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Full-Text Articles in Medical Toxicology

A Case Of Cocaine Toxicity From Body Stuffing, Justin Smith, James Lee, Alan Lucerna, James Espinosa May 2021

A Case Of Cocaine Toxicity From Body Stuffing, Justin Smith, James Lee, Alan Lucerna, James Espinosa

Stratford Campus Research Day

Body stuffing refers to the ingestion of an illegal substance in an effort to conceal it and avoid prosecution. This is distinct from, and more common than, the practice of body packing in which large amounts of an illegal substance are carefully packaged and ingested to be transported discreetly by smugglers [1]. While body packers tend to ingest much larger quantities of a drug, they are less prone to developing symptoms of drug toxicity due to the meticulous packaging methods used when compared with those who ingest packets of drugs in haste to avoid prosecution [2]. Many substances have been ...


Magnitude Based Inference, Sharlo Bayless, Trevor J. Bihl Apr 2021

Magnitude Based Inference, Sharlo Bayless, Trevor J. Bihl

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Though its use is widespread in research, null hypothesis significance testing is not without flaws. Out of a desire to provide a more practical approach to solving statistical problems in certain fields, Magnitude Based Inference (MBI) was created. MBI is a statistical method that was developed by Will G Hopkins and Alan M Batterham, two researchers in Sports and Exercise Science, in 2009.The main issues that they wanted to address with null hypothesis significance testing (NHST),were: 1) the need for a large sample size,2) the confusing language, and 3) the arbitrary selection of a p value of ...


Triamcinolone With Vitamin D Synergistic Efficacy In Psoriasis, Steven Repas, Jeffrey B. Travers Apr 2021

Triamcinolone With Vitamin D Synergistic Efficacy In Psoriasis, Steven Repas, Jeffrey B. Travers

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Psoriasis is one of the most common skin conditions in the United States affecting more than 8 million people. High amounts of vitamin D has been shown to be effective in treatment of psoriasis. It also has a well-documented safety profile at the doses and duration that will be used during this study. Triamcinolone and other topical corticosteroids are considered a first line treatment for mild to moderate psoriasis with a well-documented safety profile. Individually both of these medications have shown effectiveness in the management and treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis. This study is designed to test whether a ...


Uvb-Induced Microvesicle Particle Release In Human Skin In Vivo Is Diminished Following Oral Vitamin C And E Antioxidant Administration, Benjamin Schmeusser, Cameron Mcglone, Jeffrey B. Travers Apr 2021

Uvb-Induced Microvesicle Particle Release In Human Skin In Vivo Is Diminished Following Oral Vitamin C And E Antioxidant Administration, Benjamin Schmeusser, Cameron Mcglone, Jeffrey B. Travers

Medical Student Research Symposium Abstracts and Posters

An important question in photobiology asks how Ultraviolet B (UVB, 290 – 320 nm) radiation, which mostly absorbs in the outer epidermis of skin, can generate a systemic response such as immunosuppression. Previous in vitro and ex vivo studies demonstrate UVB-dependent release of bioactive molecule-containing microvesicle particles (MVPs) from keratinocytes. Furthermore, MVP release is diminished upon antioxidant administration. The purpose of this study is to examine UVB-induced MVP release and antioxidant response in vivo. In this IRB-approved study, 8 male participants with Fitzpatrick type I or II skin were treated with 1000 J/m2 UVB irradiation to a 5 by 5 ...


Alcohol Consumption And Cognitive Aging: Can It Be Beneficial?, Margarita Velikova, Bistra Galunska, Raya Dimitrova, Zlatislav Stoyanov Apr 2021

Alcohol Consumption And Cognitive Aging: Can It Be Beneficial?, Margarita Velikova, Bistra Galunska, Raya Dimitrova, Zlatislav Stoyanov

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

We present a literature review which summarizes the data supporting one of the alternative perspectives on the effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive aging – the possible positive effect of low to moderate drinking. Some of the main theories about aging, the mechanisms of brain aging, and the pathogenesis of cognitive decline and dementia are briefly described. In this context, the putative mechanisms of the protective action of non-alcoholic components in alcoholic beverages or low doses of ethanol against oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, brain insulin resistance, and production of amyloid-β peptides are presented. The review article does not favor the ...


