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Medical Toxicology Commons

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Escherichia Coli Itat Is A Type Ii Toxin That Inhibits Translation By Acetylating Isoleucyl-Trnaile, Brendan Wilcox, Ilya Osterman, Marina Serebryakova, Dmitry Lukyanov, Ekaterina Komarova, Bridget Gollan, Natalia Morozova, Yuri I Wolf, Kira S Makarova, Sophie Helaine, Petr Sergiev, Svetlana Dubiley, Sergei Borukhov, Konstantin Severinov 2018 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology

Escherichia Coli Itat Is A Type Ii Toxin That Inhibits Translation By Acetylating Isoleucyl-Trnaile, Brendan Wilcox, Ilya Osterman, Marina Serebryakova, Dmitry Lukyanov, Ekaterina Komarova, Bridget Gollan, Natalia Morozova, Yuri I Wolf, Kira S Makarova, Sophie Helaine, Petr Sergiev, Svetlana Dubiley, Sergei Borukhov, Konstantin Severinov

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are highly abundant and are involved in stress response and drug tolerance. The most common type II TA modules consist of two interacting proteins. The type II toxins are diverse enzymes targeting various essential intracellular targets. The antitoxin binds to cognate toxin and inhibits its function. Recently, TA modules whose toxins are GNAT-family acetyltransferases were described. For two such systems, the target of acetylation was shown to be aminoacyl-tRNA: the TacT toxin targets aminoacylated elongator tRNAs, while AtaT targets the amino acid moiety of initiating tRNAMet. We show that the itaRT gene pair from Escherichia coli ...


Aged Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells Drive Aging-Associate Immune Remodeling, Hanna Leins, Medhanie Mulaw, Karina Eiwen, Vadim Sakk, Ying Liang, Michael Denkinger, Hartmut Geiger, Reinhold Schirmbeck 2018 University Hospital of Ulm, Germany

Aged Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells Drive Aging-Associate Immune Remodeling, Hanna Leins, Medhanie Mulaw, Karina Eiwen, Vadim Sakk, Ying Liang, Michael Denkinger, Hartmut Geiger, Reinhold Schirmbeck

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Aging-associated remodeling of the immune system impairs its functional integrity and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), from which all cells of the adaptive immune system ultimately originate, might play a crucial role in the remodeling of the aged immune system. We recently reported that aging of HSCs is, in part, driven by elevated activity of the small RhoGTPase Cdc42 and that aged HSCs can be rejuvenated in vitro by inhibition of the elevated Cdc42 activity in aged HSCs with the pharmacological compound CASIN. To study the quality of immune systems ...


A Clinically Relevant Mouse Model Of Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury., Cierra Nichole Sharp 2018 University of Louisville

A Clinically Relevant Mouse Model Of Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Injury., Cierra Nichole Sharp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic used for the treatment of many solid cancers, including testicular, ovarian, and lung cancer. Cisplatin causes many adverse side effects, of which nephrotoxicity leading to acute kidney injury is dose-limiting. Approximately 30% of patients will develop nephrotoxicity with cisplatin, and will either have their next dose of cisplatin lowered, skipped, or be switched to a less nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic altogether. These outcomes are not ideal when trying to treat cancer. Previously, it was believed that patients could recover from cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury with little to no lasting effects, but recent longitudinal studies have shown this ...


Nanoparticle-Mediated Therapeutic Agent Delivery For Treating Metastatic Breast Cancer—Challenges And Opportunities, Yunfei Li, Brock Humphries, Chengfeng Yang, Zhishan Wang 2018 University of Kentucky

Nanoparticle-Mediated Therapeutic Agent Delivery For Treating Metastatic Breast Cancer—Challenges And Opportunities, Yunfei Li, Brock Humphries, Chengfeng Yang, Zhishan Wang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Breast cancer (BC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American women and more than 90% of BC-related death is caused by metastatic BC (MBC). This review stresses the limited success of traditional therapies as well as the use of nanomedicine for treating MBC. Understanding the biological barriers of MBC that nanoparticle in vivo trafficking must overcome could provide valuable new insights for translating nanomedicine from the bench side to the bedside. A view about nanomedicine applied in BC therapy has been summarized with their present status, which is gaining attention in the clinically-applied landscape. The progressions of ...


