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Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Whole Genomic Sequence Analysis Of Bacillus Infantis: Defining The Genetic Blueprint Of Strain Nrrl B-14911, An Emerging Cardiopathogenic Microbe, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Akram Mohammed, John Dustin Loy, Tanya Purvis, Bharathi Krishnan, Rakesh H. Basavalingappa, Christy M. Kelley, Chittibabu Guda, Raúl G. Barletta, Etsuko Moriyama, Timothy P.L. Smith, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

Background: We recently reported the identification of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 that induces heart autoimmunity by generating cardiac-reactive T cells through molecular mimicry. This marine bacterium was originally isolated from the Gulf of Mexico, but no associations with human diseases were reported. Therefore, to characterize its biological and medical significance, we sought to determine and analyze the complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911.

Results: Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, sequence analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacers, phenotypic microarray, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, we propose that this ...


Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr. 2016 Rockhurst University

Dietary Weight Loss Advice In Us Health Magazines And Its Relation To Ancestral Diet, Risa J. Stein, Marium A. Choudhry, Thomas J. Murray Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

As rates of overweight and obesity have risen in the US, the public has sought effective strategies for weight loss through dietary modification. A proliferation of processed foods and changing governmental nutrition guidelines have both impacted dietary intake patterns. While physicians are considered respectable sources of weight-loss information, increasingly the public has turned to the media, particularly magazines, for weight loss advice. This study investigated the dietary recommendations found in the five leading US health-related magazines and compared those recommendations to ancestral diets. With a couple notable exceptions, leading health magazines present consistent recommendations for dietary modifications to promote weight ...


The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. van der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. van Zutphen 2016 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. Van Der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. Van Zutphen

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

This is the report of the eleventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), which was established in 1991 by the European Commission. ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal ...


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2016 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress ...


Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin L. Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew N. Rowan 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

Possibilities For Refinement And Reduction: Future Improvements Within Regulatory Testing, Martin L. Stephens, Kathleen Conlee, Gina Alvino, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Approaches and challenges to refining and reducing animal use in regulatory testing are reviewed. Regulatory testing accounts for the majority of animals reported in the most painful and/or distressful categories in the United States and Canada. Refinements in testing, including the use of humane endpoints, are of increasing concern. Traditional approaches to reduction (e.g., improving experimental design) are being supplemented with complementary approaches, such as the use of tier testing to eliminate some chemicals prior to in vivo testing. Technological advances in telemetry and noninvasive techniques will help decrease either the demand for animals in testing or animal ...


Purification And Characterization Of A Fish Granzymea Involved In Cell-Mediated Immunity, Yuta Matsuura, Takeshi Yabu, Hajime Shiba, Teruyuki Nakanishi 2016 Nihon University

Purification And Characterization Of A Fish Granzymea Involved In Cell-Mediated Immunity, Yuta Matsuura, Takeshi Yabu, Hajime Shiba, Teruyuki Nakanishi

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise von G Jørgensen 2016 The University of Maine

Antigen Uptake In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) At Different Life Stages, Louise Von G Jørgensen

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Characterization And Functional Analysis Of Interleukin-12 In Amberjack Seriola Dumarili, Megumi Matsumoto Miss, Kyosuke Araki Dr, Kazuma Hayashi Mr, Hiroaki Suetake Dr, Atsushi Yamamoto Dr 2016 Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Japan

Characterization And Functional Analysis Of Interleukin-12 In Amberjack Seriola Dumarili, Megumi Matsumoto Miss, Kyosuke Araki Dr, Kazuma Hayashi Mr, Hiroaki Suetake Dr, Atsushi Yamamoto Dr

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Induction Of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses After Vaccination With Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Nocardia Seriolae In Amberjack Seriola Dumerili, Kyosuke Araki, Megumi Matsumoto, Kazuma Hayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto 2016 Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, Japan

Induction Of Cell-Mediated Immune Responses After Vaccination With Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Nocardia Seriolae In Amberjack Seriola Dumerili, Kyosuke Araki, Megumi Matsumoto, Kazuma Hayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Induced Inflammation In The Atlantic Salmon Intestine And Epithelial Responses, Håvard Bjørgen, Erling Olaf Koppang, Magne Kaldhusdal, Torfinn Moldal, Ole-Bendik Dale 2016 Norwegian school of Veterinary medicine

Induced Inflammation In The Atlantic Salmon Intestine And Epithelial Responses, Håvard Bjørgen, Erling Olaf Koppang, Magne Kaldhusdal, Torfinn Moldal, Ole-Bendik Dale

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


The Science Of Sentience Is Reshaping How We Think About Animals, Debra Durham 2016 Terra Mar Research

The Science Of Sentience Is Reshaping How We Think About Animals, Debra Durham

Debra Durham, Ph.D.

Broom’s Sentience and Animal Welfare (2014) provides its readers with an excellent overview of the evolving role of sentience in our understanding animal welfare as well as insights into why sentience matters for practice and policy.