Role Of Ampk And Akt In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Lung Colonization, Jeremy Johnson, Zeta Chow, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Piotr G. Rychahou Apr 2021

Role Of Ampk And Akt In Triple Negative Breast Cancer Lung Colonization, Jeremy Johnson, Zeta Chow, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Piotr G. Rychahou

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with a 5-y relative survival rate of 11% after distant metastasis. To survive the metastatic cascade, tumor cells remodel their signaling pathways by regulating energy production and upregulating survival pathways. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt regulate energy homeostasis and survival, however, the individual or synergistic role of AMPK and Akt isoforms during lung colonization by TNBC cells is unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish whether targeting Akt, AMPKα or both Akt and AMPKα isoforms in circulating cancer cells can suppress TNBC lung colonization. Transient silencing of Akt1 ...


Duloxetine Poisoning: A Unique Case Of Cardiotoxicity, Derek J. Fikse Do, Alexandra Amaducci Do, Margaret A. Vido Do, Robert D. Cannon Do, Kenneth D. Katz Md Apr 2021

Duloxetine Poisoning: A Unique Case Of Cardiotoxicity, Derek J. Fikse Do, Alexandra Amaducci Do, Margaret A. Vido Do, Robert D. Cannon Do, Kenneth D. Katz Md

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


Antifreeze Ingestion Causing Methemoglobinemia: A Case Report, Alexandra Amaducci Do, Derek J. Fikse Do, Kenneth D. Katz Md, Timothy Kolosionek Ms-Iv Apr 2021

Antifreeze Ingestion Causing Methemoglobinemia: A Case Report, Alexandra Amaducci Do, Derek J. Fikse Do, Kenneth D. Katz Md, Timothy Kolosionek Ms-Iv

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


Methamphetamine Associated Cardiomyopathy In Pregnancy: The Distinctions And The Implications, Ashan Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi Feb 2021

Methamphetamine Associated Cardiomyopathy In Pregnancy: The Distinctions And The Implications, Ashan Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction

Methamphetamine associated cardiomyopathy (MAC) and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are both rare obstetric conditions. Literature regarding methamphetamine associated cardiomyopathy in the obstetric population is limited, and it can be difficult to make the distinction between the two given the similarities in clinical presentation. However similar, there are significant distinctions in the pathophysiology of these two that can help clinicians with the management process.

Clinical Findings and Outcomes

This case involves a 35-year-old Hispanic G6P5005 at 37 weeks gestation presenting with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute decompensated heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and superimposed preeclampsia leading to urgent cesarean ...


Correspondence Between Perceived Pubertal Development And Hormone Levels In 9-10 Year-Olds From The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study., Megan M Herting, Kristina A Uban, Marybel Robledo Gonzalez, Fiona C Baker, Eric C Kan, Wesley K Thompson, Douglas A Granger, Matthew D Albaugh, Andrey P Anokhin, Kara S Bagot, Marie T Banich, Deanna M Barch, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Florence J Breslin, B J Casey, Bader Chaarani, Linda Chang, Duncan B Clark, Christine C Cloak, R Todd Constable, Linda B Cottler, Rada K Dagher, Mirella Dapretto, Anthony S Dick, Nico Dosenbach, Gayathri J Dowling, Julie A Dumas, Sarah Edwards, Thomas Ernst, Damien A Fair, Sarah W Feldstein-Ewing, Edward G Freedman, Bernard F Fuemmeler, Hugh Garavan, Dylan G Gee, Jay N Giedd, Paul E A Glaser, Aimee Goldstone, Kevin M Gray, Samuel W Hawes, Andrew C Heath, Mary M Heitzeg, John K Hewitt, Charles J Heyser, Elizabeth A Hoffman, Rebekah S Huber, Marilyn A. Huestis, Luke W Hyde, M Alejandra Infante, Masha Y Ivanova, Joanna Jacobus, Terry L Jernigan, Nicole R Karcher, Angela R Laird, Kimberly H Leblanc, Krista Lisdahl, Monica Luciana, Beatriz Luna, Hermine H Maes, Andrew T Marshall, Michael J Mason, Erin C Mcglade, Amanda S Morris, Bonnie J Nagel, Gretchen N Neigh, Clare E Palmer, Martin P Paulus, Alexandra S Potter, Leon I Puttler, Nishadi Rajapakse, Kristina Rapuano, Gloria Reeves, Perry F Renshaw, Claudiu Schirda, Kenneth J Sher, Chandni Sheth, Paul D Shilling, Lindsay M Squeglia, Matthew T Sutherland, Susan F Tapert, Rachel L Tomko, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Natasha E Wade, Susan R B Weiss, Robert A Zucker, Elizabeth R Sowell Feb 2021

