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Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics Commons

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All Articles in Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

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Design And Control Of A Peristaltic Pump To Simulate Left Atrial Pressure In A Conductive Silicone Model, Jeremy Collins 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design And Control Of A Peristaltic Pump To Simulate Left Atrial Pressure In A Conductive Silicone Model, Jeremy Collins

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

According to the CDC, atrial fibrillation is responsible for more than 454,000 hospitalizations and approximately 158,000 deaths per year. A common treatment for atrial fibrillation is catheter ablation, a process in which a long flexible tube is guided through the femoral artery and to the source of arrhythmia in the heart, where it measures the electrical potential at various locations and converts problematic heart tissue to scar tissue via ablation. This paper details the design and control of a low-cost ($400) peristaltic pump system using repetitive control to replicate blood pressure in the left atrium in a conductive ...


Entropic Dynamics Of Networks, Felipe Xavier Costa, Pedro Pessoa 2021 Department of Physics, University at Albany, State University of New York

Entropic Dynamics Of Networks, Felipe Xavier Costa, Pedro Pessoa

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Here we present the entropic dynamics formalism for networks. That is, a framework for the dynamics of graphs meant to represent a network derived from the principle of maximum entropy and the rate of transition is obtained taking into account the natural information geometry of probability distributions. We apply this framework to the Gibbs distribution of random graphs obtained with constraints on the node connectivity. The information geometry for this graph ensemble is calculated and the dynamical process is obtained as a diffusion equation. We compare the steady state of this dynamics to degree distributions found on real-world networks.


Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia 2021 Lafayette College

Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Moving animal groups are prime examples of natural complex systems. In most models of such systems each individual updates its heading based on the current positions and headings of its neighbors. However, recently, a number of models where the heading update instead is based on the future anticipated positions/headings of the neighbors have been published. Collectively these studies have established that including anticipation may have drastically different effects in different models. In particular, anticipation inhibits polarization in alignment-based models and in one alignment-free model, but promotes polarization in another alignment-free model. Indicating that our understanding of how anticipation affects ...


The Structure Function Relationship Of Disordered Networks Using Young's Modulus And Floppy Modes, Melinda Grace Tajnai 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Structure Function Relationship Of Disordered Networks Using Young's Modulus And Floppy Modes, Melinda Grace Tajnai

Physics

Disordered networks may have the ability to store information that can be retrieved using a Young’s modulus measurement. The effect of the number of floppy modes a network has on the value of this Young’s modulus measurement is unknown. This experiment uses 28 networks consisting of 3D printed edges in a sliding frame to determine how the Young’s modulus of a network is related to the number of floppy modes.


Quantifying Confinement Of Chain Dynamics For Chains Tethered To Self-Assembling Crystalline Nanodomains Using Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy, Logan Benninghoff 2021 The University of Akron

Quantifying Confinement Of Chain Dynamics For Chains Tethered To Self-Assembling Crystalline Nanodomains Using Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy, Logan Benninghoff

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Polyisobutylene (PIB) rubbers can be reinforced with crystalline β-alanine nanodomains. Progress has been made in understanding the morphology of the nanodomains, but the dynamics of the PIB molecule chains attached to the surface of the nanodomains and in the matrix are not well understood. It is possible to observe the motion of these PIB chains using Neutron Spin Echo (NSE) experiments, since the experimental technique can give data for smaller timescales. Data collection for reinforced rubber samples has already been performed, but the data still need to be analyzed. For my honors project I will be comparing the data to ...


Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, Lucas Rankin 2021 Bucknell University

Establishing Independent Tunability Of The Mechanical And Transport Properties Of Polymer Gels, Lucas Rankin

Master’s Theses

Polymer gels can be used in the fabrication of materials for filtering liquid and gaseous media, solid-state electrolytes, and transdermal medical patches. This diverse range of applications primarily relies on the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels. Both sets of properties have shown excellent tunability, but typically in a coupled fashion. Establishing the independent tunability of the transport and mechanical properties of polymer gels (using simple, cost-effective methods) is paramount if polymer gels are to be used to their full potential. Specifically, block copolymer gels self-assemble into organized nanoscale networks within the gel solvent, which allows for facile control ...


