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Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Interconnect And Packaging Technologies For As-Grown Nanowire Devices, Jen-Hau Cheng 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Atomic Layer Deposition Enabled Interconnect And Packaging Technologies For As-Grown Nanowire Devices, Jen-Hau Cheng

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Nanowires (NWs) have attracted considerable interests in many applications due to their small size, extremely high surface-to-volume ratio, and superior material properties. They are promising material candidates as fundamental building blocks for future electronic, optoelectronic, energy, sensor, and biomedical applications. The majority of research activities have focused on the synthesis of NWs. With the advent of high-performance NWs, interconnect and packaging of NWs are becoming increasingly important for device applications. Vertical NW array devices, compared with horizontal NW configurations, are of great importance for achieving ultra-high integration density at the device level without the need of additional assembly and rearrangement ...


Nanomaterial Characterization Using Actuated Microelectromechanical Testing Stages, Joseph James Brown 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Nanomaterial Characterization Using Actuated Microelectromechanical Testing Stages, Joseph James Brown

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In this work, microfabricated mechanical systems have been created in a variety of forms and operated to perform nanomaterials characterization tests. A simplified integrated test system was developed and used to collect data from a range of materials including gallium nitride nanowires. A new force estimation approach was developed which enables estimation of the forces provided by electrothermal microelectromechanical (MEMS) actuators, and with knowledge of a material specimen cross-section area, an estimation of the engineering stress within the nanomaterial specimen.

In an expanded design, a MEMS micromanipulator probe interfaced with a removable specimen holder, also known as a test coupon ...


Nanoscale Functionalization And Characterization Of Surfaces With Hydrogel Patterns And Biomolecules, Hariharasudhan Chirra Dinakar 2010 University of Kentucky

Nanoscale Functionalization And Characterization Of Surfaces With Hydrogel Patterns And Biomolecules, Hariharasudhan Chirra Dinakar

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The advent of numerous tools, ease of techniques, and concepts related to nanotechnology, in combination with functionalization via simple chemistry has made gold important for various biomedical applications. In this dissertation, the development and characterization of planar gold surfaces with responsive hydrogel patterns for rapid point of care sensing and the functionalization of gold nanoparticles for drug delivery are highlighted.

Biomedical micro- and nanoscale devices that are spatially functionalized with intelligent hydrogels are typically fabricated using conventional UV-lithography. Herein, precise 3-D hydrogel patterns made up of temperature responsive crosslinked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) over gold were synthesized. The XY control of the ...


Furan Hydrogenation Over Pt(111) And Pt(100) Single-Crystal Surfaces And Pt Nanoparticles From 1 To 7 Nm: A Kinetic And Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study, Christopher J. Kliewer, Cesar Aliaga, Marco Bieri, Wenyu Huang, Chia-Kuang Tsung, Jennifer B. Wood, Kyriankos Komvopoulos, Gabor A. Somorjai 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Furan Hydrogenation Over Pt(111) And Pt(100) Single-Crystal Surfaces And Pt Nanoparticles From 1 To 7 Nm: A Kinetic And Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study, Christopher J. Kliewer, Cesar Aliaga, Marco Bieri, Wenyu Huang, Chia-Kuang Tsung, Jennifer B. Wood, Kyriankos Komvopoulos, Gabor A. Somorjai

Wenyu Huang

Sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to systematically study the adsorption and hydrogenation of furan over Pt(111) and Pt(100) single-crystal surfaces and size-controlled 1.0-nm, 3.5-nm and 7.0-nm Pt nanoparticles at Torr pressures (10 Torr of furan, 100 Torr of H2) to form dihydrofuran, tetrahydrofuran, and the ring-cracking products butanol and propylene. As determined by SFG, the furan ring lies parallel to all Pt surfaces studied under hydrogenation conditions. Upright THF and the oxametallacycle intermediate are observed over the nanoparticle catalysts under reaction conditions. Butoxy increases in ...


Size Effect Of Ruthenium Nanoparticles In Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation, Sang Hoon Joo, Jeong Y. Park, J. Russell Renzas, Derek R. Butcher, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somorjai 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Size Effect Of Ruthenium Nanoparticles In Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation, Sang Hoon Joo, Jeong Y. Park, J. Russell Renzas, Derek R. Butcher, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somorjai

Wenyu Huang

Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac)3 precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O2) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and ...