Correspondence Between Perceived Pubertal Development And Hormone Levels In 9-10 Year-Olds From The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study., Megan M Herting, Kristina A Uban, Marybel Robledo Gonzalez, Fiona C Baker, Eric C Kan, Wesley K Thompson, Douglas A Granger, Matthew D Albaugh, Andrey P Anokhin, Kara S Bagot, Marie T Banich, Deanna M Barch, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Florence J Breslin, B J Casey, Bader Chaarani, Linda Chang, Duncan B Clark, Christine C Cloak, R Todd Constable, Linda B Cottler, Rada K Dagher, Mirella Dapretto, Anthony S Dick, Nico Dosenbach, Gayathri J Dowling, Julie A Dumas, Sarah Edwards, Thomas Ernst, Damien A Fair, Sarah W Feldstein-Ewing, Edward G Freedman, Bernard F Fuemmeler, Hugh Garavan, Dylan G Gee, Jay N Giedd, Paul E A Glaser, Aimee Goldstone, Kevin M Gray, Samuel W Hawes, Andrew C Heath, Mary M Heitzeg, John K Hewitt, Charles J Heyser, Elizabeth A Hoffman, Rebekah S Huber, Marilyn A. Huestis, Luke W Hyde, M Alejandra Infante, Masha Y Ivanova, Joanna Jacobus, Terry L Jernigan, Nicole R Karcher, Angela R Laird, Kimberly H Leblanc, Krista Lisdahl, Monica Luciana, Beatriz Luna, Hermine H Maes, Andrew T Marshall, Michael J Mason, Erin C Mcglade, Amanda S Morris, Bonnie J Nagel, Gretchen N Neigh, Clare E Palmer, Martin P Paulus, Alexandra S Potter, Leon I Puttler, Nishadi Rajapakse, Kristina Rapuano, Gloria Reeves, Perry F Renshaw, Claudiu Schirda, Kenneth J Sher, Chandni Sheth, Paul D Shilling, Lindsay M Squeglia, Matthew T Sutherland, Susan F Tapert, Rachel L Tomko, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd, Natasha E Wade, Susan R B Weiss, Robert A Zucker, Elizabeth R Sowell

Institute of Emerging Health Professions Faculty Papers

Aim: To examine individual variability between perceived physical features and hormones of pubertal maturation in 9-10-year-old children as a function of sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods: Cross-sectional metrics of puberty were utilized from the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study—a multi-site sample of 9–10 year-olds (n = 11,875)—and included perceived physical features via the pubertal development scale (PDS) and child salivary hormone levels (dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone in all, and estradiol in females). Multi-level models examined the relationships among sociodemographic measures, physical features, and hormone levels. A group factor analysis (GFA) was implemented to extract latent ...


Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori Jan 2021

Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori

Capstone Showcase

Opioid Use Disorder is patterns of opioid use leading to withdrawal, giving up important life events in order to use opioids, and excessive time spent using opioids, to name a few diagnostic criteria. The clinical progression of the disorder involves periods of acute exacerbation and remission that are cyclic in nature. Treatment is most effective when it includes both pharmacological and psychosocial modalities, referred to as medication assisted therapy (MAT). Three drugs used commonly in MAT-based treatment for OUD from oldest to newest include Methadone, Buprenorphine-naloxone, and Naltrexone. Treatment program models that prioritize total abstinence from the addictive substance attached ...