Preclinical Evaluation Of Novel Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors In Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells And A Patient-Derived Xenograft Model Of Colorectal Cancer, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Piotr G. Rychahou, Anh-Thu Le, Timothy L. Scott, Robert M. Flight, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer Harris, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Andrew J. Morris, Theru A. Sivakumaran, Teresa Fan, Hunter Moseley, Tianyan Gao, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, Timothy S. Heuer, George Kemble, B. Mark Evers 2018 University of Kentucky

Preclinical Evaluation Of Novel Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors In Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells And A Patient-Derived Xenograft Model Of Colorectal Cancer, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Piotr G. Rychahou, Anh-Thu Le, Timothy L. Scott, Robert M. Flight, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer Harris, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Andrew J. Morris, Theru A. Sivakumaran, Teresa Fan, Hunter Moseley, Tianyan Gao, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, Timothy S. Heuer, George Kemble, B. Mark Evers

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), a key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is upregulated in many cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC); increased FASN expression is associated with poor prognosis. Potent FASN inhibitors (TVBs) developed by 3-V Biosciences demonstrate anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo and a favorable tolerability profile in a Phase I clinical trial.

However, CRC characteristics associated with responsiveness to FASN inhibition are not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of TVB-3664 on tumor growth in nine CRC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and investigated molecular and metabolic changes associated with CRC responsiveness to FASN inhibition.

CRC cells and PDXs ...


Characterization Of The Hepatotoxicity Of Rifampicin And Isoniazid, Christopher T. Brewer 2018 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Characterization Of The Hepatotoxicity Of Rifampicin And Isoniazid, Christopher T. Brewer

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

In a mouse model, rifampicin and isoniazid combination treatment results in cholestatic liver injury that is associated with an increase of protoporphyrin ix (PPIX), the penultimate heme precursor. Excess PPIX is believed to bind to bile acids, precipitate in bile canaliculi, and form bile plugs leading to cholestasis fol owed by liver injury. Both ferrochelatase (FECH/Fech) and aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1/Alas1) are crucial enzymes in regulating heme biosynthesis. Isoniazid has recently been reported to up-regulate Alas1 but down-regulate Fech protein levels in mice; however the mechanism of isoniazid mediated heme synthesis disruption has remained unclear. Interestingly, metabolites ...


Extracellular Vesicles Released By Cardiomyocytes In A Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Injury Mouse Model Contain Protein Biomarkers Of Early Cardiac Injury, Chontida Yarana, Dustin W. Carroll, Jing Chen, Luksana Chaiswing, Yanming Zhao, Teresa Noel, Michael Alstott, Younsoo Bae, Emily V. Dressler, Jeffrey A. Moscow, D. Allan Butterfield, Haining Zhu, Daret K. St. Clair 2018 University of Kentucky

Extracellular Vesicles Released By Cardiomyocytes In A Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Injury Mouse Model Contain Protein Biomarkers Of Early Cardiac Injury, Chontida Yarana, Dustin W. Carroll, Jing Chen, Luksana Chaiswing, Yanming Zhao, Teresa Noel, Michael Alstott, Younsoo Bae, Emily V. Dressler, Jeffrey A. Moscow, D. Allan Butterfield, Haining Zhu, Daret K. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Purpose—Cardiac injury is a major cause of death in cancer survivors, and biomarkers for it are detectable only after tissue injury has occurred. Extracellular vesicles (EV) remove toxic biomolecules from tissues and can be detected in the blood. Here, we evaluate the potential of using circulating EVs as early diagnostic markers for long-term cardiac injury.

Experimental Design—Using a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiac injury, we quantified serum EVs, analyzed proteomes, measured oxidized protein levels in serum EVs released after DOX treatment, and investigated the alteration of EV content.

Results—Treatment with DOX caused a significant increase ...


