Design Of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique, 2019 Northern Technical University

#### Design Of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams Using Particle Swarm Optimization Technique, Qais F. Hasan, Dler A. Al-Mamany, Omer K. Fayadh

*Karbala International Journal of Modern Science*

Researches available in literature interrelating neural networks to civil engineering design problems, especially for beep beams, are very rare. Therefore, an optimization algorithm is developed and verified in this study and coded using MATLAB functions to determine the optimum cost design of reinforced concrete deep beams. ACI 318-14 code method is used benefiting from iterative particle swarm optimization technique due to its efficiency and reliability. Minimizing total cost is used as the objective function in terms of four decision variables. Self-adaptive penalty function technique is used to handle constraints for each of the 300 randomly selected particles, and in each ...

Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm For Solving Fuzzy Multi-Objective Bed Allocation Model, 2019 Directorate of Educational Nineveh Province, Iraqi Ministry of Education

#### Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm For Solving Fuzzy Multi-Objective Bed Allocation Model, Abdulhakeem Luqman Hasan

*Karbala International Journal of Modern Science*

With the improvement of the medical services frameworks rivalry, hospitals face more and more challenges. In the interim, allotment of resource has a crucial influence on performing competitive benefits in a hospitals. To choose the suitable beds number is one of the most essential tasks in hospital administration. Anyway, in true condition, bed allotment choice is a multiple-side problem with weakness and haphazardness of the information available. It is so sophisticated. Therefore, the research about bed allotment difficulty is comparatively rare under considering multiple departments, nursing hours, and stochastic information about arrival and service of patients. In this paper, we ...

Evaluation Of Atmospherically Gases Using Models Flaash And Quac To Hyper-Spectral Imagery, 2019 univercity

#### Evaluation Of Atmospherically Gases Using Models Flaash And Quac To Hyper-Spectral Imagery, Asmaa Maher

*Karbala International Journal of Modern Science*

The important step is correction of the effect of atmospheric on hyper-spectral imagery of the VIS “visible”, short wave & NIR “near-infrared” spectral range. In general, the cause for limiting the use of hyperspectral images is the atmospheric effects, so, atmospheric correction is necessary for any accurate processing. In this work, two atmospheric correction techniques have been applied on Hyper-spectral image. From the raw original image and also from the FLAASH and QUAC atmospheric corrected images the spectra of vegetation, water and soil were extracted. The acquisition data for study contained Hyperion bands for year “2015” images over each of the ...

Editorial Board, 2019 Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

A Review Of Ball Lightning Models, 2019 Georgia College and State University

#### A Review Of Ball Lightning Models, Amir Abdallah, Kyle Castleberry, Anyauna Spikes, Khadeem Coumarbatch, Joshua Ballard-Myer, Nick Palmer, Hasitha Mahabaduge

*Georgia Journal of Science*

Ball lightning is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the atmosphere. However due to its brevity and rarity, its occurrence is not well understood. Three models based on electromagnetic properties are discussed in this paper to explain the rare phenomenon of ball lightning. The first model incorporates the idea of electron bunching, electrons moving with different velocities. This creates a plasma bubble by recombining electrons with ionized gas to form plasma that is stabilized by a standing microwave. The second model explains the idea of streamers being tangled and linked in a magnetic field while stabilized by the conservation of ...

Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Interfacial Contact With Noble Metal - Noble Metal And Noble Metal - 2d Semiconductor Nanostructures Enhance Optical Activity, Ricardo Raphael Lopez Romo

*Theses and Dissertations*

Noble metal nanoparticles and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) crystals offer unique optical and electronic properties that include strong exciton binding, spin-orbital coupling, and localized surface plasmon resonance. Controlling these properties at high spatiotemporal resolution can support emerging optoelectronic coupling and enhanced optical features. Excitation dynamics of these optical properties on physicochemically bonded mono- and few-layer TMD crystals with metal nanocrystals and two overlapping spherical metal nanocrystals were examined by concurrently (i) DDA simulations and (ii) far-field optical transmission UV-vis spectroscopic measurements. Initially, a novel and scalable method to unsettle van der Waals bonds in bulk TMDs to prepare ...

Tests Of General Relativity With The Binary Black Hole Signals From The Ligo-Virgo Catalog Gwtc-1, 2019 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

#### Tests Of General Relativity With The Binary Black Hole Signals From The Ligo-Virgo Catalog Gwtc-1, B. P. Abbott, Soma Mukherjee

*Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications and Presentations*

The detection of gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo provides an opportunity to test general relativity in a regime that is inaccessible to traditional astronomical observations and laboratory tests. We present four tests of the consistency of the data with binary black hole gravitational waveforms predicted by general relativity. One test subtracts the best-fit waveform from the data and checks the consistency of the residual with detector noise. The second test checks the consistency of the low- and high-frequency parts of the observed signals. The third test checks that phenomenological deviations introduced in the waveform model (including in ...