Membrane Insertion For The Detection Of Lipopolysaccharides: Exploring The Dynamics Of Amphiphile-In-Lipid Assays, Loreen R. Stromberg, Nicolas W. Hengartner, Kirstie L. Swingle, Rodney A. Moxley, Steven W. Graves, Gabriel A. Montaño, Harshini Mukundan 2016 University of New Mexico

Membrane Insertion For The Detection Of Lipopolysaccharides: Exploring The Dynamics Of Amphiphile-In-Lipid Assays, Loreen R. Stromberg, Nicolas W. Hengartner, Kirstie L. Swingle, Rodney A. Moxley, Steven W. Graves, Gabriel A. Montaño, Harshini Mukundan

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an important cause of foodborne illness, with cases attributable to beef, fresh produce and other sources. Many serotypes of the pathogen cause disease, and differentiating one serotype from another requires specific identification of the O antigen located on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The amphiphilic structure of LPS poses a challenge when using classical detection methods, which do not take into account its lipoglycan biochemistry. Typically, detection of LPS requires heat or chemical treatment of samples and relies on bioactivity assays for the conserved lipid A portion of the molecule. Our goal was to develop assays ...


Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Impacts From The Use Of Antibiotics In Livestock: Methods Of Transmission Of Antibiotic Resistance From Livestock To Humans, Kristin M. Walden

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Antibiotic use in livestock production has been around since the 1950s. Antibiotic feed is used in livestock and other meat producing animals for three reasons: illness prevention, illness treatment, and growth promotion. Unfortunately, since the time that antibiotics were first invented, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become a threat to public health. There are many studies showing methods of transmission of antibiotic resistance from livestock to humans. Antibiotic resistance can spread from livestock to soil, water, insects, and food, which ultimately comes into contact with humans. A proposed study to measure antibiotic resistance when eliminating antibiotic feed will provide a hypothesis ...


Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Plants, Prions And Possibilities: Current Understanding And Significance Of Prion Uptake Into Plants, Tracy A. Nichols

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an infectious, neurodegenerative disease of deer (white-tailed and mule), elk, moose, sika deer and muntjac caused by a misfolded version of a normally occurring protein. The notion that CWD could be spread indirectly via the environment has been documented and accepted in the scientific community for quite some time. Deer and elk consume soil, inhale dust and lick objects that have infectious material on them, resulting in chronic, low dose exposure. Surface contamination of plants with urine or feces is likely an additional source of exposure via ingestion and has been modeled in the laboratory ...


Identifying Genetic Factors In Streptococcus Uberis That Enable Evasion Of The Host Immune Response, Alexis Christine Burnham 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Identifying Genetic Factors In Streptococcus Uberis That Enable Evasion Of The Host Immune Response, Alexis Christine Burnham

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Expansion, Characterization, Differentiation, And Visualization Of Mc 3t3-E1 Preosteoblast Cells: An In Vitro Model To Study Bone Healing And Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration, Jakob T. Samsel, Madhu Dhar, Austin Bow, Tom Masi

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, Brittany R. Weir 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, Brittany R. Weir

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

One societal trend that has been gaining much traction and popularity since the 21st century began is “organic” and/or “natural” food products. In 1999, the global market accounted for $15.2 billion dollars worth of organic food and drink, compared to the market in 2014 where we consumed $80 billion dollars worth (Willer et. al, 2016). With “natural” production of food animals however, “natural” parasite transmission may be a consequence. To that end, this experiment examines the prevalence of helminths in 110 “natural” laying hens from three regional farms and the efficacies of fenbendazole, piperazine, and levamisole on ...


Identification Of Feline Tritrichomonas Foetus Surface Epitopes: Putative Targets For Development Of A Novel Diagnostic Test For Feline Trichomonosis, Emily Nissa Gould 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Identification Of Feline Tritrichomonas Foetus Surface Epitopes: Putative Targets For Development Of A Novel Diagnostic Test For Feline Trichomonosis, Emily Nissa Gould

Masters Theses

BACKGROUND: Tritrichomonas foetus (T. foetus) is a flagellated protozoa that infects the distal ileum and proximal colon of domestic cats and also induces reproductive failure in cattle. Although feline trichomonosis is recognized to have a global prevalence of up to 30%, it still poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to veterinarians; thus, there is a need for both improved diagnostics and therapeutics. Despite differing organ tropism between genotypes, evidence exists for conserved virulence factors between feline and bovine T. foetus. Two epitopes (1.15 and 1.17) of the bovine T. foetus glycosylated surface antigen 1.15-1.17 have been ...


Cinv Survey, Lauren Hackbarth 2016 Iowa State University

Cinv Survey, Lauren Hackbarth

Honors Projects and Posters

Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side effect of chemotherapeutic treatment experienced by dogs that can lower quality of life and functionality. These symptoms are likewise found in people receiving chemotherapy; however, human oncology has well-established protocols for preventing these side effects, while veterinary medicine does not. The objective of this research is to establish a baseline regarding current standard of care to determine how veterinary specialists are managing CINV in dogs receiving chemotherapy.

Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side effect of chemotherapeutic treatment experienced by dogs that can lower quality of life ...


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