Easy Access To Ultra Long-Time Stable, Luminescent Europium(Ii) Fluoride Nanoparticles In Ionic Liquids, Nina von Prondzinski, Joanna Cybinska, Anja V. Mudring 2010 Iowa State University

Easy Access To Ultra Long-Time Stable, Luminescent Europium(Ii) Fluoride Nanoparticles In Ionic Liquids, Nina Von Prondzinski, Joanna Cybinska, Anja V. Mudring

Anja V. Mudring

Physical vapour deposition into ionic liquids allows for the first time the synthesis of a reduced lanthanide halide on the nanoscale. The obtained EuF2 nanoparticles show a bright blue luminescence and form long-time stable-colloidal solutions in the ionic liquids.


Seedless Polyol Synthesis And Co Oxidation Activity Of Monodisperse (111)- And (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals In Sub-10 Nm Sizes, Yawen Zhang, Michael E. Grass, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somoraji 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Seedless Polyol Synthesis And Co Oxidation Activity Of Monodisperse (111)- And (100)-Oriented Rhodium Nanocrystals In Sub-10 Nm Sizes, Yawen Zhang, Michael E. Grass, Wenyu Huang, Gabor A. Somoraji

Wenyu Huang

Monodisperse sub-10 nm (6.5 nm) sized Rh nanocrystals with (111) and (100) surface structures were synthesized by a seedless polyol reduction in ethylene glycol, with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a capping ligand. When using [Rh(Ac)2]2 as the metal precursor, (111)-oriented Rh nanopolyhedra containing 76% (111)-twinned hexagons (in 2D projection) were obtained; whereas, when employing RhCl3 as the metal precursor in the presence of alkylammonium bromide, such as tetramethylammonium bromide and trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium bromide, (100)-oriented Rh nanocubes were obtained with 85% selectivity. The {100} faces of the Rh nanocrystals are stabilized by chemically adsorbed ...


Highly Active Heterogeneous Palladium Nanoparticle Catalysts For Homogeneous Electrophilic Reactions In Solution And The Utilization Of A Continuous Flow Reactor, Wenyu Huang, Jack Hung Chang Liu, Pinar Alayoglu, Yimin Li, Cole A. Whitman, Chia-Kuang Tsung, F. Dean Toste, Gabor A/ Somorjai 2010 University of California - Berkeley

Highly Active Heterogeneous Palladium Nanoparticle Catalysts For Homogeneous Electrophilic Reactions In Solution And The Utilization Of A Continuous Flow Reactor, Wenyu Huang, Jack Hung Chang Liu, Pinar Alayoglu, Yimin Li, Cole A. Whitman, Chia-Kuang Tsung, F. Dean Toste, Gabor A/ Somorjai

Wenyu Huang

highly active heterogeneous Pd-nanoparticle catalyst for the intramolecular addition of phenols to alkynes was developed and employed in a continuous flow reaction system. Running the reaction in flow mode revealed reaction kinetics, such as the activation energy and catalyst deactivation, and provides many potential practical advantages.


Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev 2010 Western Kentucky University

Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev

Mathematics Faculty Publications

We study long-wave Marangoni convection in a layer heated from below. Using the scaling k=O Bi, where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number, we derive a set of amplitude equations. Analysis of this set shows presence of monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability. Oscillatory mode has not been previously found for such direction of heating. Studies of weakly nonlinear dynamics demonstrate that stable steady and oscillatory patterns can be found near the stability threshold.


Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev 2010 Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics

Oscillatory And Monotonic Modes Of Long-Wave Marangoni Convection In A Thin Film, Sergey Shklyaev, Mikhail Khenner, Alexei Alabuzhev

Mathematics Faculty Publications

We study long-wave Marangoni convection in a layer heated from below. Using the scaling k=O Bi, where k is the wave number and Bi is the Biot number, we derive a set of amplitude equations. Analysis of this set shows presence of monotonic and oscillatory modes of instability. Oscillatory mode has not been previously found for such direction of heating. Studies of weakly nonlinear dynamics demonstrate that stable steady and oscillatory patterns can be found near the stability threshold.


