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Para-Romantic Love And Para-Friendships: Development And Assessment Of A Multiple-Parasocial Relationships Scale, Riva Tukachinsky 2010 Chapman University

Para-Romantic Love And Para-Friendships: Development And Assessment Of A Multiple-Parasocial Relationships Scale, Riva Tukachinsky

Communication Faculty Articles and Research

Parasocial-relationships (PSR) are viewers' imaginary relationships with media personae. Despite the growing body of research on PSR, the field is still lacking a clear conceptualization and precise measure of this phenomenon. The present study suggests a novel theorization of PSR as para-friendship and para-love. Study 1 demonstrates construct validity of a new Multiple-PSR scale using the logic of a multi-trait multi-method approach. Study 2 replicates the factorial solution using confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, Study 3 provides evidence for the criterion validity of the scales. Together, these findings suggest that PSR encompass several types of relationships that might mediate different media ...


Snitching, Lies, And Computer Crashes: An Experimental Investigation Of Secondary Confessions, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike, Alexander T. Cole 2010 Iowa State University

Snitching, Lies, And Computer Crashes: An Experimental Investigation Of Secondary Confessions, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike, Alexander T. Cole

Jessica K Swanner

Two laboratory studies with 332 student participants investigated secondary confessions (provided by an informant instead of the suspect). Participants allegedly caused or witnessed a simulated computer crash, then were asked to give primary or secondary confessions during interrogation. Study 1 replicated the false evidence effect for primary confessions. Secondary confessions were obtained at a high rate, which was increased by false evidence in combination with incentive to confess. In Study 2 a confederate either confessed to or denied crashing the computer. Incentive increased the rate of secondary confession only in the presence of a denial; that is, incentive increased the ...


Incentives Increase The Rate Of False But Not True Secondary Confessions From Informants With An Allegiance To A Suspect, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike 2010 Iowa State University

Incentives Increase The Rate Of False But Not True Secondary Confessions From Informants With An Allegiance To A Suspect, Jessica K. Swanner, Denise Beike

Jessica K Swanner

One hundred ninety-two students participated in an experimental simulation testing whether incentives would reduce the reluctance of informants to implicate a close other. Half of the students were made to feel interpersonally close to a confederate who either admitted to or denied a misdeed. All students were interrogated and encouraged to sign a secondary confession stating that the confederate had confessed to the misdeed; half were offered an incentive to do so. Contrary to expectations, closeness did not induce reluctance. Instead, the offer of incentive increased the number of participants willing to sign a secondary confession implicating a close other ...


From Infanticide To Activism: The Transformation Of Emotions And Identity In Self-Help Movements, Verta Taylor, Lisa A. Leitz 2010 Chapman University

From Infanticide To Activism: The Transformation Of Emotions And Identity In Self-Help Movements, Verta Taylor, Lisa A. Leitz

Peace Studies Faculty Books and Book Chapters

Taylor and Leitz trace processes of collective identity construction and politicization among women suffering from postpartum psychiatric illness who have been convicted of infanticide. Joining a growing body of research suggesting that self‐help and consumer health movements can be a significant force for change in both the cultural and political arenas, Taylor and Lietz examine one such movement, a pen‐pal network of women incarcerated for committing infanticide. Taylor and Leitz show how a sense of collective identity fostered by the pen‐pal network triggered a profound emotional transformation in participants, allowing them to convert shame and loneliness into ...


Offer Adolescents Suburban Habitat Positive Experiences In Their Neighborhood, Benjamin A. Shirtcliff 2010 University of New Orleans

Offer Adolescents Suburban Habitat Positive Experiences In Their Neighborhood, Benjamin A. Shirtcliff

Benjamin A Shirtcliff

The adolescent population living in suburban environments is very important. This reality, however, is still too recent to be considered by practitioners of the development, which would explain why the physical environment of teenagers is rarely designed to meet their needs. This article addresses the basic needs of adolescents living in the suburbs and designers suggest ways to improve their quality of life by creating fallback places in their neighborhood. The values ​​and adolescents special needs will be used to assess the quality of suburban open spaces. We mainly interressted in the physical environment, building on the studies in the ...


Two Sides Of The Same Coin: Biculturalism, Cultural Ideologies, And Perceptions Of Cultural Change, Stephanie Ann Quezada 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Two Sides Of The Same Coin: Biculturalism, Cultural Ideologies, And Perceptions Of Cultural Change, Stephanie Ann Quezada

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Ethnic minorities are adopting a bicultural identity to simultaneously identify with their heritage culture and mainstream American culture. While much research has investigated the extent to which ethnic majority and minority groups differentially respond to cultural ideologies, bicultural reactions to cultural ideologies remain uninvestigated. Bicultural individuals' differential endorsement of cultural ideologies has critical implications for implementation of assimilation and multiculturalism in multicultural societies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the extent to which the salience of cultural identity predicts bicultural individuals' endorsement of assimilation and multicultural ideologies. Identity saliency was manipulated for bicultural Latino Americans and ...


