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Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessment Of A Nutritional Rehabilitation Model In Two Modern Broilers And Their Jungle Fowl Ancestor: A Model For Better Understanding Childhood Undernutrition, Mikayla Baxter

Theses and Dissertations

The World Health Organization, estimated that 22.9% of children under the age of 5 are stunted. The etiology of stunting is multifactorial and is associated with poor linear growth, villous atrophy, dysbiosis, and increased intestinal permeability. Inclusion of rye in poultry diets induces nutrient deficiencies and increases intestinal permeability, dysbiosis and decreases growth rates. The objective of this dissertation was to determine if chickens consuming a rye based diet exhibited a similar pathophysiology of stunted children to develop a relevant animal model. Therefore, early or late phase malnutrition was induced determine the effects of malnutrition on performance, bone mineralization ...


The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert 2018 Iowa State University

The Study Design Elements Employed By Researchers In Preclinical Animal Experiments From Two Research Domains And Implications For Automation Of Systematic Reviews, Annette M. O'Connor, Sarah C. Totton, Jonah C. Cullen, Mahmood Ramezani, Vijay Kalivarapu, Chaohui Yuan, Stephen B. Gilbert

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Systematic reviews are increasingly using data from preclinical animal experiments in evidence networks. Further, there are ever-increasing efforts to automate aspects of the systematic review process. When assessing systematic bias and unit-of-analysis errors in preclinical experiments, it is critical to understand the study design elements employed by investigators. Such information can also inform prioritization of automation efforts that allow the identification of the most common issues. The aim of this study was to identify the design elements used by investigators in preclinical research in order to inform unique aspects of assessment of bias and error in preclinical research. Using 100 ...


30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman

Celebration of Learning

There are no controlled studies of acetaminophen toxicity in horses. The objective was to test the hypotheses that oral acetaminophen administered at a dosage 25% higher than that sometimes used in horses would result in measurable hepatic toxicity as seen in humans and other species. Six healthy adult horses were administered 25 mg/kg acetaminophen powder in corn syrup twice daily for 30 days. Three other horses served as negative controls receiving only corn syrup. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained on days 7 and 1 before treatment; on treatment days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26 ...


Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson 2018 University of Wyoming

Cost Analysis For 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations, Lynnell Hanson

Honors Theses AY 17/18

This Cost Benefit Analysis is in reference to the new 2017 Wyoming Trichomonas Regulations and addresses the effect these updates have had on samples received at the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Before 2017 in Wyoming, either a culture or PCR could be performed to test a bull for the presence of Trichomonas. New regulations now require PCR diagnoses to take place. This project covers data collected at the WSVL from 2012 through 2017. Both culture and PCR data were analyzed for 2012 to 2016. Data was split into pre- and post-regulation changes, and then divided further into ...


Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes 2018 University of Maine

Improving Techniques To Study Equine Cervical Mucociliary Clearance, Melissa A. Hawkes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial uterine infections inflict major losses on the equine breeding industry. These infections usually arise from bacteria introduced at breeding. Micro-currents propelled by ciliated cells between the folds of the uterus and cervix have been proposed as a means by which contaminants are expelled. Previous data have shown possible ciliary micro-currents propelling carbon particles, occasionally rotating, through cervical folds. However, adherence to the epithelium may have interfered with movement of carbon in these studies. Therefore, we tested potentially non-adherent substances to reveal ciliary micro-currents on the equine cervix under high magnification video-endoscopy. We hypothesized that polyethylene green microspheres 1 - 5 ...


Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Immunostimulatory Effects Of Antigen-Conjugated Inp/Zns Quantum Dot Nanoparticles In An Avian Model, Christopher Lyle

Theses and Dissertations

Due to their unique physicochemical and enhanced immunostimulatory properties, quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles have shown increasing promise in biomedical research applications including bioimaging, drug delivery, and as vaccine adjuvants. Toxicity, however, remains a concern for the use of QD in these applications and thus, there is an increased demand for effective in vitro and in vivo systems to measure the bioactivity of QD. In this study in vitro and in vivo chicken models were used to investigate the effects of QD on innate and adaptive immunity. Chicken macrophage cultures were treated in vitro with QD to measure macrophage activation and ...


Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, Julie Atchley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Fescue Toxicosis On Whole Blood Gene Expression In Beef Cattle, Julie Atchley

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Effects of Fescue Toxicosis on Whole Blood Gene Expression in Beef Cattle

The consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue causes negative effects on the growth, reproduction, longevity, and overall health of beef cattle; this condition, termed fescue toxicosis by researchers and producers today, costs the United States over $1 billion in losses each year. To mitigate these production losses, it is important for producers to understand how fescue toxicosis affects gene expression and physiological pathways in beef cattle. This study examined the whole blood gene expression and affected pathways in beef cows grazing both endophyte-infected (toxic) tall fescue and (non-toxic) tall ...


Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey 2018 Murray State University

Comparing The Efficacy Of Copper Oxide Wire Particles And Copper Sulfate On Haemonchus Contortus In Goats, James Mackey

Honors College Theses

This is a comparative study on the anthelmintic effects of copper oxide wire particles (COWP), copper sulfate (CuSO4), and Levamisole on Haemonchus contortus in goats. This study was designed to compare the efficiency of COWP and CuSO4 at controlling H. contortus populations in goats. A study group of 60 female goats was randomly separated into 3 groups. The does in each group were administered either a copper sulfate drench by weight, a Levamisole drench by weight, or a 4g bolus of COWP. Fecal egg counts and Faffa Malan Charts (FAMACHA), were performed every 2 weeks, and Packed Cell ...


The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, Katelynn Cameron, Maria L. Hoffman PhD 2018 University of Rhode Island

The Effect Of High Maternal Milk Production During Pregnancy On Neonatal Health And Metabolism, Katelynn Cameron, Maria L. Hoffman Phd

Senior Honors Projects

The efficiency of the dairy industry relies heavily on the production of healthy calves. However, dairy operations experience high rates of calf mortality due to digestive and respiratory issues. One factor that could predispose calves to disease is the effects of maternal programming caused by high maternal milk production during pregnancy. We hypothesized that calves born to high producing dams will exhibit increased oxidative stress as well as increased circulating triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. Cows (n = 17) that produced ≥ 14,865 kg of milk during their lactations were classified as high producers. Alternately, cows (n = 18) that produced ≤ 10 ...


Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz 2018 Utah State University

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Designing A Stress Free Vet Visit: A Systematic Review, Naedia Clarke 2018 University of Maine

Designing A Stress Free Vet Visit: A Systematic Review, Naedia Clarke

Honors College

The purpose of this study was to create a systematic review of articles pertaining to stress measurement and management of dogs and cats in order to use the information to find a way to reduce stress associated with a visit to the veterinarian. The corpus for this review contains 42 articles with 33 primary research studies and 9 secondary research studies. The information deduced during the review showed that a majority of studies on animal stress take place outside of the USA. The review also showed that a visit to a vet practice begins with client-staff communication. This collected knowledge ...


A Characterization Of Poultry Flocks And Poultry Producers In Maine, Alice Gluchanicz 2018 University of Maine

A Characterization Of Poultry Flocks And Poultry Producers In Maine, Alice Gluchanicz

Honors College

This study sought to characterize backyard poultry flocks and poultry producers’ knowledge of poultry husbandry in Maine. A survey on poultry flock characterization, management, and health was sent to poultry producers living in Maine. Based on the survey, most backyard poultry flocks contained 7-20 birds. Chickens were the predominant poultry species in Maine. Flocks were used primarily for egg production and companionship. Management practices varied greatly among producers, indicating a need for more flock management education. Mites and coccidiosis were the most commonly reported causes of illness by producers, but several diseases affected poultry in Maine. Producers cited the internet ...