Sod2 Deficiency In Cardiomyocytes Defines Defective Mitochondrial Bioenergetics As A Cause Of Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Sudha Sharma, Susmita Bhattarai, Hosne Ara, Grace Sun, Daret K. St. Clair, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Christopher Kevil, Megan N. Watts, Paari Dominic, Takahiko Shimizu, Kevin J. Mccarthy, Hong Sun, Manikandan Panchatcharam, Sumitra Miriyala Oct 2020

Sod2 Deficiency In Cardiomyocytes Defines Defective Mitochondrial Bioenergetics As A Cause Of Lethal Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Sudha Sharma, Susmita Bhattarai, Hosne Ara, Grace Sun, Daret K. St. Clair, Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan, Christopher Kevil, Megan N. Watts, Paari Dominic, Takahiko Shimizu, Kevin J. Mccarthy, Hong Sun, Manikandan Panchatcharam, Sumitra Miriyala

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Electrophilic aldehyde (4-hydroxynonenal; 4-HNE), formed after lipid peroxidation, is a mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction and implicated in both the pathogenesis and the progression of cardiovascular disease. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme, catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2•-) in mitochondria. To study the role of MnSOD in the myocardium, we generated a cardiomyocyte-specific SOD2 (SOD2Δ) deficient mouse strain. Unlike global SOD2 knockout mice, SOD2Δ mice reached adolescence; however, they die at ~4 months of age due to heart failure. Ultrastructural analysis of SOD2Δ hearts revealed altered mitochondrial architecture, with prominent disruption of the cristae and vacuole formation ...


Sex Differences In Substance Use And Misuse: A Toxicology Investigators' Consortium (Toxic) Registry Analysis, Gillian A. Beauchamp, Jennifer L. Carey, Mikayla B. Hurwitz, Briana N. Tully, Matthew D. Cook, Robert D. Cannon, Kenneth D. Katz, Andrew L. Koons, Hope Kincaid, Marna Rayl. Greenberg Sep 2020

Sex Differences In Substance Use And Misuse: A Toxicology Investigators' Consortium (Toxic) Registry Analysis, Gillian A. Beauchamp, Jennifer L. Carey, Mikayla B. Hurwitz, Briana N. Tully, Matthew D. Cook, Robert D. Cannon, Kenneth D. Katz, Andrew L. Koons, Hope Kincaid, Marna Rayl. Greenberg

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background: Variations between male and female populations are previously reported in classes of harmfully used/misused drugs, severity of substance use disorder and risk of relapse. The aim of this study was to provide a review of bedside medical toxicologist managed, sex-specific poisonings in adults that present with harmful drug use/misuse.

Methods: ToxIC Registry cases > /=19 and < /=65 years old, with harmful drug use or misuse during the timeframe June 2010-December 2016, were studied. Demographics, primary agents of toxic exposure, administration route and complications were analyzed. Descriptive methods were used in the analysis.

Results: The database included 51,440 cases. Of these, 3426 cases were analyzed in which the primary reason for the encounter was harmful substance use/misuse. Females were found to harmfully use/misuse pharmaceutical drugs (N=806, 65.6%) more than nonpharmaceutical ...


Upregulation Of Cpt1a Is Essential For The Tumor-Promoting Effect Of Adipocytes In Colon Cancer, Xiaopeng Xiong, Yang-An Wen, Rachelle Fairchild, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Tianyan Gao Sep 2020

Upregulation Of Cpt1a Is Essential For The Tumor-Promoting Effect Of Adipocytes In Colon Cancer, Xiaopeng Xiong, Yang-An Wen, Rachelle Fairchild, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Heidi L. Weiss, B. Mark Evers, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Colon tumors grow in an adipose tissue-enriched microenvironment. Locally advanced colon cancers often invade into surrounding adipose tissue with a direct contact with adipocytes. We have previously shown that adipocytes promote tumor growth by modulating cellular metabolism. Here we demonstrate that carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1A), a key enzyme controlling fatty acid oxidation (FAO), was upregulated in colon cancer cells upon exposure to adipocytes or fatty acids. In addition, CPT1A expression was increased in invasive tumor cells within the adipose tissue compared to tumors without direct contact with adipocytes. Silencing CPT1A abolished the protective effect provided by fatty acids against nutrient ...


