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Using Motor Imagery As An Alternative To Exercise For Improvement Of Mental Health: A Qualitative Investigation, Madelyn Colbert 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Using Motor Imagery As An Alternative To Exercise For Improvement Of Mental Health: A Qualitative Investigation, Madelyn Colbert

Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal

Exercise is a commonly used non-pharmacological treatment to improve the mental and physical health of patients with varying conditions. However, not all patients have the means to participate in exercise and/or physical exertion. Motor imagery training (MIT) is visualizing a task without motor output. Evidence has demonstrated MIT to enhance physical function with and without adjacent physical practice. A qualitative research study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of utilizing MIT as a depression and anxiety reducing alternative to exercise. Seven participants meeting the selection criteria were randomized into (a) the exercise group, or (b) the MIT group. The three …


Understanding Across The Senses: Cross-Modal Studies Of Cognition In Cetaceans, Jason N. Bruck, Adam A. Pack 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Understanding Across The Senses: Cross-Modal Studies Of Cognition In Cetaceans, Jason N. Bruck, Adam A. Pack

Faculty Publications

Cross-modal approaches to the study of sensory perception, social recognition, cognition, and mental representation have proved fruitful in humans as well as in a variety of other species including toothed whales in revealing equivalencies that suggest that different sensory stimuli associated with objects or individuals may effectively evoke mental representations that are, respectively, object based or individual based. Building on established findings of structural equivalence in the form of spontaneous recognition of complex shapes across the modalities of echolocation and vision and behavior favoring identity echoic–visual cross-modal relationships over associative echoic–visual cross-modal relationships, examinations of transitive inference equivalencies from initially …


Sex Differences In The Anatomy Of Mam E17 Treated Rats: A Developmental Model Of Schizophrenia, Cassandra Hartsgrove 2022 Bridgewater State University

Sex Differences In The Anatomy Of Mam E17 Treated Rats: A Developmental Model Of Schizophrenia, Cassandra Hartsgrove

Honors Program Theses and Projects

Enlarged ventricles and reduced cortical volume are neuroanatomical abnormalities correlated with schizophrenia and typically more severe in males. The MAM model of schizophrenia is a developmental disruption model that involves exposing animals to a teratogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), to reflect the neuroanatomical traits of schizophrenia. Rodents exposed to MAM on embryonic day 17 (E17) experience a reduction of cortical volume and increased ventricular volume. Measuring brain weight and ventricular volume can be used to inversely measure the severity of cortical reduction. The circling method was used to measure the lateral ventricles of a sample of 27 rodents; 8 MAM-females, 7 …


The Effects Of The Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole, On Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic 2022 Western University

The Effects Of The Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole, On Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a form of classical conditioning in which the effects of a nausea-inducing toxin become associated with a specific environmental context. AN is often experienced by individuals receiving chemotherapy treatment, whereby the emetic effects of the chemotherapy agents become associated with the treatment context (i.e. hospital, clinic), such that exposure to the context alone can cause an individual to experience nausea and potentially withdraw from treatment. Chemotherapy-associated AN is suggested to have a higher incidence in females compared to males.

AN can be represented in a rodent model (conditioned disgust) through the occurrence of conditioned gaping behaviour …


Emotion Detection Using An Ensemble Model Trained With Physiological Signals And Inferred Arousal-Valence States, Matthew Nathanael Gray 2022 Old Dominion University

Emotion Detection Using An Ensemble Model Trained With Physiological Signals And Inferred Arousal-Valence States, Matthew Nathanael Gray

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Affective computing is an exciting and transformative field that is gaining in popularity among psychologists, statisticians, and computer scientists. The ability of a machine to infer human emotion and mood, i.e. affective states, has the potential to greatly improve human-machine interaction in our increasingly digital world. In this work, an ensemble model methodology for detecting human emotions across multiple subjects is outlined. The Continuously Annotated Signals of Emotion (CASE) dataset, which is a dataset of physiological signals labeled with discrete emotions from video stimuli as well as subject-reported continuous emotions, arousal and valence, from the circumplex model, is used for …


Effects Of Residual Arousal And Cognitive Appraisal On Psychophysiological Reactivity To Stress, Hanna Johnson 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Effects Of Residual Arousal And Cognitive Appraisal On Psychophysiological Reactivity To Stress, Hanna Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Generalized arousal can amplify emotional responses to a range of target stimuli, but it is not yet known whether perceiver characteristics moderate the effects of arousal as target characteristics do. This study investigated the effects of residual arousal from exercise on psychological and physiological reactivity to an active coping task, when individual appraisals of the task differed. Participants who endorsed either a positive or negative attitude toward job interviews underwent either a highly or minimally arousing exercise task, followed by a mock job interview, to which self-reported and cardiovascular responses were assessed. Using the Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat …


Cortisol Administration Normalizes Aberrant Functional Connectivity In Women With Depression, Adam C. Runyan 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Cortisol Administration Normalizes Aberrant Functional Connectivity In Women With Depression, Adam C. Runyan

Dissertations

Previous resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) research has identified aberrant connectivity in several large brain networks in depression, including the default mode (DMN), frontoparietal (FPN), and salience networks (SN). Connectivity of these networks is also related to depressive symptom severity and is affected by cortisol levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effects of acute cortisol administration on rsFC of DMN, FPN, and SN in individuals varying in depression history and severity. We collected resting-state fMRI scans for 74 women with and without a history of depressive disorder after administration of cortisol and placebo using a …


Psychology In The Modern World, Kutay Agardici 2022 CUNY Graduate Center

Psychology In The Modern World, Kutay Agardici

Open Educational Resources

This syllabus is created for the two courses I will be teaching at City College in the psychology dept. Topics include cognition, language, learning, memory, nature vs. nurture, abnormal psychology, social psychology, etc.


