Does A Better Running Back Mean More Rushing? Game Theory And The Nfl, 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Does A Better Running Back Mean More Rushing? Game Theory And The Nfl, Eric Lofquist
Honors Scholar Theses
In this paper I attempt to answer the question of whether or not teams in the National Football League (NFL) rush less with a better running back. This seems counterintuitive, but game theory supposes that this is true. Defenses facing a better running back will generally expect the offense to rush more and therefore defend the run more often. The offense, foreseeing the defense’s actions, will choose to pass more to counteract the run defense. This is the basis of the difference between the strategic effect and the direct effect in mixed strategies. The direct effect is when a ...
Consequences Of Information Asymmetry On Corporate Risk Management, 2017 Buffalo State
Consequences Of Information Asymmetry On Corporate Risk Management, Howard J. Merrill Iii
Applied Economics Theses
This paper will demonstrate the impact information asymmetry has on risk management. There is a noticeable impact within the context of consumer credit risk. If a firm is able to recognize this, they can make improved credit decisions that will reduce the consequences. The theoretical impact will be presented while depicting areas of risk management that are susceptible to information asymmetry. We find a direct impact on the development of scoring models, credit policies, and origination volume. These results hold for banks with portfolios consisting of consumer credit products and small business loans. Once known, banks can better tailor their ...
I Share, Therefore It's Mine, 2017 Chapman University School of Law
I Share, Therefore It's Mine, Donald J. Kochan
Donald J. Kochan
Review Prohibition Periods As A Signal Of Video Game Quality, 2017 Murray State University
Review Prohibition Periods As A Signal Of Video Game Quality, Richard Jacob Applin
Honors College Theses
Video game developers typically prohibit media outlets from publishing reviews of upcoming video games until a specified date and time. This study hypothesizes that review prohibition periods function as an economic signal of quality and thus impact sales. Specifically, this study predicts that permissive review embargo periods, relative to games with restrictive review embargo periods, are indicative of better quality games and in turn better sales. To test this conjecture the study collected a random sample of observations (video games) from four popular video game consoles and examined data regarding each observation’s review embargo period as well as data ...
Do Farm Subsidies Affect Crop Diversification?, 2017 Georgia College
Do Farm Subsidies Affect Crop Diversification?, Chadwick O'Neal
Georgia College Student Research Events
The United States spends $20 billion each year on farm subsidies. Farmers face increased risk and income variation when their crop portfolio is less diversified. It’s possible for farm subsidies to decrease diversification if they are focused on specific crops. Utilizing state level subsidy and agricultural data from the Environmental Working Group, I used econometric analysis to estimate the effect of farm subsidies on crop diversification. I used the number of acres planted from the 15 top most subsidized and grown crops in the United States to derive my dependent variable, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI). The HHI is a ...
Trends In U.S. Tea Imports: 1991-2015, 2017 Western Michigan University
Trends In U.S. Tea Imports: 1991-2015, Evan Kennedy
Tea is the second most popular beverage in the world, and over the past two decades it has experienced a newfound popularity in the United States. Over this time period, ready-to-drink and loose-leaf tea has increased in popularity, whereas tea bags and instant tea declined in popularity. Since the United States produces almost no tea itself, an increase in consumption requires increased imports. Therefore, this paper examines U.S. import trends as a means to begin an examination of consumption. Ten countries (Argentina, Canada, China, Germany, India, Japan, Kenya, Sri Lanka, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam) provide approximately 80% of ...
Closing The Gender Gap: The Effect Of Political Gender Quotas And Female Employment Indicators In South America, 2017 Georgia State University
Closing The Gender Gap: The Effect Of Political Gender Quotas And Female Employment Indicators In South America, Courtney Reid
Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference
No abstract provided.
Profitable Horizontal Mergers Without Efficiencies Can Increase Consumer Surplus, 2017 Chapman University
Profitable Horizontal Mergers Without Efficiencies Can Increase Consumer Surplus, Charles J. Thomas
ESI Working Papers
In a simple model I show consumer surplus can increase after competing sellers consummate a profitable merger that generates no cost savings. This finding contrasts sharply with the conventional wisdom that horizontal mergers without efficiencies must enhance sellers’ market power to be profitable, thereby harming buyers. The model fits industries in which individual buyers conduct distinct procurement contests for which sellers incur costs to participate, say to assess their product’s fit with the buyer’s preferences. Mergers benefit buyers by inducing stronger contest-level entry, echoing common claims from merging parties that their merger is beneficial because it creates a ...