Comparative Cytotoxicity Study Of Nicotine And Cotinine On Mrc-5 Cell Line, Ana-Maria Vlasceanu, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology

Comparative Cytotoxicity Study Of Nicotine And Cotinine On Mrc-5 Cell Line, Ana-Maria Vlasceanu, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Nicotine has several health hazards regarding carcinogenic potential. It also imparts increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the carcinogenic potential, including effects on cell proliferation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA mutation, or inhibition of apoptosis. The cotinine metabolite is generally thought to have effects similar to nicotine in some experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nicotine and cotinine cytotoxicity on MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. The pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of nicotine or cotinine (in the range 1 µM – 2 mM) for 24 or 48 h and ...


An Aged Canid With Behavioral Deficits Exhibits Blood And Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid Beta Oligomers, Clare Rusbridge, Francisco J. Salguero, Monique Antoinette David, Kiterie M. E. Faller, Jose T. Bras, Rita J. Guerreiro, Angela C. Richard-Londt, Duncan Grainger, Elizabeth Head, Sebastian G. P. Brandner, Brian Summers, John Hardy, Mourad Tayebi 2018 University of Surrey, UK

An Aged Canid With Behavioral Deficits Exhibits Blood And Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid Beta Oligomers, Clare Rusbridge, Francisco J. Salguero, Monique Antoinette David, Kiterie M. E. Faller, Jose T. Bras, Rita J. Guerreiro, Angela C. Richard-Londt, Duncan Grainger, Elizabeth Head, Sebastian G. P. Brandner, Brian Summers, John Hardy, Mourad Tayebi

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Many of the molecular and pathological features associated with human Alzheimer disease (AD) are mirrored in the naturally occurring age-associated neuropathology in the canine species. In aged dogs with declining learned behavior and memory the severity of cognitive dysfunction parallels the progressive build up and location of Aβ in the brain. The main aim of this work was to study the biological behavior of soluble oligomers isolated from an aged dog with cognitive dysfunction through investigating their interaction with a human cell line and synthetic Aβ peptides. We report that soluble oligomers were specifically detected in the dog's blood ...


Wearable Biosensors To Evaluate Recurrent Opioid Toxicity After Naloxone Administration: A Hilbert Transform Approach, Keerthi Kumar. Chintha, Premananda Indic, Brittany Chapman, Edward W. Boyer, Stephanie Carreiro 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Wearable Biosensors To Evaluate Recurrent Opioid Toxicity After Naloxone Administration: A Hilbert Transform Approach, Keerthi Kumar. Chintha, Premananda Indic, Brittany Chapman, Edward W. Boyer, Stephanie Carreiro

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Opioid abuse is a rapidly escalating problem in the United States. Effective opioid reversal is achieved with the antidote naloxone, but often does not last as long as the offending opioid, necessitating in-hospital observation. Continuous physiologic monitoring using wearable biosensors represents a potential option to extend monitoring capability outside the clinical setting across the spectrum of opioid abuse including post- naloxone administration. The present study aims to identify the physiologic change that marks the cessation of naloxone's effect. Eleven participants were recruited in the Emergency Department after naloxone administration for an opioid overdose and continuously monitored using a wearable ...


Low-Energy Bluetooth For Detecting Real-World Penetrance Of Bystander Naloxone Kits: A Pilot Study, Jeffrey T. Lai, Brittany Chapman, Katherine L. Boyle, Edward W. Boyer, Peter R. Chai 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Low-Energy Bluetooth For Detecting Real-World Penetrance Of Bystander Naloxone Kits: A Pilot Study, Jeffrey T. Lai, Brittany Chapman, Katherine L. Boyle, Edward W. Boyer, Peter R. Chai

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Opioid overdose is a growing public health emergency in the United States. The antidote naloxone must be administered rapidly after opioid overdose to prevent death. Bystander or "take-home" naloxone programs distribute naloxone to opioid users and other community members to increase naloxone availability at the time of overdose. However, data describing the natural history of take-home naloxone in the hands of at-risk individuals is lacking. To understand patterns of naloxone uptake in at-risk users, we developed a smart naloxone kit that uses low-energy Bluetooth (BLE) to unobtrusively detect the transit of naloxone through a hospital campus. In this paper, we ...


