidative stress encountered both in the host and in the environment. How Campylobacter utilizes a mutation-based mechanism for adaptation to oxidative stress is still unknown. Here we present a previously undescribed phenotypic and genetic mechanism that promotes the emergence of oxidative stress resistant mutants. Specifically, we showed that a naturally occurring mutator phenotype, resulting from a loss of function mutation in the DNA repair enzyme MutY, increased oxidative stress resistance (OXR) in C. jejuni. We further demonstrated ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Jacek A. Koziel

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Efficacy Of Nh3 As A Secondary Barrier Treatment For Inactivation Of Salmonella Typhimurium And Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Digestate Of Animal Carcasses: Proof-Of-Concept, Jacek A. Koziel, Timothy S. Frana, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Lam T. Nguyen, J. (Hans) van Leeuwen 2018 Iowa State University

Efficacy Of Nh3 As A Secondary Barrier Treatment For Inactivation Of Salmonella Typhimurium And Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus In Digestate Of Animal Carcasses: Proof-Of-Concept, Jacek A. Koziel, Timothy S. Frana, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas D. Glanville, Lam T. Nguyen, J. (Hans) Van Leeuwen

Jacek A. Koziel

Managing the disposal of infectious animal carcasses from routine and catastrophic disease outbreaks is a global concern. Recent research suggests that burial in lined and aerated trenches provides the rapid pathogen containment provided by burial, while reducing air and water pollution potential and the length of time that land is taken out of agricultural production. Survival of pathogens in the digestate remains a concern, however. A potential answer is a ‘dual’-barrier approach in which ammonia is used as a secondary barrier treatment to reduce the risk of pathogen contamination when trench liners ultimately leak. Results of this study showed ...


Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2018 Iowa State University

Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This “reverse translational” approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.


Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Jonathan Mochel

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel 2018 Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland

Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel

Jonathan Mochel

A common feature of human and veterinary pharmacokinetics is the importance of identifying and quantifying the key determinants of between-patient variability in drug disposition and effects. Some of these attributes are already well known to the field of human pharmacology such as bodyweight, age, or sex, while others are more specific to veterinary medicine, such as species, breed, and social behavior. Identification of these attributes has the potential to allow a better and more tailored use of therapeutic drugs both in companion and food-producing animals. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) have been purposely designed to characterize the sources of variability in ...


Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Annette O'Connor

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. von Borell, S. R. Webb 2017 Iowa State University

Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. Von Borell, S. R. Webb

Annette O'Connor

Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for ...


Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward 2017 Iowa State University

Explanation And Elaboration Document For The Strobe-Vet Statement: Strengthening The Reporting Of Observational Studies In Epidemiology – Veterinary Extension, Annette M. O'Connor, J. M. Sargeant, I. R. Dohoo, H. N. Erb, M. Cevallos, M. Egger, A. K. Ersboll, S. W. Martin, L. R. Nielsen, D. L. Pearl, D. U. Pfeiffer, J. Sanchez, M. E. Torrence, H. Vigre, C. Waldner, M. P. Ward

Annette O'Connor

The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE has a unique focus on observational studies. Although much of the guidance provided by the original STROBE document is directly applicable, it was deemed useful to map those statements to veterinary concepts, provide veterinary examples and highlight unique aspects of reporting in veterinary observational studies. Here, we present the examples and explanations for the checklist items included ...


Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor 2017 Ontario Veterinary College

Potential For Meta-Analysis In The Realm Of Preharvest Food Safety, Jan M. Sargeant, Annette M. O'Connor

Annette O'Connor

Meta-analysis, the statistical combination of results from multiple studies, can be used to summarize all of the available research on an intervention, etiology, descriptive, or diagnostic test accuracy question. Meta-analysis should be conducted as a component of a systematic review, to increase transparency in the selection of studies and to incorporate an evaluation of the risk of bias in the individual studies included in the meta-analysis. The process of meta-analysis may include a forest plot to graphically display the study results and the calculation of a weighted average summary effect size. Heterogeneity (differences in the effect size between studies) can ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Annette O'Connor

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch 2017 Iowa State University

Management Factors Associated With Operation-Level Prevalence Of Antibodies To Cache Valley Virus And Other Bunyamwera Serogroup Viruses In Sheep In The United States, Matthew T. Meyers, Charlie S. Bahnson, Michael Hanlon, Christine Kopral, Saengchan Srisinlapaudom, Zachary N. Cochrane, Carlene E. Sabas, Rungrat Saiyasombat, Eric R. Burrough, Paul J. Plummer, Annette M. O'Connor, Katherine L. Marshall, B. J. Blitvitch

Paul Plummer

A cross-sectional study was performed to identify operation-level risk factors associated with prevalence of antibody to Bunyamwera (BUN) serogroup viruses in sheep in the United States. Sera were obtained from 5150 sheep in 270 operations located in 22 states (three in the west, nine central states, and 10 in the east) and tested at a dilution of 1:20 by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using Cache Valley virus (CVV). Antibodies that neutralized CVV were identified in 1455 (28%) sheep. Animal-level seroprevalence was higher in the east (49%) than the central (17%) and western (10%) states. A convenient subset ...


Dairy Goat Quality Assurance And Haccp, Paul Plummer, Roger Merkel 2017 Iowa State University

Dairy Goat Quality Assurance And Haccp, Paul Plummer, Roger Merkel

Paul Plummer

Today's US milk supply is the safest it has been in history, yet consumers have concerns ai;>out the quality and safety of the food products they purc~ase. News of food recalls based on the presence of potentially harmful bacteria or other disease-causing agents and contaminants raise fear in consumers and lower the confidence in our nation's food supply. While food safety may be at an all time high, the perception of many consumers is that there is genuine risk in consuming many of the products marketed at grocery stores. This perception can play a role in ...


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