Sulfur Adsorption On Coinage Metal (100) Surfaces: Propensity For Metal-Sulfur Complex Formation Relative To (111) Surfaces, 2019 Ames Laboratory

#### Sulfur Adsorption On Coinage Metal (100) Surfaces: Propensity For Metal-Sulfur Complex Formation Relative To (111) Surfaces, Da-Jiang Liu, Peter M. Spurgeon, Jiyoung Lee, Theresa L. Windus, Patricia A. Thiel, James W. Evans

*Chemistry Publications*

Experimental data from low-temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (LTSTM) studies on coinage metal surfaces with very low coverages of S is providing new insights into metal-S interactions. A previous LTSTM study for Cu(100), and a new analysis reported here for Ag(100), both indicate no metal-sulfur complex formation, but an Au4S5 complex was observed previously on Au(100). In marked contrast, various complexes have been proposed and/or observed on Ag(111) and Cu(111), but not on Au(111). Also, exposure to trace amounts of S appears to enhance mass transport far more dramatically on (111) than on (100 ...

Physical Models Of Living Systems Chapter 12: Single Particle Reconstruction In Cryo-Electron Microscopy, 2019 University of Pennsylvania

#### Physical Models Of Living Systems Chapter 12: Single Particle Reconstruction In Cryo-Electron Microscopy, Philip C. Nelson

*Department of Physics Papers*

This chapter extends Part III of the book Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.

High Power And Optomechanics In Advanced Ligo Detectors, 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### High Power And Optomechanics In Advanced Ligo Detectors, Terra Christine Hardwick

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

In September 2015, a new era of astronomy began with the first direct detection of grav- itational waves from a binary black hole coalescence. The event was captured by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, comprised of two long-baseline interferometers, one in Livingston, LA and one in Hanford, WA. At the time of the first detection, the interferometers were part way through an upgrade to an advanced configuration and were operating with a strain sensitivity of just better than 10^{−23}/Hz^{1/2} around 100Hz. The full Advanced LIGO design calls for sensitivity of a few parts in 10^{−24 ...}

Alpha Capture Reaction Rates For Nucleosynthesis Within An Ab Initio Framework, 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Alpha Capture Reaction Rates For Nucleosynthesis Within An Ab Initio Framework, Alison Constance Dreyfuss

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

Clustering in nuclear systems has broad impacts on all phases of stellar burning, and plays a significant role in our understanding of nucleosynthesis, or how and where nuclei are produced in the universe. The role of alpha particles in particular is extremely important for nuclear astrophysics: ^{4}He was one of the earliest elements produced in the Big Bang, it is one of the most abundant elements in the universe, and helium burning -- in particular, the triple-alpha process -- is one of the most important ``engines'' in stars. To better understand nucleosynthesis and stellar burning, then, it is important to develop ...

Smooth Flow In Diamond: Atomistic Ductility And Electronic Conductivity, 2019 Jilin University

#### Smooth Flow In Diamond: Atomistic Ductility And Electronic Conductivity, Chang Liu, Xianqi Song, Quan Li, Yanming Ma, Changfeng Chen

*Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications*

Diamond is the quintessential superhard material widely known for its stiff and brittle nature and large electronic band gap. In stark contrast to these established benchmarks, our first-principles studies unveil surprising intrinsic structural ductility and electronic conductivity in diamond under coexisting large shear and compressive strains. These complex loading conditions impede brittle fracture modes and promote atomistic ductility, triggering rare smooth plastic flow in the normally rigid diamond crystal. This extraordinary structural change induces a concomitant band gap closure, enabling smooth charge flow in deformation created conducting channels. These startling soft-and-conducting modes reveal unprecedented fundamental characteristics of diamond, with profound ...

Why The Crackling Deformations Of Single Crystals, Metallic Glasses, Rock, Granular Materials, And The Earth’S Crust Are So Surprisingly Similar, 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

#### Why The Crackling Deformations Of Single Crystals, Metallic Glasses, Rock, Granular Materials, And The Earth’S Crust Are So Surprisingly Similar, Karin A. Dahmen, Jonathan T. Uhl, Wendelin J. Wright

*Faculty Journal Articles*

Recent experiments show that the deformation properties of a wide range of solid materials are surprisingly similar. When slowly pushed, they deform via intermittent slips, similar to earthquakes. The statistics of these slips agree across vastly different structures and scales. A simple analytical model explains why this is the case. The model also predicts which statistical quantities are independent of the microscopic details (i.e., they are "universal"), and which ones are not. The model provides physical intuition for the deformation mechanism and new ways to organize experimental data. It also shows how to transfer results from one scale to ...

A Second-Order Realizable Scheme For Moment Advection On Unstructured Grids, 2019 Iowa State University and CentraleSupélec

#### A Second-Order Realizable Scheme For Moment Advection On Unstructured Grids, Alberto Passalacqua, Frédérique Laurent, Rodney O. Fox

*Rodney O. Fox*

The second-order realizable 𝜁 moment advection scheme developed in Laurent and Nguyen (2017) is extended to the case of unstructured grids with cells of arbitrary shape. The necessary modifications to the scheme and the conditions under which the scheme ensures the realizability of the advected moment set are presented. The implementation of the scheme in the OpenFOAM® CFD toolbox is verified comparing the results obtained in one-dimensional test cases involving moment sets well inside the moment space, and at the boundary of the moment space. Results obtained with the proposed scheme are compared to the corresponding analytical solution. The scheme ...