The Ideological Roots Of Institutional Change, 2017 University of Colorado
The Ideological Roots Of Institutional Change, Murat Iyigun, Jared Rubin
ESI Working Papers
Why do some societies fail to adopt more efficient institutions in response to changing economic conditions? And why do such conditions sometimes generate ideological backlashes and at other times lead to transformative sociopolitical movements? We propose an explanation that highlights the interplay--or lack thereof--between new technologies, ideologies, and institutions. When new technologies emerge, uncertainty results from a lack of understanding how the technology will fit with prevailing ideologies and institutions. This uncertainty discourages investment in institutions and the cultural capital necessary to take advantage of new technologies. Accordingly, increased uncertainty during times of rapid technological change may generate an ideological ...
The Cultural Transmission Of Trust Norms: Evidence From A Lab In The Field On A Natural Experiment, 2017 Chapman University
The Cultural Transmission Of Trust Norms: Evidence From A Lab In The Field On A Natural Experiment, Jared Rubin, Elira Karaja
ESI Working Papers
We conduct trust games in three villages in a northeastern Romanian commune. From 1775-1919, these villages were arbitrarily assigned to opposite sides of the Habsburg and Ottoman/Russian border despite being located seven kilometers apart. Russian and Ottoman Öscal institutions were more rapacious than Habsburg institutions, which may have eroded trust of outsiders (relative to co-villagers). Our design permits us to rigorously test this conjecture, and more generally, whether historically institutionalized cultural norms are transmitted intergenerationally. We Önd that participants on the Ottoman/Russian side are indeed less likely to trust outsiders but more likely to trust co-villagers.
The Economic Legacies Of Lingering Colonialism: A Case Study In Identity And Multiculturalism In Northern Morocco And The Spanish Enclaves, Jeremy Vale
Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection
Founded in ancient times, the twin Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla combined comprise just 11.8 square miles and have fewer than 200,000 inhabitants. Despite their rather insignificant sizes, they are important because they serve as the only land borders between the European Union and the African continent, generating a host of complicated questions. This research explores the role of smuggling as a form of micro-economy and identity. Through interviews of Moroccans with ties to smuggling as well as interviews with residents of Ceuta, this case study begins to examine the role smuggling plays in the debates about ...
Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, 2017 Iowa State University
Luminate: Linking Agricultural Land Use, Local Water Quality And Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia, Catherine L. Kling, Yiannis Panagopoulos, Sergey S. Rabotyagov, Adriana Valcu-Lisman, Philip W. Gassman, Todd D. Campbell, Michael J. White, Jeffrey G. Arnold, Raghavan Srinivasan, Manoj K. Jha, Jeffrey J. Richardson, L. Monika Moskal, R. Eugene Turner, Nancy N. Rabalais
In this paper, we discuss the importance of developing integrated assessment models to support the design and implementation of policies to address water quality problems associated with agricultural pollution. We describe a new modelling system, LUMINATE, which links land use decisions made at the field scale in the Upper Mississippi, Ohio and Tennessee Basins through both environmental and hydrological components to downstream water quality effects and hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. This modelling system can be used to analyse detailed policy scenarios identifying the costs of the policies and their resulting benefits for improved local and regional water quality ...
The Expected Cost Of Housing Discrimination, 2017 Kent State University
The Expected Cost Of Housing Discrimination, Quinton Babcock
Undergraduate Research Symposium
The aim of this research is to increase the understanding regarding discrimination in the home rental market, especially in a way that is applicable to individuals, by constructing a framework with which its expected cost can be found. After estimating an expected cost, this research seeks to use that cost as a platform to explore conditions surrounding this expected cost. Furthermore, this research makes a case for why this should be an important issue among Disability Studies scholars and Disability Rights activists.
Starting with 1988 amendments to the Fair Housing Act, America has made a legal effort to secure fair ...
Deception And Reception: The Behavior Of Information Providers And Users, 2017 Chapman University
Deception And Reception: The Behavior Of Information Providers And Users, Roman M. Sheremeta, Timothy W. Shields
ESI Working Papers
We investigate the behavior of information providers (underwriters) and users (investors) in a controlled laboratory experiment where underwriters have incentives to deceive and investors have incentives to avoid deception. Participants play simultaneously as underwriters and investors in one-shot information transmission games. The results of our experiment show a significant proportion of both deceptive and non-deceptive underwriters. Despite the presence of deceptive underwriters, investors are receptive to underwriters’ reports, gleaning information content, albeit overly optimistic. Within our sample, deception by underwriters and reception by investors are the most profitable strategies. Moreover, participants who send deceptive reports to investors, but at the ...