Quantum Approach To Electronic Noise Calculations In The Presence Of Electron-Phonon Interactions, Hong-Hyun Park, Gerhard Klimeck 2010 Purdue University

Quantum Approach To Electronic Noise Calculations In The Presence Of Electron-Phonon Interactions, Hong-Hyun Park, Gerhard Klimeck

Birck and NCN Publications

A quantum-mechanical approach to the calculation of electronic noise for nanoscale devices is presented. This method is based on the nonequilibrium Green’s-function formalism with electron-phonon scattering mechanisms and takes the effects of the Pauli exclusion principle and the long-range Coulomb interactions into account. As examples the drain current noise characteristics of silicon nanowire transistors at room temperature are simulated. The drain current noise in the saturation regime is primarily shot-noise dominant but is suppressed for higher gate biases due to the electron-electron correlation in the channel region. The role of electron-phonon interactions on noise, the transition from thermal to ...


On Landauer Versus Boltzmann And Full Band Versus Effective Mass Evaluation Of Thermoelectric Transport Coefficients, Changwook Jeong, Raseong Kim, Mathieu Luisier, Supriyo Datta, Mark S. Lundstrom 2010 Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University

On Landauer Versus Boltzmann And Full Band Versus Effective Mass Evaluation Of Thermoelectric Transport Coefficients, Changwook Jeong, Raseong Kim, Mathieu Luisier, Supriyo Datta, Mark S. Lundstrom

Birck and NCN Publications

Using a full band description of electronic bandstructure, the Landauer approach to diffusive transport is mathematically related to the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation, and expressions for the thermoelectric parameters in both formalisms are presented. Quantum mechanical and semiclassical techniques to obtain from a full description of the bandstructure, E(k), the density of modes in the Landauer approach or the transport distribution in the Boltzmann solution are compared and thermoelectric transport coefficients are evaluated. Several example calculations for representative bulk materials are presented and the full band results are related to the more common effective mass formalism. Finally ...


Molecular Modulation Of Schottky Barrier Height In Metal-Molecule-Silicon Diodes: Capacitance And Simulation Results, Adina Scott, Chad Risko, Nicholas Valley, Mark A. Ratner, David B. Janes 2010 Purdue University - Main Campus

Molecular Modulation Of Schottky Barrier Height In Metal-Molecule-Silicon Diodes: Capacitance And Simulation Results, Adina Scott, Chad Risko, Nicholas Valley, Mark A. Ratner, David B. Janes

Birck and NCN Publications

There is considerable current interest in using molecular materials to influence the surface potential of semiconductor devices for nanoelectronic and sensing applications. We present experimental capacitance-voltage results showing that systematic Schottky barrier height modulation can be achieved using dipolar molecular layers in gold-molecule-silicon devices. A computational methodology that combines quantum chemistry and traditional electrostatic calculations is used to explore various physical effects that can influence barrier heights in such systems. Nonidealities such as silicon surface states can influence both the potential profile within the device and the validity of the extracted barrier height. Our devices exhibit low surface state densities ...


Accurate Force Spectroscopy In Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy In Liquids, Xin Xu, John Melcher, Arvind Raman 2010 Purdue University

Accurate Force Spectroscopy In Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy In Liquids, Xin Xu, John Melcher, Arvind Raman

Birck and NCN Publications

Existing force spectroscopy methods in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) such as higher harmonic inversion [M. Stark, R. W. Stark, W. M. Heckl, and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99, 8473 (2002)] or scanning probe acceleration microscopy [J. Legleiter, M. Park, B. Cusick, and T. Kowalewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103, 4813 (2006)] or integral relations [M. Lee and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 036104 (2006); S. Hu and A. Raman, Nanotechnology 19, 375704 (2008); H. Holscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123109 (2006); A. J. Katan, Nanotechnology 20, 165703 (2009)] require ...


Theory Of ‘Selectivity’ Of Label-Free Nanobiosensors – A Geometro-Physical Perspective, Pradeep R. Nair, Muhammad A. Alam 2010 Purdue University - Main Campus

Theory Of ‘Selectivity’ Of Label-Free Nanobiosensors – A Geometro-Physical Perspective, Pradeep R. Nair, Muhammad A. Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

Modern label-free biosensors are generally far more sensitive and require orders of magnitude less incubation time compared to their classical counterparts. However, a more important characteristic regarding the viability of this technology for applications in Genomics/Proteomics is defined by the ‘Selectivity’, i.e., the ability to concurrently and uniquely detect multiple target biomolecules in the presence of interfering species. Currently, there is no theory of Selectivity that allows optimization of competing factors and there are few experiments to probe this problem systematically. In this article, we use the elementary considerations of surface exclusion, diffusion limited transport, and void distribution ...