Fetal Demise And Failed Antibody Therapy During Zika Virus Infection Of Pregnant Macaques, Diogo M. Magnani, Thomas F. Rogers, Nicholas J. Maness, Nathan D. Grubaugh, Nathan Beutler, Varian K. Bailey, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Martin J. Gutman, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Jaclyn M. Kwal, Michael J. Ricciardi, Tereance A. Myers, Justin G. Julander, Rudolf P. Bohm, Margaret H. Gilbert, Faith Schiro, Pyone P. Aye, Robert V. Blair, Mauricio A. Martins, Kathrine P. Falkenstien, Amitinder Kaur, Christine L. Curry, Esper G. Kallas, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Pascal J. Goldschmidt-Clermont, Stephen S. Whitehead, Kristian G. Andersen, Myrna C. Bonaldo, Andrew A. Lackner, Antonito T. Panganiban, Dennis R. Burton, David I. Watkins 2018 University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine

Fetal Demise And Failed Antibody Therapy During Zika Virus Infection Of Pregnant Macaques, Diogo M. Magnani, Thomas F. Rogers, Nicholas J. Maness, Nathan D. Grubaugh, Nathan Beutler, Varian K. Bailey, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Martin J. Gutman, Núria Pedreño-Lopez, Jaclyn M. Kwal, Michael J. Ricciardi, Tereance A. Myers, Justin G. Julander, Rudolf P. Bohm, Margaret H. Gilbert, Faith Schiro, Pyone P. Aye, Robert V. Blair, Mauricio A. Martins, Kathrine P. Falkenstien, Amitinder Kaur, Christine L. Curry, Esper G. Kallas, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Pascal J. Goldschmidt-Clermont, Stephen S. Whitehead, Kristian G. Andersen, Myrna C. Bonaldo, Andrew A. Lackner, Antonito T. Panganiban, Dennis R. Burton, David I. Watkins

Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women is associated with pathologic complications of fetal development. Here, we infect pregnant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a minimally passaged ZIKV isolate from Rio de Janeiro, where a high rate of fetal development complications was observed. The infection of pregnant macaques with this virus results in maternal viremia, virus crossing into the amniotic fluid (AF), and in utero fetal deaths. We also treated three additional ZIKV-infected pregnant macaques with a cocktail of ZIKV-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) at peak viremia. While the nmAbs can be effective in clearing the virus from the maternal ...


Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor 2018 Iowa State University

Changes In The Prevalence Of Salmonella Serovars Associated Swine Production And Correlations Of Avian, Bovine And Swine‐Associated Serovars With Human‐Associated Serovars In The United States (1997–2015), Chaohui Yuan, Adam C. Krull, Chong Wang, M. Erdman, P. J. Fedorka-Cray, C. M. Logue, Annette M. O'Connor

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

As Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen of food animals, surveillance programmes for S. enterica serovars have existed for many years in the United States. Surveillance programmes serve many purposes, one of which is to evaluate alterations in the prevalence of serovars that may signal changes in the ecology of the target organism. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the proportion of S. enterica serovars isolated from swine over a near 20‐year observation period (1997–2015) using four longitudinal data sets from different food animal species. The secondary aim was to evaluate correlations between ...


Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Can Prescribed Fire Reduce Tick Parasitism Of Birds?, Leslie A. Sterling, Kim Medley, Katie Westby, Solný Adalsteinsson

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Tick-borne diseases spread through enzootic transmission cycles that often involve ticks parasitizing bird hosts. Some avian species are competent reservoirs, amplifying the pathogens that cause tick-borne illnesses in humans. Prescribed burns in forests have the potential to reduce tick-borne disease risk if they limit interactions between ticks and infectious wildlife hosts. Although prescribed burns are increasingly being used for a variety of habitat management purposes, little is known about how they affect tick-host interactions. We hypothesize that if prescribed fires reduce tick abundance, then birds in burned forest plots will host fewer ticks than birds in unburned forest plots. Experimental ...


Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Interactions And Pathogen Transmission Between Carnivores In Madagascar, Fidisoa Rasambainarivo

Dissertations

Introduced carnivores exert considerable pressure on native predators through predation, competition and disease transmission. Improved understanding of determinant factors of interactions and pathogen transmission between introduced and endemic wildlife may help to predict disease emergence, avoid pathogen spillover and help control outbreaks. Using non-invasive camera traps, I identified areas where transmission of pathogens might happen through records of shared space-use within a protected area in Eastern Madagascar. I showed that indirect interactions between animals were more likely to occur near the research station which may constitute a disease transmission hotspot for carnivores in the landscape. Secondly, I investigated the associations ...


Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience 2018 Iowa State University

Impact Of Health Challenges On Pig Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Net Returns Under Commercial Conditions, A. S. Cornelison, L. A. Karriker, N. H. Williams, B. J. Haberl, K. J. Stalder, L. L. Schulz, J. F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Understanding how disease affects commercial production is imperative for pig producers to quantify its full impact on pig performance, carcass quality, and net returns. The objective of this experiment was to assess the productivity and economic importance of naturally occurring health challenges (HC) under commercial conditions. Three 1,000 pig grow-finish facilities received 936 pigs each. The experimental period started approximately 34 d post placement at an average start BW of 13.1 ± 0.2 kg. Barns were characterized based on the relative HC, determined by diagnostic assessments as the main characterization tool, along with other health indicators. Barns were ...


An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, Cole Barrett Sandow 2018 Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine

An Evaluation Of Pathophysiology And Biomechanics Of Selected Lamenesses In The Horse, Cole Barrett Sandow

LSU Master's Theses

INTRODUCTION-Laminitis and synovitis are two common causes of equine lameness. Laminitis is most often associated with hyperinsulinemia and osteoarthritis is most commonly the result of synovitis. The objective is to evaluate biomechanical and pathophysiologic events regarding laminitis and synovitis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS-The first study evaluated biomechanical effects of insulin on lamellar strength. For this experiment, lamellar explants were harvested, incubated in media only (serving as a control) or media with a high concentration of insulin for 8 hours. After incubation, structural integrity was evaluated with a mechanical testing device. Data included load to failure (N), stress to failure (MPa), elongation ...


Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Antibiotic Residues In Milk From Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines, Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W. Marion

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for ...


Best1 Gene Therapy Corrects A Diffuse Retina-Wide Microdetachment Modulated By Light Exposure, Karina E. Guziewicz, Artur V. Cideciyan, William A. Beltran, András M. Komáromy, Valerie L. Dufour, Malgorzata Swider, Simone Iwabe, Alexander Sumaroka, Brian T. Kendrick, Gordon Ruthel, Vince A. Chiodo, Elise Heon, William W. Hauswirth, Samuel G. Jacobson, Gustavo D. Aguirre 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Best1 Gene Therapy Corrects A Diffuse Retina-Wide Microdetachment Modulated By Light Exposure, Karina E. Guziewicz, Artur V. Cideciyan, William A. Beltran, András M. Komáromy, Valerie L. Dufour, Malgorzata Swider, Simone Iwabe, Alexander Sumaroka, Brian T. Kendrick, Gordon Ruthel, Vince A. Chiodo, Elise Heon, William W. Hauswirth, Samuel G. Jacobson, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Departmental Papers (Vet)

Mutations in the BEST1 gene cause detachment of the retina and degeneration of photoreceptor (PR) cells due to a primary channelopathy in the neighboring retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. The pathophysiology of the interaction between RPE and PR cells preceding the formation of retinal detachment remains not well-understood. Our studies of molecular pathology in the canine BEST1 disease model revealed retina-wide abnormalities at the RPE-PR interface associated with defects in the RPE microvillar ensheathment and a cone PR-associated insoluble interphotoreceptor matrix. In vivo imaging demonstrated a retina-wide RPE-PR microdetachment, which contracted with dark adaptation and expanded upon exposure to a ...


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