Examination Of The Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Evaluative And Semantic Priming Effects By Varying Task Instructions: An Erp Study, Jennifer Hilda Taylor 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Examination Of The Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying Evaluative And Semantic Priming Effects By Varying Task Instructions: An Erp Study, Jennifer Hilda Taylor

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This study examined the cognitive processes that underlie stimulus identification and the activation of attitudes by investigating behavioral and psychophysiological effects in a priming paradigm. Cognitive mechanisms were investigated by examining evaluative and semantic priming effects on behavioral response times, the N400, and LPP event-related potential (ERP) components by varying tasks between-subjects. Participants either completed an evaluative task, a semantic task, or a feature-detection task. It was hypothesized that the behavioral evaluative priming effect would occur in the evaluative task and that the behavioral semantic priming effect would occur in the semantic and feature-detection tasks. The N400 was hypothesized to ...


Gender Differences Of African American Adolescents When Exposed To Race Related Stress, Sharmon Saunders James 2010 PCOM

Gender Differences Of African American Adolescents When Exposed To Race Related Stress, Sharmon Saunders James

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

For African Americans, issues of discrimination, oppression, and belonging to a minority group may significantly impact their identity formation, and their cognitive and subjective beliefs regarding racial issues. Racism-related stress as it affects African American adolescents has become an area of concern for African American researchers. Racism related stress can be characterized as the negative psychological or physiological response to a perceived instance of a racism related attitude or behavior. African American adolescents, because of their race, continue to be subjected to various social stressors that lead to negative stress that depletes them of their abilities to cope in response ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of A Social Learning Curriculum For Improving Social Skills And Self-Regulation Behaviors In Middle School Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder Or Social Skill Deficits, Jessica Beth Bolton 2010 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Examining The Effectiveness Of A Social Learning Curriculum For Improving Social Skills And Self-Regulation Behaviors In Middle School Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder Or Social Skill Deficits, Jessica Beth Bolton

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Social skill deficits are hallmark characteristics noted in children with autism. The behavioral indicators of autism, including language impairments, display of preservative behaviors, and restricted interests contribute to the social difficulties experienced by children with autism. The current paper provides a review of the relevant literature on theoretical contributions to social skill deficits in autism. A review of the use of cognitive behavioral therapy and social skill training programs and curriculums that have been shown to be efficacious at targeting deficits and improving social skills is provided, with a focus on treating children with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger ...


Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette 2010 University of Richmond

Group Processes, Donelson R. Forsyth, Jeni Burnette

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Social behavior is often group behavior. People are in many respects individuals seeking their personal, private objectives, yet they are also members of social collectives that bind members to one another. The tendency to join with others is perhaps the most important single characteristic of humans. The processes that take place within these groups influence, in fundamental ways, their members and society-at-large. Just as the dynamic processes that occur in groups--such as the exchange of information among members, leading and following, pressures put on members to adhere to the group's standards, shifts in friendship alliances, and conflict and collaboration-change ...


Therapy Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Therapy Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Therapy groups are designed to promote the health and adjustment of their members. Initially used when the demand for services outstripped available health care providers, therapists discovered that group approaches offered unique benefits over more individualistic therapies. Some of these benefits include a reduced sense of isolation and uniqueness, mutual support, exposure to positive models, and the opportunity to develop coping skills by interacting with others. Therapists now use groups to address a variety of psychological and physical maladies, and their methods are as varied as those used in individual approaches. Even though the idea of having people suffering from ...


Delphi Therapy, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Delphi Therapy, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

The Delphi technique is a structured forecasting and decision-making method that assesses and summarizes the individually held opinions and judgments of group members with little or no discussion or deliberation among the members. Named for the legendary Delphic oracle, this method involves surveying members repeatedly, with the results of each round of surveys informing the framing of the questions for subsequent rounds. The Delphi technique avoids some of the limitations of traditional group decision-making procedures and is particularly useful when the group members are so widely divided on issues that a face-to-face discussion will not be productive.