Monitoring Institutions In Indefinitely Repeated Games, 2017 Chapman University
Monitoring Institutions In Indefinitely Repeated Games, Gabriele Camera, Marco Casari
ESI Working Papers
Does monitoring past conduct facilitate intertemporal cooperation? We designed an experiment characterized by strategic uncertainty and multiple equilibria where coordinating on the efficient outcome is a challenge. Participants, interacting anonymously in a group, could pay a cost either to obtain information about their counterparts, or to create a freely available public record of individual conduct. Both monitoring institutions were actively employed. However, groups were unable to attain higher levels of cooperation compared to a treatment without monitoring. Information about past conduct alone thus appears to be ineffective in overcoming coordination challenges.
Targeted Campaign Competition, Loyal Voters, And Supermajorities, 2017 Université Paris-Saclay
Targeted Campaign Competition, Loyal Voters, And Supermajorities, Pierre C. Boyer, Kai A. Konrad, Brian Roberson
ESI Working Papers
We consider campaign competition in which candidates compete for votes among a continuum of voters by engaging in persuasive efforts that are targetable. Each individual voter is persuaded by campaign effort and votes for the candidate who targets more persuasive effort to this voter. Each candidate chooses a level of total campaign effort and allocates their effort among the set of voters. We completely characterize equilibrium for the majoritarian objective game and compare that to the vote-share maximizing game. If the candidates are symmetric ex ante, both types of electoral competition dissipate the rents from once in expectation. However, the ...
The Paradox Of Power: Principal-Agent Problems And Fiscal Capacity In Absolutist Regimes, 2017 London School of Economics
The Paradox Of Power: Principal-Agent Problems And Fiscal Capacity In Absolutist Regimes, Debin Ma, Jared Rubin
ESI Working Papers
Tax extraction in Qing China was low relative to Western Europe. It is not obvious why: China was much more absolutist and had stronger rights over property and people. Why did the Chinese not convert their absolute power into revenue? We propose a model, supported by historical evidence, which suggests that i) the center could not ask its tax collecting agents to levy high taxes because it would incentivize agents to overtax the peasantry; ii) the center could not pay agents high wages in return for high taxes because the center had no mechanism to commit to refrain from confiscating ...
What Role For The Bioeconomy In An Electrified Transportation Sector?, 2017 State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry
What Role For The Bioeconomy In An Electrified Transportation Sector?, Tristan R. Brown, Robert C. Brown
Mechanical Engineering Publications
The growth of the bioeconomy has recently been slowed by over production of petroleum and natural gas from unconventional domestic reserves, which has reduced demand for biofuels. In the longer term, liquid transportation fuels, both petroleum- and bio-based, are threatened by electrification of the transportation sector, which will benefit from the use of low-cost natural gas to generate electricity for battery electric vehicles. Low-cost natural gas in the USA is attractive for other applications as well, including the production of certain petrochemicals. On the other hand, natural gas is not suitable for producing many high molecular weight petrochemicals. Cost-competitive biorenewable ...
Targeting Resource Conservation Expenditiures, 2017 Iowa State University
Targeting Resource Conservation Expenditiures, Junjie Wu, Richard M. Adams, David Zilberman, Bruce A. Babcock
Payments to landowners are a major vehicle to assure resource conservation and environmental protection. Examples of payment programs are listed in the sidebar, page. 34. Some of these programs (1, 2 and 3) compensate resource owners for changing resource uses while others (4, 5 and 6) involve the outright purchase of a resource. For example, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has compensated landowners to retire 37 million acres of highly erodible cropland at a current annual cost of approximately $1.9 billion, and the Nature Conservancy has protected more than 11 million acres of environmentally valuable land in the United ...
Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, 2017 University of Illinois
Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock
The production literature has shown that inputs such as fertilizer can be defined as riskincreasing. However, farmers also consistently overapply nitrogen. A model of optimal input use under uncertainty is used to address this paradox. Using experimental data, a stochastic production relationship between yield and soil nitrate is estimated. Numerical results show that input uncertainty may cause farmers to overapply nitrogen. Survey data suggest that farmers are risk averse, but prefer small chances of high yields compared to small chances of crop failures when expected yields are equivalent. Furthermore, yield risk and yield variability are not equivalent.