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The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B. Bird 2016 Sapporo Medical University

The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B. Bird

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride ...


Exposure Of Human Lung Cells To Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits The Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway, Nathaniel C. Holcomb, Mamta Goswami, Sung Gu Han, Samuel Clark, David K. Orren, C. Gary Gairola, Isabel Mellon 2016 University of Kentucky

Exposure Of Human Lung Cells To Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits The Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway, Nathaniel C. Holcomb, Mamta Goswami, Sung Gu Han, Samuel Clark, David K. Orren, C. Gary Gairola, Isabel Mellon

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), a surrogate for tobacco smoke ...


Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Meta-analysis of 101 studies published between 1934 and 1996 indicates that mean sperm concentration decreased around 50% during this period. More recent studies have found alarmingly poor semen quality in the general population of Northern Europe. Additional adverse trends include increased incidence of testicular cancer, and congenital malformations such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Testicular germ cell cancers increased by about 400% over the period of 50 years in industrialized countries. Decreased quality of male reproductive health has been linked to environmental endocrine disruptors exposure. However, the ability of xenobiotics to produce long-lasting effects and mechanisms of perturbation of the male ...


Predisposed Health Conditions Of Children Exposed To Methamphetamine In Utero, Seth Peters 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Predisposed Health Conditions Of Children Exposed To Methamphetamine In Utero, Seth Peters

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Methamphetamine (MA) use and abuse is a growing problem worldwide [United Nations World Drug Report]. It is common knowledge that MA use affects not only the user, but also friends, family, and the communities close to them [NIDA]. One area of impact that is lacking sufficient study is the effects of MA use by expectant mothers on her child later in life. That is to say, a child who was exposed to MA in utero may be more likely than an unexposed fetus to have predispositions to a variety of health conditions. After an extensive PubMed database search, it is ...


Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, is a known metabolic master-switch. In conditions of starvation, mTOR suppresses biosynthetic programs and increases the recycling of proteins and organelles. Upon stimulation by nutrients and growth factors, however, mTOR causes activation of biosynthesis and suppression of autophagy. The mTOR-centered molecular pathway is a major pathway of growth regulation and metabolism, linked to aging and the development of cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, the role of environmental factors in the modulation of the mTOR pathway remains largely unknown. The present study suggests that ...


Role Of Phosphodiesterase-4 In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., Diana Veronica Avila 2016 University of Louisville

Role Of Phosphodiesterase-4 In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., Diana Veronica Avila

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains a leading cause of death from liver disease in the U.S., and there is still no FDA-approved therapy. Alcohol metabolism leads to generation of free radicals and oxidative stress with a resultant formation of lipid peroxidation products, which, in turn, contribute to the development of ALD. Alcohol induced hepatic steatosis is the earliest and most frequent manifestation of ALD and a significant risk factor for progressive liver disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling has been shown to significantly regulate lipid metabolism. Moreover, agents that increase cAMP have been shown to effectively mitigate oxidative stress ...


Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 2016 University of Louisville

Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Chronic alcohol consumption causes a pro-oxidant environment in the liver and increases hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acrolein is the most reactive and toxic aldehyde generated through lipid peroxidation. Acrolein forms protein adducts and triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, which are recognized etiologic factors in ALD. Several studies have established the critical role of the gut-liver axis in ALD pathogenesis, wherein alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction contributes to liver injury. This study investigates, in vitro and in vivo, the ...


Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Amyloid Beta (Aβ) was the major focus of this study. It is a peptide that is present in the brain with a high tendency to self-aggregate. When this protein aggregates, it forms oligomers and protofibrils which in turn are deposited as senile plaques in the brain. The reason for the concern with these plaques is their association with the neurological disorder Alzheimer’s disease. It has been found that the most dangerous oligomers are formed in a portion of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to understand how micelles affect the aggregation properties ...


The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, PhD

Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable, if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. Billions of dollars and manhours have been dedicated to animal-based discovery and characterisation methods over decades. We show here, via a comprehensive systematic review and analysis of this data, that these methods constitute questionable science and pose a hazard to humans. Mean positive and negative predictivities barely exceed 50%; discordance among the species used is substantial; reliable extrapolation from animal data to humans is impossible, and virtually all known human teratogens have so far been identified in spite ...


Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 10 (Usp10) Deubiquitinates And Stabilizes Muts Homolog 2 (Msh2) To Regulate Cellular Sensitivity To Dna Damage, Mu Zhang, Chen Hu, Dan Tong, Shengyan Xiang, Kendra Williams, Wenlong Bai, Guo-Min Li, Gerold Bepler, Xiaohong Zhang 2016 Morsani College of Medicine

Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 10 (Usp10) Deubiquitinates And Stabilizes Muts Homolog 2 (Msh2) To Regulate Cellular Sensitivity To Dna Damage, Mu Zhang, Chen Hu, Dan Tong, Shengyan Xiang, Kendra Williams, Wenlong Bai, Guo-Min Li, Gerold Bepler, Xiaohong Zhang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

MSH2 is a key DNA mismatch repair protein, which plays an important role in genomic stability. In addition to its DNA repair function, MSH2 serves as a sensor for DNA base analogs-provoked DNA replication errors and binds to various DNA damage-induced adducts to trigger cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Loss or depletion of MSH2 from cells renders resistance to certain DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, the level of MSH2 determines DNA damage response. Previous studies showed that the level of MSH2 protein is modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. However, the deubiquitinating ...


Structure-Activity Relationships Governing The Interaction Of Nanoparticles With Mammalian Cells- Predictive Models For Toxicology And Medical Appliances, Marcus A. Maher 2016 Technological University Dublin

Structure-Activity Relationships Governing The Interaction Of Nanoparticles With Mammalian Cells- Predictive Models For Toxicology And Medical Appliances, Marcus A. Maher

Doctoral

Nanoscience is seen as one of the key enabling technologies of the 20th century and as its range of applications increases it is important to look at how nanomaterials interact with biological environments. Some of these interactions have given rise to toxic effects and thus, the creation of the field of nanotoxicology, it has also been noted that current methods of evaluating toxicity may not be sufficient to keep up with the rapidly emerging range of nanomaterials becoming available. It is clear that alternatives are necessary. In this thesis, a phenomenological rate equation model is constructed to simulate nanoparticle uptake ...


Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Studies In Ex Vivo Tissue Slices, Teresa W-M Fan, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi 2016 University of Kentucky

Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Studies In Ex Vivo Tissue Slices, Teresa W-M Fan, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

An important component of this methodology is to assess the role of the tumor microenvironment on tumor growth and survival. To tackle this problem, we have adapted the original approach of Warburg (Warburg, 1923), by combining thin tissue slices with Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) to determine detailed metabolic activity of human tissues. SIRM enables the tracing of metabolic transformations of source molecules such as glucose or glutamine over defined time periods, and is a requirement for detailed pathway tracing and flux analysis. In our approach, we maintain freshly resected tissue slices (both cancerous and non- cancerous from the same ...


H2ax Deficiency Is Associated With Erythroid Dysplasia And Compromised Haematopoietic Stem Cell Function, Baobing Zhao, Timothy L. Tan, Yang Mei, Jing Yang, Yiting Yu, Amit Verma, Ying Liang, Juehua Gao, Peng Ji 2016 Northwestern University

H2ax Deficiency Is Associated With Erythroid Dysplasia And Compromised Haematopoietic Stem Cell Function, Baobing Zhao, Timothy L. Tan, Yang Mei, Jing Yang, Yiting Yu, Amit Verma, Ying Liang, Juehua Gao, Peng Ji

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders of haematopoiesis characterised by dysplastic changes of major myeloid cell lines. However, the mechanisms underlying these dysplastic changes are poorly understood. Here, we used a genetically modified mouse model and human patient data to examine the physiological roles of H2AX in haematopoiesis and how the loss of H2AX contributes to dyserythropoiesis in MDS. H2AX knockout mice showed cell-autonomous anaemia and erythroid dysplasia, mimicking dyserythropoiesis in MDS. Also, dyserythropoiesis was increased in MDS patients with the deletion of chromosome 11q23, where H2AX is located. Although loss of H2AX did not affect the early stage of ...


Metabolomics Workbench: An International Repository For Metabolomics Data And Metadata, Metabolite Standards, Protocols, Tutorials And Training, And Analysis Tools, Manish Sud, Eoin Fahy, Dawn Cotter, Kenan Azam, Ilango Vadivelu, Charles Burant, Arthur Edison, Oliver Fiehn, Richard M. Higashi, K. Sreekumaran Nair, Susan Sumner, Shankar Subramaniam 2016 University of California - San Diego

Metabolomics Workbench: An International Repository For Metabolomics Data And Metadata, Metabolite Standards, Protocols, Tutorials And Training, And Analysis Tools, Manish Sud, Eoin Fahy, Dawn Cotter, Kenan Azam, Ilango Vadivelu, Charles Burant, Arthur Edison, Oliver Fiehn, Richard M. Higashi, K. Sreekumaran Nair, Susan Sumner, Shankar Subramaniam