Childhood Lead Poisoning, Javeria Fatima 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Childhood Lead Poisoning, Javeria Fatima

Global Issues in Public Health

Childhood lead poisoning is a non-communicable disease that has a long history and fatal effects. Although the disease’s source is from a natural element, lead, human handling of lead has affected individuals negatively worldwide. Through the use of lead in everyday situations or items such as in mines, the paint in houses, and lead water pipes, lead poisoning is easily attainable and has lasting effects. The impacts on lead poisoning on children has been investigated over the years and the devastating cognitive and physical impacts of the disease have been studied. This report aims to examine the factors that ...


Exploring The Regulatory Mechanism Of The Notch Ligand Receptor Jagged1 Via The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor In Breast Cancer, Sean Alan Piwarski 2018 Marshall University

Exploring The Regulatory Mechanism Of The Notch Ligand Receptor Jagged1 Via The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor In Breast Cancer, Sean Alan Piwarski

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that binds pollutants, therapeutic drugs and endogenous ligands. AHR is of particular interest in cancer and has been shown to play roles in both tumor progression and tumor suppression. As a result, it has received growing attention as a possible chemotherapeutic target. AHR is expressed in all breast cancer subtypes and can promote or inhibit breast cancer depending on the ligand it binds. The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved evolutionary pathway that plays extremely vital roles during development by regulating cell fate and differentiation. Notch signaling has increasingly ...


Conformational Switching In The Coiled-Coil Domains Of A Proteasomal Atpase Regulates Substrate Processing, Aaron Snoberger, Evan J. Brettrager, David M. Smith 2018 West Virginia University

Conformational Switching In The Coiled-Coil Domains Of A Proteasomal Atpase Regulates Substrate Processing, Aaron Snoberger, Evan J. Brettrager, David M. Smith

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Protein degradation in all domains of life requires ATPases that unfold and inject proteins into compartmentalized proteolytic chambers. Proteasomal ATPases in eukaryotes and archaea contain poorly understood N-terminally conserved coiled-coil domains. In this study, we engineer disulfide crosslinks in the coiled-coils of the archaeal proteasomal ATPase (PAN) and report that its three identical coiled-coil domains can adopt three different conforma- tions: (1) in-register and zipped, (2) in-register and partially unzipped, and (3) out-of-register. This conformational heterogeneity conflicts with PAN’s symmetrical OB-coiled-coil crystal structure but resembles the conformational heterogeneity of the 26S proteasomal ATPases’ coiled-coils. Furthermore, we find that one ...


Maternal Engineered Nanomaterial Inhalation During Gestation Alters The Fetal Transcriptome, P.A. Stapleton, Q.A. Hathaway, C.E. Nichols, A.B. Abukabda, M.V. Pinti, D.L. Shepherd, C.R. McBride, J. Yi, V.C. Castranova, J.M Hollander, Timothy Robert Nurkiewicz 2018 Rutgers University & Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute

Maternal Engineered Nanomaterial Inhalation During Gestation Alters The Fetal Transcriptome, P.A. Stapleton, Q.A. Hathaway, C.E. Nichols, A.B. Abukabda, M.V. Pinti, D.L. Shepherd, C.R. Mcbride, J. Yi, V.C. Castranova, J.M Hollander, Timothy Robert Nurkiewicz

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Background: The integration of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) is well-established and widespread in clinical, commercial, and domestic applications. Cardiovascular dysfunctions have been reported in adult populations after exposure to a variety of ENM. As the diversity of these exposures continues to increase, the fetal ramifications of maternal exposures have yet to be determined. We, and others, have explored the consequences of ENM inhalation during gestation and identified many cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in the F1 generation. The purpose of these studies was to identify genetic alterations in the F1 generation of Sprague-Dawley rats that result from maternal ENM inhalation during gestation ...