Uncovering 'Hidden' Signals: Previously Presumed Visual Signals Likely Generate Air Particle Movement, Pallabi Kundu, Noori Choi, Aaron S. Rundus, Roger D. Santer 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Uncovering 'Hidden' Signals: Previously Presumed Visual Signals Likely Generate Air Particle Movement, Pallabi Kundu, Noori Choi, Aaron S. Rundus, Roger D. Santer

Psychology Faculty Publications

Wolf spiders within the genus Schizocosa have become a model system for exploring the form and function of multimodal communication. In terms of male signaling, much past research has focused on the role and importance of dynamic and static visual and substrate-borne vibratory communication. Studies on S. retrorsa, however, have found that female-male pairs were able to successfully mate in the absence of both visual and vibratory stimuli, suggesting a reduced or non-existent role of these signaling modalities in this species. Given these prior findings, it has been suggested that S. retrorsa males may utilize an additional signaling modality during …


Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Testing An Overtraining Protocol For Fear Learning In Humans, Gordon M. Haskell

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Successful regulation of fear memories is a fundamental tenet to the exposure-based therapies often employed by mental health professionals for individuals with PTSD, phobias, and other anxiety disorders. Consequently, the efficacy of these treatment methodologies is largely dependent on the strength of the fear memory, as stronger memories are often characterized by an increased resistance to extinction and heightened fear recovery. However, there is little consensus within the scientific community regarding how to effectively maximize fear memory strength in human studies, and the literature exploring the impact of variability in acquisition parameters on memory strength is sparse. Here, we tested …


Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik

Faculty Publications

While studies have demonstrated concept formation in animals, only humans are known to label concepts to use them in mental simulations or predictions. To investigate whether other animals use labels comparably, we studied cross-modal, individual recognition in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that use signature whistles as labels for conspecifics in their own communication. First, we tested whether dolphins could use gustatory stimuli and found that they could distinguish between water and urine samples, as well as between urine from familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Then, we paired playbacks of signature whistles of known animals with urine samples from either the same …


Motivated Attention To Social And Nonsocial Reward Images: Examining Relations With Externalizing Risk In Children, Adaeze C. Egwuatu 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Motivated Attention To Social And Nonsocial Reward Images: Examining Relations With Externalizing Risk In Children, Adaeze C. Egwuatu

Doctoral Dissertations

Children that exhibit issues with externalizing behaviors often experience maladaptive outcomes in later life. Externalizing problems during middle childhood (e.g., 6-10 years old) are linked to issues with emotion regulation, which are, in turn, caused by disrupted attention and emotion reactivity to reward. Externalizing problems during this period have also been linked diminished processing of social reward stimuli, suggesting externalizing risk in children may be reflected in contrasting patterns in processing of non-social and social rewards. However, research comparing how differences in affective processing of specific reward content (i.e. social versus non-social) patterns relate to externalizing behavior within normative development …


Psychological Trauma Alters T-Lymphocyte Inflammation And Redox Through Sympathetic Mechanisms, Safwan K. Elkhatib 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Psychological Trauma Alters T-Lymphocyte Inflammation And Redox Through Sympathetic Mechanisms, Safwan K. Elkhatib

Theses & Dissertations

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a devastating psychiatric disorder characterized by distinctive symptom clusters, including intrusive memories (i.e., flashbacks), avoidance of related stimuli, affective changes, and hyperarousal. Strikingly, patients with PTSD face a significantly increased risk for a number of inflammation-driven pathologies, ranging from cardiovascular to autoimmune disease. Yet, the exact etiology of this increased risk remains unknown. The immune system is known to be strongly influenced by the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overactivity is a hallmark of PTSD. Lymphoid organs, such as the spleen, are richly innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers which terminate near adaptive immune …


Early-Life Acetaminophen Exposure Alters Sex-Specific Social And Mate Preference Behaviors In Adolescent And Adult Rats, Anna G. Warner 2022 University of New Orleans, New Orleans

Early-Life Acetaminophen Exposure Alters Sex-Specific Social And Mate Preference Behaviors In Adolescent And Adult Rats, Anna G. Warner

