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Components Of Religious Beliefs, Religious Maturity, And Religious History As Predictors Of Proscribed And Non-Proscribed Explicit And Implicit Prejudices, Luke Fiedorowicz 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Components Of Religious Beliefs, Religious Maturity, And Religious History As Predictors Of Proscribed And Non-Proscribed Explicit And Implicit Prejudices, Luke Fiedorowicz

Dissertations

Many theorists propose a link between religiosity and prejudice; however, many studies show contradictory results. Recently, there has also been a growing interest in the differences between implicit and explicit prejudices. Current literature suggests that explicit and implicit attitudes are linked and one can influence the other. However, it is possible there are different sets of predictors of each attitude type. African-Americans have historically been the most openly targeted minority in America. Recently, gay men and lesbians have also faced increased prejudice. The purpose of this project was to examine several aspects of religiosity (involvement, intrinsic/extrinsic, fundamentalism, quest, history ...


The Distortionary Effect Of Evidence On Primary Behavior, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

The Distortionary Effect Of Evidence On Primary Behavior, Gideon Parchomovsky, Alex Stein

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this Essay, we analyze how evidentiary concerns dominate actors’ behavior. Our findings offer an important refinement to the conventional wisdom in law and economics literature, which assumes that legal rules can always be fashioned to achieve socially optimal outcomes. We show that evidentiary motivations will often lead actors to engage in socially suboptimal behavior when doing so is likely to increase their likelihood of prevailing in court. Because adjudicators must base decisions on observable and verifiable information—or, in short, evidence—rational actors will always strive to generate evidence that can later be presented in court and increase their ...


The Hero Pledge: A Public Engagement Initiative Of The Heroic Imagination Project, Zuzana Žilková 2010 University of Pennsylvania

The Hero Pledge: A Public Engagement Initiative Of The Heroic Imagination Project, Zuzana Žilková

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The Hero Pledge initiative is a public engagement initiative of the Heroic Imagination Project, a nonprofit organization in San Francisco, CA that works to create more heroic action in the world. The initiative consists of a web-based pledge to act heroically and a 4-week course that develops heroic abilities in its participants. The pledge calls web visitors to identify as future heroes and commit to developing their ability to respond on behalf of others, for a moral cause, and without the expectation of personal gain. The course builds the knowledge, emotional skills, social skills, and habits that the organization believes ...


Social Support, Social Control And Health Behavior Change In Spouses, Kieran T. Sullivan, Lauri A. Pasch, Katherine Hanson, Kathrine Bejanyan 2010 Santa Clara University

Social Support, Social Control And Health Behavior Change In Spouses, Kieran T. Sullivan, Lauri A. Pasch, Katherine Hanson, Kathrine Bejanyan

Psychology

Our work on support processes in intimate relationships has focused on how partners in committed relationships help one another contend with personal difficulties, and how partners elicit and provide support in their day-to-day interactions. We are particularly interested in how these support skills relate to marital outcomes (Pasch & Bradbury, 1998; Pasch, Harris, Sullivan, & Bradbury, 2004; Sullivan, Pasch, Eldridge, & Bradbury, 1998) and how they relate to behavior change in spouses (Sullivan, Pasch, Johnson, & Bradbury, 2006), especially health behavior changes. In this chapter, we review research examining the effects of social support and social control on spouses' health behaviors, propose a theory to account for discrepancies ...


Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller 2010 Wayne State University

Threat By Association: Minimal Group Affiliation And Its Outcome For Stereotype Threat, Eric W. Fuller

Wayne State University Theses

Stereotype threat has been shown to be an important cause of performance detriments in various social groups. It has also been theorized that stereotype threat could be applicable to any group so long as the individual believes their performance may reinforce the negative stereotype. The current work attempts to induce stereotype threat in participants believing they belong to an experimentally created and negatively stereotyped group using a minimal group paradigm. Across two studies there did not appear to be significant performance changes typically observed in stereotype threat research. Various cognitive measures and post-performance inquiries did generally support claims that participants ...


America's Changing Face: Differential Effects Of Colorblindness And Multiculturalism On Racial Categorization And Stereotyping, Melissa A. Mcmanus 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

America's Changing Face: Differential Effects Of Colorblindness And Multiculturalism On Racial Categorization And Stereotyping, Melissa A. Mcmanus

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Two studies were conducted to explore the effects of the sociopolitical ideologies colorblindness and multiculturalism on perceivers’ (1) automatic awareness of race and (2) automatic racial stereotyping. Study 1 showed that a colorblind prime caused White perceivers to notice White targets’ race more compared to a no prime condition, although non-White perceivers were able to ignore race when primed with colorblindness. Multiculturalism, on the other hand, caused individuals to notice race no differently than the control. In terms of stereotyping, Study 2 showed that a colorblind prime did not change automatic stereotyping of Black or White targets. In contrast, multiculturalism ...


Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn 2010 University of Kentucky

Shame, Guilt, And Knowledge Of Hpv In Women Recently Diagnosed With Hpv-Related Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (Cin), Sarah E. Flynn

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The current study investigated the relationships between state shame, guilt, and disease knowledge in women recently diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Recent research has indicated that diagnosis of HPV can elicit negative self-directed affect, including persistent experiences of shame. Studies have also shown that knowledge of HPV is low in the general population, even though it is the most common sexually transmitted infection. It is important to understand how shame affects those with HPV because shame is related to a decline in important immune parameters that may be essential in HPV clearance. A ...


Psychometric And Experimental Investigation Of Impulsivity, Rumination, Revenge, And Forgiveness, Jason David Young 2010 Wayne State University

Psychometric And Experimental Investigation Of Impulsivity, Rumination, Revenge, And Forgiveness, Jason David Young

Wayne State University Dissertations

Revenge and forgiveness are commonplace aspects of social interaction. Past research has emphasized that rumination is an important cognitive correlate of both revenge and forgiveness. In the present research, we examined whether revenge attitudes and motivations, as well as forgiveness attitudes and tendencies might also be predicted by impulsivity. Two studies were conducted to investigate these possibilities. In Study 1 participants (N = 200) completed individual differences measures of impulsivity, rumination, procedural and distributive just world beliefs, and measures of revenge, forgiveness and avoidance. Structural equation modeling revealed that rumination predicted forgiveness tendencies, revenge motivations and avoidance. Additionally, revenge attitudes were ...


The Whole Is Greater Than The Sum Of Its Parts: The Social Support Exchange Process, Rifky Tkatch 2010 Wayne State University

The Whole Is Greater Than The Sum Of Its Parts: The Social Support Exchange Process, Rifky Tkatch

Wayne State University Dissertations

Social support is a dyadic exchange process that yields many psychological and physiological health benefits. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of the support exchange process from a dyadic perspective on health outcomes and to investigate the extent that gender and relationship characteristics influence the support process and health outcomes. It was hypothesized that female patients would report seeking more support and male patients would report receiving more support. In addition, it was expected that patient seeking support would be associated with both partner provision and patient receipt of support. It was also hypothesized that patients ...


Guy Time: The Effects Of Men's Male Friends On Their Heavy Drinking, Consensual Sexual Behaviors, And Sexual Assault Perpetration, Angela Judith Jacques-Tiura 2010 Wayne State University

Guy Time: The Effects Of Men's Male Friends On Their Heavy Drinking, Consensual Sexual Behaviors, And Sexual Assault Perpetration, Angela Judith Jacques-Tiura

Wayne State University Dissertations

Risky, reckless, and potentially harmful behaviors reach their peak during the adolescent and emerging adulthood years. Past research demonstrates that a variety of social influences, including descriptive and injunctive norms, overt pressure, and modeling affect adolescents' and college students' heavy drinking, consensual sexual experiences, and sexual assaults. The construct of peer influence has been measured in many different ways, and little research has simultaneously considered peer influence on even two of the three outcomes in the current study. Further, much of the research with emerging adults is conducted with college students. To address these gaps in the literature, this study ...


When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell 2010 University of Kentucky

When Battered Persons Kill: The Impact Of Gender Stereotypes On Mock Juror Perceptions, Emily Catherine Hodell

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

The present experiment investigated the role of gender stereotypes in cases in which a battered person kills his or her abuser. Regression analysis revealed an overall gender bias such that mock jurors were more likely to convict a man defendant who had killed his abusive wife than they were when a woman defendant who had killed her husband. Mediational analyses indicated that the relationship between abuser gender and verdict was partially mediated by sympathy toward the victim, and fully mediated by sympathy toward the defendant. Regression analysis also revealed an effect of abuser height, such that conviction rates were higher ...


Organizational Justice: Perceptions Of Being Fairly Treated, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Organizational Justice: Perceptions Of Being Fairly Treated, David R. Dunaetz

Selected Faculty Publications

When members of mission organizations perceive injustice within their organization, they work less effectively and attrition is more likely. This paper examines various types of organizational justice (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational) which need to be monitored and maximized to help mission organizations accomplish their goals.


The Communication Patterns Questionnaire-Short Form: A Review And Assessment, Ted G. Futris, Kelly Campbell, Robert B. Nielsen, Stephanie R. Burwell 2010 University of Georgia

The Communication Patterns Questionnaire-Short Form: A Review And Assessment, Ted G. Futris, Kelly Campbell, Robert B. Nielsen, Stephanie R. Burwell

Psychology Faculty Publications

The Communication Patterns Questionnaire-Short Form (CPQ-SF) is an 11-item self-assessment of spouses’ perceptions of marital interactions. A cited reference review of the CPQ-SF literature revealed no formal assessment of its psychometric properties and that researchers are imprecise in their use, reporting, and referencing of the assessment. Toward improving the use of the CPQ-SF in research and practice, the factor structure and psychometric properties of this scale were examined with data collected from a diverse sample of married individuals. Three latent constructs were identified: criticize/defend, discuss/avoid, and positive interaction patterns. Support for the original two-factor structure, demand/withdrawal and ...