Visco-Elastic Properties Of Duct Tape, 2019 Cleveland State University

#### Visco-Elastic Properties Of Duct Tape, Ashley Brown, Ulrich Zurcher

*Ulrich Zurcher*

A simple experiment for determining the nonlinear stress–strain relation of duct tape is described. After weights are added and subsequently removed, the tape does not return to its original state and is no longer taut. The tape exhibits hysteresis, which implies the loss of work during the cyclical process. The exponent describing the nonlinearity is related to the fractional work loss.

Torque Around The Center Of Mass: Dynamic Stability During Quadrupedal Arboreal Locomotion In The Siberian Chipmunk (Tamias Sibiricus), 2019 Cleveland State University

#### Torque Around The Center Of Mass: Dynamic Stability During Quadrupedal Arboreal Locomotion In The Siberian Chipmunk (Tamias Sibiricus), Andrew R. Lammers, Ulrich Zurcher

*Ulrich Zurcher*

When animals travel on tree branches, avoiding falls is of paramount importance. Animals swiftly running on a narrow branch must rely on movement to create stability rather than on static methods. We examined how Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) remain stable while running on a narrow tree branch trackway. We examined the pitch, yaw, and rolling torques around the center of mass, and hypothesized that within a stride, any angular impulse (torque during step time) acting on the center of mass would be canceled out by an equal and opposite angular impulse. Three chipmunks were videotaped while running on a 2 ...

Thermal Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, 2019 Cleveland State University

#### Thermal Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher

*Ulrich Zurcher*

We investigate relaxation and thermal fluctuations in systems with continuous symmetry in arbitrary spatial dimensions. For the scalar order parameter ζ(r, t) with r∈ℛd, the deterministic relaxation is caused by hydrodynamic modes η∂ζ(r, t)/∂t= K∇2ζ(r, t). For a finite volume V, we expand the scalar field in a discrete Fourier series and then we study the behavior in the limit V→∞. We find that the second moment is well defined for dimensions d≥3, while it diverges for d=1, 2. Furthermore, we show that for d<4, the decay of the scalar field does not define an "effective" relaxation time. For dimensions d<4, these two properties suggest scale-invariant properties of the scalar field in the limit V→∞. We show that thermal fluctuations are described by fractional Brownian motion for d ≤ 3 and by ordinary Brownian motion for d ≥ 4. The spectral density of the stochastic force follows 1/f for d=1 and d=2, for d=3, and "white noise," f0 for d≥4. We find explicit representation of the equilibrium distribution of the conserved scalar field. For d≥4 it is a Gaussian distribution, while for d=1 and d=2, it is the Cauchy distribution.

Thermally Activated Escape Over Fluctuating Barriers, 2019 Cleveland State University

#### Thermally Activated Escape Over Fluctuating Barriers, Ulrich Zürcher, Charles R. Doering

*Ulrich Zurcher*

We investigate the thermally activated escape of a Brownian particle over a potential barrier whose height fluctuates with a rate α between the values E+ and E−. We are mainly interested in the low-temperature behavior where E+/T≫E−/T. We calculate the mean exit time as a function of the rate of the barrier fluctuations for the piecewise linear and the piecewise constant barrier, τ=τ(α). For the piecewise constant potential we find three different regimes: τ∼τ+ for α<τ−1+=exp(-E+/T), τ∼2τ− for α>τ−1−=exp(-E−/T), and τ∼α−1 for τ−1+<α<τ−1−. The mean exit time for the piecewise linear potential has a different behavior for fast barrier fluctuations, α>τ−1−; τ(α) is a ...

Scaling Behavior Of Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, 2019 Cleveland State University

#### Scaling Behavior Of Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher

*Ulrich Zurcher*

In nematic liquid crystals, director fluctuations correpond to the dynamical mode that is critical for all temperatures in zero external fields. The Hurst exponent characterizes the temporal behavior of the mean square displacement of director fluctuations, 〈[δn(r,t)-δn(r,0)]2〉∼t2H. We find H=1/2 in finite fields and H=3/4 in zero field. This result differs from that of Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1834 (1993)] who find a Hurst exponent that varies continuously from H≃1 in zero field to H≃1/2 in moderate fields.

Radial Motion In A Central Potential For Singular Mass Densities, 2019 Cleveland State University

#### Radial Motion In A Central Potential For Singular Mass Densities, Ulrich Zürcher, Miron Kaufman

*Ulrich Zurcher*

We study the radial motion of an object in the gravitational field produced by an isotropic mass density that is singular at the origin. This problem applies to elliptical galaxies and can be used to illustrate motion in a central field appropriate for an intermediate-level mechanics course.