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Epidemiological studies reported associations between early-life exposure Acetaminophen (APAP) exposure and increased risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Rodent studies parallel epidemiological reports, with APAP-exposed animals showing more abnormal social and increased repetitive behaviors. However, mechanisms underlying sex-specific behavioral responses to APAP remain unclear. Here, a rat model was developed to examine possible interactions between APAP and early-life hormonal milieus during the neonatal period of brain sexual differentiation. Subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of either 17�-Estradiol (E2; masculinized) or Letrozole (LTZ; feminized) were administered from Postnatal Days (PD) 1-11 followed by either APAP or saline 45 min after the first injection on …


Utilization Of The Fundamental Attribution Error With Increased Immune System Inflammation, John Odom 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Utilization Of The Fundamental Attribution Error With Increased Immune System Inflammation, John Odom

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Immune system inflammation is associated with sickness behavior, depressive mood, and alteration of decision-making processes. Because of these cognitive effects, inflammation may also lead to increased use of heuristics, for example the Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE). In the current research, inflammation was experimentally increased using the influenza vaccine, with participants receiving either the vaccine or a placebo injection and completing a measure that tests for the FAE. There were no significant differences between the two conditions regarding the number of personal, situational, or overall attributions made by the participants in the measure that would indicate use of the FAE. However, …


Behavioral Effects And Neurobiological Mechanisms Of 3-Aminobenzimide In A Rodent Model Of Chronic Psychological Stress, Liza Wills 2022 East Tennessee State University

Behavioral Effects And Neurobiological Mechanisms Of 3-Aminobenzimide In A Rodent Model Of Chronic Psychological Stress, Liza Wills

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, with a lifetime prevalence rate of approximately 20%. Inadequate pharmacological treatment methods for MDD are a significant debilitating factor. Patient estimates suggest that the treatment resistance rate for pharmacological interventions is over 30%. Postmortem analyses of human tissue of individuals diagnosed with MDD have shown an increase in Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) mRNA gene expression in prefrontal cortical white matter when compared to psychiatrically normal brain tissue. In order to further investigate this issue, the present study used the social defeat stress/chronic unpredictable stress (SDS + CUS) rodent …


Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Neural Correlates Underlying Different Cognitive Control Strategies And Their Relationship With The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Carroll Bentley

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Impulsivity is defined as a rapid unplanned action to a stimulus, where the person does not consider the consequences of their actions (Moeller et al., 2001). Various measurement techniques exist in the study of impulsivity and include self-report, behavioral and physiological measures. This breadth of measurement techniques affords researchers the opportunity to understand what is likely a multifaceted nature of this construct. Previous literature shows mixed results between the relationship of the three measures. The present study seeks to add clarity between the three different modalities of measuring impulsivity. To address this relationship, an undergraduate sample (n = 171) completed …


Barriers To Care, Depressive Symptoms, And Moderating Factors Among Patients With Esrd, Amarachukwu O. Nwangwu 2022 University of Richmond

Barriers To Care, Depressive Symptoms, And Moderating Factors Among Patients With Esrd, Amarachukwu O. Nwangwu

Honors Theses

End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is the fifth and final stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and has been reported to have the highest prevalence rate in the United States, with about 2,242 cases per million in the total population in 2017 (Johansen et al., 2021). Current studies document a high prevalence of depression among patients with ESRD which may lead to increased mortality (Shirazian et al., 2017). Additionally, barriers in access to care, which may be understood as the barriers that prevent individuals from seeking mental health services, has been linked to increased levels of undertreatment (Clement et al., 2012). …


What Does “Avoidance Mode” Feel Like? The Association Between Avoidance Awareness And Negative Affect In The Moment, Mamie Ziegler 2022 University of Richmond

What Does “Avoidance Mode” Feel Like? The Association Between Avoidance Awareness And Negative Affect In The Moment, Mamie Ziegler

Honors Theses

For students in an academic setting, task avoidance is a common behavioral strategy used to cope with the unpleasant emotions associated with schoolwork and completing assignments. However, when this form of behavioral avoidance becomes a pattern, it has the potential to lead to negative long-term consequences–such as worse academic outcomes and increased stress. To counteract maladaptive behaviors such as task avoidance, a certain level of self-awareness of such behaviors may be necessary–even if this awareness leads to more negative emotions at first. To analyze the relationship between student task avoidance and emotions, the following study utilizes ecological momentary assessment (EMA) …


Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression In C57bl/6j Mice: The Role Of Prefrontal Cortex Cholinergic Transmission In The Wakefulness Stimulus For Breathing, Wilton Sun 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression In C57bl/6j Mice: The Role Of Prefrontal Cortex Cholinergic Transmission In The Wakefulness Stimulus For Breathing, Wilton Sun

Select or Award-Winning Individual Scholarship

Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is the primary cause of death from opioid overdose. Opioids depress breathing by diminishing the wakefulness stimulus for breathing in humans and mice. Cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) promotes cortical EEG activation, increases wakefulness, and stimulates breathing. However, no previous studies have tested whether increasing cholinergic transmission in the PFC can mitigate respiratory depression caused by systemically administered fentanyl in mice. The series of studies comprising this honors thesis is split into two phases. The first phase included a concentration response study evaluating the effects of fentanyl on breathing in C57BL/6J mice breathing room …


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