Role Of Oxidized Extracellular Vesicles As Early Biomarkers And Inflammatory Mediators In Chemotherapy-Induced Normal Tissue Injury, Chontida Yarana 2018 University of Kentucky

Role Of Oxidized Extracellular Vesicles As Early Biomarkers And Inflammatory Mediators In Chemotherapy-Induced Normal Tissue Injury, Chontida Yarana

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Significant advances in the efficacy of cancer therapy have been accompanied by an escalation of side effects that result from therapy-induced injury to normal tissues. Patients with high grade cancer or metastasis are often treated with chemotherapy, 50% of which are associated with reactive oxygen species generation and cellular oxidative stress. Heart is the normal tissue most susceptible to chemotherapy-induced oxidative stress and heart disease is the most common leading cause of death in cancer survivors. However, early and sensitive biomarkers to identify heart disease are still lacking. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from cells during oxidative stress and send ...


An Optimized Solid-Phase Reduction And Capture Strategy For The Study Of Reversibly-Oxidized Cysteines And Its Application To Metal Toxicity, John Andrew Hitron 2018 University of Kentucky

An Optimized Solid-Phase Reduction And Capture Strategy For The Study Of Reversibly-Oxidized Cysteines And Its Application To Metal Toxicity, John Andrew Hitron

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

The reversible oxidation of cysteine by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is both a mechanism for cellular protein signaling as well as a cause of cellular injury and death through the generation of oxidative stress. The study of cysteine oxidation is complicated by the methodology currently available to isolate and enrich oxidized-cysteine containing proteins. We sought to simplify this process by reducing the time needed to process samples and reducing sample loss and contamination risk.

We accomplished this by eliminating precipitation steps needed for the protocol by (a) introducing an in-solution NEM-quenching step prior to reduction and (b) replacing soluble dithiothreitol ...


A Ninja Initiative At Children's Mercy, Richard Ogden, Bradley A. Warady, Vimal Chadha, Wendy Hoebing 2018 Children's Mercy Kansas City

A Ninja Initiative At Children's Mercy, Richard Ogden, Bradley A. Warady, Vimal Chadha, Wendy Hoebing

Posters

No abstract provided.


Low-Level Cadmium Exposure And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Elderly Australian Women: A Cohort Study, Kane Deering, Anna C. Callan, Richard Prince, Wai Lim, Peter Thompson, Joshua Lewis, Andrea Hinwood, Amanda Devine 2018 Edith Cowan University

Low-Level Cadmium Exposure And Cardiovascular Outcomes In Elderly Australian Women: A Cohort Study, Kane Deering, Anna C. Callan, Richard Prince, Wai Lim, Peter Thompson, Joshua Lewis, Andrea Hinwood, Amanda Devine

ECU Publications Post 2013

Background

Cadmium has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in observational studies, however there has been a limited focus on this relationship in women.

Objectives

This study investigated the association of urinary cadmium (UCd) concentrations with CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality in elderly Western Australian (WA) women.

Methods

UCd excretion was measured at baseline in 1359 women, mean age 75.2 ± 2.7 years and 14.5 years of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) hospitalisations and deaths, including both the principle cause of death and all associated causes of death. Health outcome data were retrieved from the Western ...


The Effects Of A Human Food Additive, Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles E171, On Drosophila Melanogaster - A 20 Generation Dietary Exposure Experiment, Boris Jovanović, Nikola Jovanović, Vladimir J. Cvetković, Sanja Matić, Snežana Stanić, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Tatjana Lj. Mitrović 2018 Iowa State University

The Effects Of A Human Food Additive, Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles E171, On Drosophila Melanogaster - A 20 Generation Dietary Exposure Experiment, Boris Jovanović, Nikola Jovanović, Vladimir J. Cvetković, Sanja Matić, Snežana Stanić, Elizabeth M. Whitley, Tatjana Lj. Mitrović

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

In this study, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) were exposed to an estimated daily human E171 consumption concentration for 20 generations. Exposure to E171 resulted in: a change in normal developmental and reproductive dynamics, reduced fecundity after repetitive breeding, increased genotoxicity, the appearance of aberrant phenotypes and morphologic changes to the adult fat body. Marks of adaptive evolution and directional selection were also exhibited. The larval stages were at a higher risk of sustaining damage from E171 as they had a slower elimination rate of TiO2 compared to the adults. This is particularly worrisome, since among the human population, children tend ...


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