Prejudice With A Conscience: How A Strong Moral Identity Relates To Greater Prejudice, Moira P. Shaw 2010 University of Texas at El Paso

Prejudice With A Conscience: How A Strong Moral Identity Relates To Greater Prejudice, Moira P. Shaw

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The present research investigated the effects of moral licensing on prejudice for participants with a strong moral identity. It predicted that, because people with a stronger moral identity are especially motivated to be moral, they would be strongly affected by moral licensing effects on prejudice. Three experiments tested this prediction by measuring moral identity, experimentally manipulating and measuring three sources of moral license (moral affirmation, moral superiority, and moral threat), and measuring inter-group prejudice. The results demonstrated that with moral affirmation and moral superiority, a strong moral identity relates to greater prejudice (Experiment 1), moral superiority moderates the relation between ...


Reflecting On Experience For Leadership Development, Adrian Chan 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Reflecting On Experience For Leadership Development, Adrian Chan

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research from the College of Business

This study proposes that being reflective or ruminative about one's leadership experience can have differential effects on one's leadership efficacy, implicit leadership theories and psychological capital. Specifically, through the aid of an event history calendar, conscript military trainees of high and low military experience from a SE Asian military organization were randomly assigned to recall and reflect or ruminate on his past leadership experience. Results show that type of reflection interacts with level of military leadership experience to differentially affect one's leadership efficacy, implicit leadership theories and leadership self-awareness. Reflection triggers produced significantly higher levels of implicit ...


Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller 2010 Wayne State University

Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller

Wayne State University Theses

Stereotype threat has been shown to be an important cause of performance detriments in various social groups. It has also been theorized that stereotype threat could be applicable to any group so long as the individual believes their performance may reinforce the negative stereotype. The current work attempts to induce stereotype threat in participants believing they belong to an experimentally created and negatively stereotyped group using a minimal group paradigm. Across two studies there did not appear to be significant performance changes typically observed in stereotype threat research. Various cognitive measures and post-performance inquiries did generally support claims that participants ...


Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn 2010 University of Kentucky

Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The current study investigated the relationships between state shame, guilt, and disease knowledge in women recently diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Recent research has indicated that diagnosis of HPV can elicit negative self-directed affect, including persistent experiences of shame. Studies have also shown that knowledge of HPV is low in the general population, even though it is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It is important to understand how shame affects those with HPV because shame is related to a decline in important immune parameters that may be essential in HPV clearance. A ...


Psychometric And Experimental Investigation Of Impulsivity, Rumination, Revenge, And Forgiveness, Jason David Young 2010 Wayne State University

Psychometric And Experimental Investigation Of Impulsivity, Rumination, Revenge, And Forgiveness, Jason David Young

Wayne State University Dissertations

Revenge and forgiveness are commonplace aspects of social interaction. Past research has emphasized that rumination is an important cognitive correlate of both revenge and forgiveness. In the present research, we examined whether revenge attitudes and motivations, as well as forgiveness attitudes and tendencies might also be predicted by impulsivity. Two studies were conducted to investigate these possibilities. In Study 1 participants (N = 200) completed individual differences measures of impulsivity, rumination, procedural and distributive just world beliefs, and measures of revenge, forgiveness and avoidance. Structural equation modeling revealed that rumination predicted forgiveness tendencies, revenge motivations and avoidance. Additionally, revenge attitudes were ...


When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell 2010 University of Kentucky

When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The present experiment investigated the role of gender stereotypes in cases in which a battered person kills his or her abuser. Regression analysis revealed an overall gender bias such that mock jurors were more likely to convict a man defendant who had killed his abusive wife than they were when a woman defendant who had killed her husband. Mediational analyses indicated that the relationship between abuser gender and verdict was partially mediated by sympathy toward the victim, and fully mediated by sympathy toward the defendant. Regression analysis also revealed an effect of abuser height, such that conviction rates were higher ...


Organizational Justice: Perceptions Of Being Fairly Treated, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Organizational Justice: Perceptions Of Being Fairly Treated, David R. Dunaetz

Selected Faculty Publications

When members of mission organizations perceive injustice within their organization, they work less effectively and attrition is more likely. This paper examines various types of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational) which need to be monitored and maximized to help mission organizations accomplish their goals.


Long Distance Managerial Intervention In Overseas Conflicts: Helping Missionaries Reframe Conflict Along Multiple Dimensions, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Claremont Graduate University

Long Distance Managerial Intervention In Overseas Conflicts: Helping Missionaries Reframe Conflict Along Multiple Dimensions, David R. Dunaetz

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Effective ways of conflict management must be found for missionaries when no trusted mediator in the region is available. Home office management or leaders in other regions can intervene through context rich media, such as the telephone and video conferencing, to provide help. Intervention through context poor media, such as email, is much less likely to succeed. Effective managerial intervention involving interaction with each party can lead to reframing the conflict into an opportunity to cooperate and find mutually beneficial solutions. The manager can present information, ask questions, and help the parties see that resolution is possible by addressing key ...


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