Low Dose Clenbuterol Toxicity: Case Report And Review Of Literature, Kenneth Lan, Adarsh Saheba, Paul Mathew Aug 2020

Low Dose Clenbuterol Toxicity: Case Report And Review Of Literature, Kenneth Lan, Adarsh Saheba, Paul Mathew

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Clenbuterol is a long-acting β-agonist used in oral and inhaled form for asthma treatment outside the U.S. and in veterinary medicine within the U.S. It is also used off-label for anabolic effects worldwide. Toxicity with clenbuterol is increasingly seen in U.S. hospitals, primarily in younger individuals using the drug for competitive athletics or bodybuilding. We present a case of a young patient who presented after an intentional overdose and discuss the relevant literature. Presentations do not correlate with the dosage ingested. Signs and symptoms can range from simple nausea to myocardial ischemia, rhabdomyolysis and cardiogenic shock. Treatment ...


Igf-1r Inhibition Induces Mek Phosphorylation To Promote Survival In Colon Carcinomas, Qing Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Honggang Zheng, Shuntai Chen, Li Chen, Hsin-Sheng Yang Aug 2020

Igf-1r Inhibition Induces Mek Phosphorylation To Promote Survival In Colon Carcinomas, Qing Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Honggang Zheng, Shuntai Chen, Li Chen, Hsin-Sheng Yang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) governs several signaling pathways for cell proliferation, survival, and anti-apoptosis. Thus, targeting IGF-1R appears as a reasonable rationale for tumor treatment. However, clinical studies showed that inhibition of IGF-1R has very limited efficacy due to the development of resistance to IGF-1R blockade in tumor cells. Here, we discovered that prolonged treatment of colon cancer cells with IGF-1R inhibitors (BMS-754807 and GSK1838705A) stimulates p70 KDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) activation, a well-known kinase signaling for cell survival. We also found that p70S6K1 activation by IGF-1R inhibition is independent of K-Ras and PIK3CA ...


Opioid Dependency And Its Effects On Alcohol Consumption, Emily V. Flores Aug 2020

Opioid Dependency And Its Effects On Alcohol Consumption, Emily V. Flores

Psychology and Counseling Theses

Previous research has found dualistic effects on alcohol consumption with low doses of buprenorphine increasing alcohol and higher doses of buprenorphine reducing alcohol consumption in rats (Ciccocioppo et al., 2006). Other existing research on naloxone treatment and alcohol consumption in opioid use has demonstrated that alcohol consumption decreases after naloxone treatment in rats (Hyytia & Sinclair, 1993). Yet, no research has been conducted on either rats or humans on the effects of buprenorphine and naloxone medication combined. The effects of opioid maintenance therapy are controversial and the relationship between alcohol consumption and opioid dependency treatment is mainly based on literature review ...


Hdac6 Mediates Macrophage Inos Expression And Excessive Nitric Oxide Production In The Blood During Endotoxemia, Yan Wang, Ke Wang, Jian Fu Aug 2020

Hdac6 Mediates Macrophage Inos Expression And Excessive Nitric Oxide Production In The Blood During Endotoxemia, Yan Wang, Ke Wang, Jian Fu

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production and NO-mediated nitrative stress contribute to vascular dysfunction, inflammation, and tissue injury in septic shock. New therapeutic targets are urgently needed to provide better control of NO level during septic shock. In the present study, we investigated the role of HDAC6 in the regulation of NO production and nitrative stress in a mouse model of endotoxin-induced septic shock. HDAC6 deficient mice and a specific HDAC6 inhibitor were utilized in our studies. Our data clearly indicate that HDAC6 is an important mediator of NO production in macrophages. HDAC6 mediates NO production through the regulation of iNOS ...