Long Distance Managerial Intervention In Overseas Conflicts: Helping Missionaries Reframe Conflict Along Multiple Dimensions, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Claremont Graduate University

Long Distance Managerial Intervention In Overseas Conflicts: Helping Missionaries Reframe Conflict Along Multiple Dimensions, David R. Dunaetz

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

Effective ways of conflict management must be found for missionaries when no trusted mediator in the region is available. Home office management or leaders in other regions can intervene through context rich media, such as the telephone and video conferencing, to provide help. Intervention through context poor media, such as email, is much less likely to succeed. Effective managerial intervention involving interaction with each party can lead to reframing the conflict into an opportunity to cooperate and find mutually beneficial solutions. The manager can present information, ask questions, and help the parties see that resolution is possible by addressing key ...


The 2008 Election: Prior Belief Strength, Cognitive Dissonance, And Voter Reactions, Elicia Chelsey Lair 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

The 2008 Election: Prior Belief Strength, Cognitive Dissonance, And Voter Reactions, Elicia Chelsey Lair

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Peacebuilding, Cristina Jayme Montiel 2010 Ateneo de Manila University

Peacebuilding, Cristina Jayme Montiel

Psychology Department Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Christian Cooperation And Ministry Effectiveness: Insights And Applications From Empirical Research In Group Processes, David R. Dunaetz 2010 Claremont Graduate University

Christian Cooperation And Ministry Effectiveness: Insights And Applications From Empirical Research In Group Processes, David R. Dunaetz

CGU Faculty Publications and Research

“Co-operation and the Promotion of Unity” was one the major themes addressed at Edinburgh 1910. The goal was increased cooperation among Christian organizations that would lead to greater ministry effectiveness. Five group processes are presented in light of empirical studies demonstrating their ability to increase group performance: 1) Trust (reciprocal beliefs that the one party will promote the well being of another; 2) Constructive conflict (objective consideration and evaluation of various ways of accomplishing a common goal); 3) Decision commitment (beliefs held by all parties concerning the importance of following through on group decisions); 4) Accountability (the expectation that a ...


Application And Assessment Of Interpersonal Forgiveness, Anthony Holter, Chad Magnuson, Robert Enright 2010 University of Notre Dame

Application And Assessment Of Interpersonal Forgiveness, Anthony Holter, Chad Magnuson, Robert Enright

Faculty Publications and Presentations

Moral issues within psychology have been an object of study since the 1890s (see, for example, Hall, 1891). The majority of studies in the 20th century have centered on themes of justice, not mercy (see, for example, Killen & Smetana, 2006). In the 1980s, almost a century after the emergence of moral psychology, the construct of forgiveness began to emerge as a possible area of basic and applied research within psychology. From its humble beginnings, the psychology of forgiveness has now begun to emerge as a field worthy of researchers’ time. For example, in 1985 a perusal of the American Psychological ...


Investigation Of The Effects Of Team Coaching, Performance Feedback, And Collective Efficacy On Small Group Performance, Rachael Nichole Martinez 2010 Loyola University Chicago

Investigation Of The Effects Of Team Coaching, Performance Feedback, And Collective Efficacy On Small Group Performance, Rachael Nichole Martinez

Master's Theses

Research has demonstrated that there are a variety of factors that influence group performance such as team coaching, feedback, and collective efficacy. A study was conducted to determine whether consultative team coaching improves performance and at what point--beginning or middle--it is most beneficial to the team. One hundred eleven dyads, comprised of 222 students, participated in this study. The dyads performed a task twice in which they were given team coaching before the first attempt, after the first attempt, or not at all. In addition, feedback was manipulated such that teams received positive or negative feedback after their first attempt ...


The Stigmatization Of Mental Illness And Drug Addiction Among The Criminally Involved, Brenda Arsenault 2010 Loyola University Chicago

The Stigmatization Of Mental Illness And Drug Addiction Among The Criminally Involved, Brenda Arsenault

Master's Theses

This study examined the perceived stigma of mental illness compared to drug addiction among a sample of criminally involved persons who receive probation services through the Cook County Adult Probation Department. The first section of the study surveyed current probation clients using a modification of the PSAS scale by Luoma, Rye, Kohlenberg, Hayes, Fletcher & Pratte (2010), and assessed levels of stigma consciousness with a modified version of the SCQ (Pinel, 1999). Three groups of participants were surveyed for their perceptions of stigma and stigma consciousness. The first group consisted of drug probation case management clients with no known mental health ...


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