Far-Field Optical Nanoscopy Based On Continuous Wave Laser Stimulated Emission Depletion, C. Kuang, Wei Zhao, Guiren Wang 2010 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Far-Field Optical Nanoscopy Based On Continuous Wave Laser Stimulated Emission Depletion, C. Kuang, Wei Zhao, Guiren Wang

Faculty Publications

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy is one of the breakthrough technologies that belong to far-field optical microscopy and can achieve nanoscale spatial resolution. We demonstrate a far-field optical nanoscopy based on continuous wave lasers with different wavelengths, i.e., violet and green lasers for excitation and STED, respectively. Fluorescent dyes Coumarin 102 and Atto 390 are used for validating the depletion efficiency. Fluorescent nanoparticles are selected for characterizing the spatial resolution of the STED system. Linear scanning of the laser beams of the STED system along one line of a microscope slide, which is coated with the nanoparticles, indicates that ...


An Alternative Method To Determining Optical Lever Sensitivity In Atomic Force Microscopy Without Tip-Sample Contact, Christopher J. Tourek, Sriram Sundararajan 2010 Iowa State University

An Alternative Method To Determining Optical Lever Sensitivity In Atomic Force Microscopy Without Tip-Sample Contact, Christopher J. Tourek, Sriram Sundararajan

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Force studies using atomic force microscopy generally require knowledge of the cantilever spring constants and the optical lever sensitivity. The traditional method of evaluating the optical lever sensitivity by pressing the tip against a hard surface can damage the tip, especially sharp ones. Here a method is shown to calculate the sensitivity without having to bring the tip into contact. Instead a sharpened tungsten wire is used to cause a point contact directly onto the cantilever and cause cantilever bending. Using beam theory, the sensitivity thus found can be converted to the equivalent sensitivity that would be obtained using the ...


Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo 2010 Old Dominion University

Dielectrophoretic Choking Phenomenon In A Converging-Diverging Microchannel, Ye Ai, Shizhi Qian, Sheng Liu, Sang W. Joo

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Experiments show that particles smaller than the throat size of converging-diverging microchannels can sometimes be trapped near the throat. This critical phenomenon is associated with the negative dc dielectrophoresis arising from nonuniform electric fields in the microchannels. A finite-element model, accounting for the particle-fluid-electric field interactions, is employed to investigate the conditions for this dielectrophoretic (DEP) choking in a converging-diverging microchannel for the first time. It is shown quantitatively that the DEP choking occurs for high nonuniformity of electric fields, high ratio of particle size to throat size, and high ratio of particle's zeta potential to that of microchannel ...


Super-High-Frequency Two-Port Aln Contour-Mode Resonators For Rf Applications, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Chengjie Zuo, Gianluca Piazza 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Super-High-Frequency Two-Port Aln Contour-Mode Resonators For Rf Applications, Matteo Rinaldi, Chiara Zuniga, Chengjie Zuo, Gianluca Piazza

Departmental Papers (ESE)

This paper reports on the design and experimental verification of a new class of thin-film (250 nm) superhigh- frequency laterally-vibrating piezoelectric microelectromechanical (MEMS) resonators suitable for the fabrication of narrow-band MEMS filters operating at frequencies above 3 GHz. The device dimensions have been opportunely scaled both in the lateral and vertical dimensions to excite a contourextensional mode of vibration in nanofeatures of an ultra-thin (250 nm) AlN film. In this first demonstration, 2-port resonators vibrating up to 4.5 GHz have been fabricated on the same die and attained electromechanical coupling, kt^2, in excess of 1.5%. These devices ...


On The Effect Of Hydrodynamic Slip On The Polarization Of A Nonconducting Spherical Particle In An Alternating Electric Field, Hui Zhao 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

On The Effect Of Hydrodynamic Slip On The Polarization Of A Nonconducting Spherical Particle In An Alternating Electric Field, Hui Zhao

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

The polarization of a charged, dielectric, spherical particle with a hydrodynamically slipping surface under the influence of a uniform alternating electric field is studied by solving the standard model (the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations). The dipole moment characterizing the strength of the polarization is computed as a function of the double layer thickness, the electric field frequency, the particle’s surface charge, and the slip length. Our studies reveal that two processes contribute to the dipole moment: ion transport inside the double layer driven by the electric field and the particle’s electrophoretic motion. The hydrodynamic slip will simultaneously impact ...


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