Mobilizing Toxins For Cancer Treatment: Historical Perspectives And Current Strategies., Jessica Kopenhaver, Robert D Carlson, Adam E Snook Jun 2020

Mobilizing Toxins For Cancer Treatment: Historical Perspectives And Current Strategies., Jessica Kopenhaver, Robert D Carlson, Adam E Snook

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

The level of complexity in a disease like cancer presents a number of challenges for effective treatment development, which require significant innovation to overcome [...].


Resolving Metabolic Heterogeneity In Experimental Models Of The Tumor Microenvironment From A Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Perspective, Teresa W-M Fan, Richard M. Higashi, Yelena Chernayavskaya, Andrew N. Lane Jun 2020

Resolving Metabolic Heterogeneity In Experimental Models Of The Tumor Microenvironment From A Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Perspective, Teresa W-M Fan, Richard M. Higashi, Yelena Chernayavskaya, Andrew N. Lane

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises complex interactions of multiple cell types that determines cell behavior and metabolism such as nutrient competition and immune suppression. We discuss the various types of heterogeneity that exist in solid tumors, and the complications this invokes for studies of TME. As human subjects and in vivo model systems are complex and difficult to manipulate, simpler 3D model systems that are compatible with flexible experimental control are necessary for studying metabolic regulation in TME. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) is a valuable tool for tracing metabolic networks in complex systems, but at present does not directly ...


Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade Jun 2020

Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The dog is an important species used in preclinical studies in support of human drug product development. Likewise, because of the many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with therapeutic relevance to both humans and dogs, extrapolation can also occur in the reverse, from human to dog. In either situation, it is important to appreciate species-specific factors influencing drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, disposition, and elimination) and the potential impact of disease on the applicability of these extrapolations. Furthermore, tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models not only enable investigators to extrapolate species-specific data on systemic or organ exposure to the parent ...


Analysis Of The Soil Lead Contamination Issue Of South Chattanooga, Tesros Cherian May 2020

Analysis Of The Soil Lead Contamination Issue Of South Chattanooga, Tesros Cherian

Honors Theses

Childhood lead poisoning is an ongoing health threat despite actions taken by governmental bodies to remove lead from gasoline, paint, and other various household objects in which lead is found. In South Chattanooga specifically, lead has been found in the soil at such a level it is considered a public health threat, especially to children under the age of six. This situation has caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to name the South Chattanooga area as a Superfund site known as the Southside Chattanooga Lead Superfund site. This designation has resulted in multiple community meetings between EPA officials and Chattanooga ...


Effects Of Alternative Chemotherapeutic Agents On Thyroid Cancer Cell Line Ml-1, Husref Rizvanovic May 2020

Effects Of Alternative Chemotherapeutic Agents On Thyroid Cancer Cell Line Ml-1, Husref Rizvanovic

MSU Graduate Theses

Though differentiated thyroid carcinomas have decent prognosis when detected early, radioactive iodine (RAI) resistant and advanced thyroid cancers are still difficult to treat with existing therapies. Better therapeutic agents are needed. Studies have shown that aggressive thyroid cancers (ML-1) express the extracellular matrix protein, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2). MMP-2 has been linked to metastasis and aggressiveness of several cancers and has been shown to play a crucial role in tumor invasion. Chlorotoxin is a selective MMP-2 receptor agonist, and Saporin is a well-known ribosome-inactivating protein used for anti-cancer treatment; however, these two agents have never been studied when conjugated together. I ...


Protection Against Ionizing Radiation And Chemotherapy Toxicity Via Latexin Regulation, Gary Van Zant, Ying Liang, Yi Liu Mar 2020

Protection Against Ionizing Radiation And Chemotherapy Toxicity Via Latexin Regulation, Gary Van Zant, Ying Liang, Yi Liu

Internal Medicine Faculty Patents

The present invention relates to methods for protecting against damage caused by radiation and/or chemotherapy, and methods for treating bone marrow damage by reducing/ inhibiting Latexin expression and/or Latexin activity. The methods comprise administering to a subject in need thereof a pharmaceutical composition comprising an antagonist that reduces expression and/or activity of latexin, wherein latexin is a latexin polynucleotide variant and/or a latexin polypeptide variant that binds to the antagonist.


Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick Mar 2020

Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Many African Americans (AA) are chronically infected with Hepatitis B (HBV). While antiviral therapy is highly effective, clinical trials suggest a treatment-related decline in kidney function is possible. Given that chronic HBV predominately affects Asians worldwide, most studies have contained few AA patients. We evaluated these treatment-related kidney function changes in our predominately AA patient population.

Methods:

From 225 HBV patients, we identified 42 patients who were not co-infected with HIV or HCV, had a recent visit, and at least one earlier visit (before Jan 2017). If on treatment with antivirals it must have been for at least 2 ...


A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson Jan 2020

A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction: Meprobamate (Miltown, Equinil) is a sedative-hypnotic medication that first gained popularity as an anxiolytic and later as a muscle relaxant. It is a major metabolite of the more commonly used muscle relaxant carisoprodol (Soma). In vitro and electroencephalogram studies demonstrated that meprobamate modulates gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, similar to barbiturates. Withdrawal from meprobamate manifests in symptoms ranging from mild anxiety to severe autonomic instability and death. Meprobamate is rarely prescribed, but is still given to a small subset of elderly patients.

Clinical findings: In this case of meprobamate withdrawal, the patient initially displayed altered mental status and recurrent seizures ...


The Effects Of Autophagy And Senescence On Sensitivity To Cisplatin In Head And Neck Cancer, Zara H. Siddiqui Jan 2020

The Effects Of Autophagy And Senescence On Sensitivity To Cisplatin In Head And Neck Cancer, Zara H. Siddiqui

Theses and Dissertations

While current treatments in cancer, such as chemotherapy and radiation, can generally be effective in eliminating disease in patients, there also exists the possibility of recurrence of cancer cells over time. In patients diagnosed with locally advanced head and neck carcinoma, about 50-60% develop a loco-regional recurrence within two years, and 20-30% of patients develop metastatic disease at distant sites in the body [5]. On a cellular level, one mechanism for this survival may be that natural mechanisms such as autophagy and senescence play a role in allowing cells to survive after undergoing treatment. One standard of care chemotherapy for ...


The Role Of Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-Regulated Protein 9 In Enhanced Aggressiveness Of Hexavalent Chromium Transformed Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Peter Van Wie Jan 2020

The Role Of Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-Regulated Protein 9 In Enhanced Aggressiveness Of Hexavalent Chromium Transformed Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Peter Van Wie

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is classified as a confirmed human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research and Cancer (IARC) and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chronic exposure to (Cr(VI)) causes malignant cell transformation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. These Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit a highly aggressive phenotype including increased migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. The Cas family protein neuronal precursor developmentally down regulated protein 9 (NEDD9/Cas-L/HEF1) was dramatically overexpressed in Cr(VI)-transformed cells compared to normal BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of NEDD9 by its shRNA reduced migration and invasion in vitro measured ...


Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters Oct 2019

Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin that is produced by Clostridium botulinum. At one time, this toxin was only seen as a lethal substance, but now scientists have found many medical uses for it. There are eight distinctive toxins (A-H), but only A and B currently have clinical uses. Botulinum toxin A has three different versions that are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved: onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®). Botulinum toxin B is also FDA approved as rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc®). The toxins work by inducing reversible, local, dose-dependent chemodenervation by inhibiting acetylcholine release from presynaptic terminals. These drugs are ...


A Pharmacist's Role In Educating On The Health Risks Of Smoking During Pregnancy And Helping Patients With Smoking Cessation, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long Oct 2019

A Pharmacist's Role In Educating On The Health Risks Of Smoking During Pregnancy And Helping Patients With Smoking Cessation, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

While many people know smoking causes cancer, heart disease and other major health problems, smoking during pregnancy causes additional fetal health complications including birth defects, premature birth and infant death. Cigarettes contain carbon monoxide and nicotine, both of which can cause a decrease in oxygen delivery to the fetus' developing tissues causing organs like the brain, lungs, kidneys and ears not to develop properly. If children are exposed to these toxins through secondhand smoke after birth, they are more likely to experience severe health problems such as ear infections, cataracts, lung cancer and heart disease. It is also known that ...