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

The Metabolomics Workbench, available at www.metabolomicsworkbench.org, is a public repository for metabolomics metadata and experimental data spanning various species and experimental platforms, metabolite standards, metabolite structures, protocols, tutorials, and training material and other educational resources. It provides a computational platform to integrate, analyze, track, deposit and disseminate large volumes of heterogeneous data from a wide variety of metabolomics studies including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) data spanning over 20 different species covering all the major taxonomic categories including humans and other mammals, plants, insects, invertebrates and microorganisms. Additionally, a number of protocols are provided ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Role Of Sulfiredoxin Interacting Proteins In Lung Cancer Development, Hedy Chawsheen 2016 University of Kentucky

Role Of Sulfiredoxin Interacting Proteins In Lung Cancer Development, Hedy Chawsheen

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is an antioxidant enzyme that can be induced by oxidative stress. It promotes oncogenic phenotypes of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and metastasis in lung, skin and colon cancers. Srx reduces the overoxidation of 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins in cells, in addition to its role of removing glutathione modification from several proteins. In this study, I explored additional physiological functions of Srx in lung cancer through studying its interacting proteins. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members, thioredoxin domain containing protein 5 (TXNDC5) and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (PDIA6), were detected to interact with Srx. Therefore, I proposed ...


The Nobel Prize In Chemistry 2015: Exciting Discoveries In Dna Repair By Aziz Sancar, David K. Orren 2016 University of Kentucky

The Nobel Prize In Chemistry 2015: Exciting Discoveries In Dna Repair By Aziz Sancar, David K. Orren

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

On October 7, 2015, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 was awarded to three deserving scientists for their pioneering research on DNA repair. Tomas Lindahl was recognized for studies that uncovered the inherent instability of DNA as well as the mechanism of the base excision repair pathway, Paul Modrich for characterization of the mismatch repair pathway, and Aziz Sancar for mechanistic elucidation of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. For me, the announcement of these awards in my area of research was extremely gratifying, particularly so because Aziz was my mentor during my Ph.D. studies that examined the ...


Methylseleninic Acid Promotes Antitumour Effects Via Nuclear Foxo3a Translocation Through Akt Inhibition, Míriam Tarrado-Castellarnau, Roldán Cortés, Miriam Zanuy, Josep Tarragó-Celada, Ibrahim H. Polat, Richard Hill, Teresa W-M Fan, Wolfgang Link, Marta Cascante 2015 Universitat de Barcelona, Spain

Methylseleninic Acid Promotes Antitumour Effects Via Nuclear Foxo3a Translocation Through Akt Inhibition, Míriam Tarrado-Castellarnau, Roldán Cortés, Miriam Zanuy, Josep Tarragó-Celada, Ibrahim H. Polat, Richard Hill, Teresa W-M Fan, Wolfgang Link, Marta Cascante

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Selenium supplement has been shown in clinical trials to reduce the risk of different cancers including lung carcinoma. Previous studies reported that the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of methylseleninic acid (MSA) in cancer cells could be mediated by inhibition of the PI3K pathway. A better understanding of the downstream cellular targets of MSA will provide information on its mechanism of action and will help to optimize its use in combination therapies with PI3K inhibitors. For this study, the effects of MSA on viability, cell cycle, metabolism, apoptosis, protein and mRNA expression, and reactive oxygen species production were analysed in A549 ...


13C Tracer Studies Of Metabolism In Mouse Tumor Xenografts, Andrew N. Lane, Jun Yan, Teresa W-M Fan 2015 University of Kentucky

13C Tracer Studies Of Metabolism In Mouse Tumor Xenografts, Andrew N. Lane, Jun Yan, Teresa W-M Fan

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Mice are widely used for human tumor xenograft studies of cancer development and drug efficacy and toxicity. Stable isotope tracing coupled with metabolomic analysis is an emerging approach for assaying metabolic network activity. In mouse models there are several routes of tracer introduction, which have particular advantages and disadvantages that depend on the model and the questions addressed. This protocol describes the bolus i.v. route via repeated tail vein injections of solutions of stable isotope enriched tracers including 13C6-glucose and 13C5,15N2-glutamine. Repeated injections give higher enrichments and over longer labeling ...


Ngo's Bpa Report Intended To Frighten, Not Enlighten., Robert L. Brent Dr. 2015 duPont Hosp for Children

Ngo's Bpa Report Intended To Frighten, Not Enlighten., Robert L. Brent Dr.

The Selected Works of Robert Brent

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