Composite Network Of Actin And Microtubule Filaments, Self-Organization And Steady-State Dynamics, Leila Farhadi 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Composite Network Of Actin And Microtubule Filaments, Self-Organization And Steady-State Dynamics, Leila Farhadi

Doctoral Dissertations

Actin and microtubule filaments, with their auxiliary proteins, enable the cytoskeleton to perform vital processes in the cell by tuning the organizational, mechanical properties and dynamics of the network. Despite their critical importance and interactions in cells, we are only beginning to uncover information about the composite network. Here, I use florescence microscopy to explore the role of filaments characteristics, interactions and activities in the self-organization and steady-state dynamics of the composite network of filaments. First, I discuss active self-organization of semiflexible actin and rigid microtubule filaments in the 2D composite network while myosin II and kinesin-1 motor proteins propel ...


Distortion-Controlled Isotropic Swelling And Self-Assembly Of Triply-Periodic Minimal Surfaces, Carlos M. Duque 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Distortion-Controlled Isotropic Swelling And Self-Assembly Of Triply-Periodic Minimal Surfaces, Carlos M. Duque

Doctoral Dissertations

In the first part of this thesis, I propose a method that allows us to construct optimal swelling patterns that are compatible with experimental constraints. This is done using a greedy algorithm that systematically increases the perimeter of the target surface with the help of minimum length cuts. This reduces the areal distortion that comes from the changing Gaussian curvature of the sheet. The results of our greedy cutting algorithm are tested on surfaces of constant and varying Gaussian curvature, and are additionally validated with finite thickness simulations using a modified Seung-Nelson model.

In the second part of the thesis ...


Filaments, Fibers, And Foliations In Frustrated Soft Materials, Daria Atkinson 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Filaments, Fibers, And Foliations In Frustrated Soft Materials, Daria Atkinson

Doctoral Dissertations

Assemblies of one-dimensional filaments appear in a wide range of physical systems: from biopolymer bundles, columnar liquid crystals, and superconductor vortex arrays; to familiar macroscopic materials, like ropes, cables, and textiles. Interactions between the constituent filaments in such systems are most sensitive to the distance of closest approach between the central curves which approximate their configuration, subjecting these distinct assemblies to common geometric constraints. Dual to strong dependence of inter-filament interactions on changes in the distance of closest approach is their relative insensitivity to reptations, translations along the filament backbone. In this dissertation, after briefly reviewing the mechanics and geometry ...


Controlled Membrane Remodeling By Nanospheres And Nanorods: Experiments Targeting The Design Principles For Membrane-Based Materials, Sarah Zuraw-Weston 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Controlled Membrane Remodeling By Nanospheres And Nanorods: Experiments Targeting The Design Principles For Membrane-Based Materials, Sarah Zuraw-Weston

Doctoral Dissertations

In this thesis we explore two experimental systems probing the interactions of nanoparticles with lipid bilayer membranes. Inspired by the ability of cell membranes to alter their shape in response to bound particles, we report two experimental studies: one of nanospheres the other of long, slender nano-rods binding to lipid bilayer vesicles and altering the membrane shape. Our work illuminates the role of particle geometry, particle concentration, adhesion strength and membrane tension in how membrane morphology is determined. We combine giant unilamellar vesicles with oppositely charged nanoparticles, carefully tuning adhesion strength, membrane tension and particle concentration.

In the case of ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends the first edition of Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Predicting The Hydration Free Energy Of Small Alkanes And Alcohols From Custom, Electronic Structure-Based Force Fields, T. Ryan Rogers 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Predicting The Hydration Free Energy Of Small Alkanes And Alcohols From Custom, Electronic Structure-Based Force Fields, T. Ryan Rogers

Theses and Dissertations

Mathematical theories reveal the fundamental physics involved in experimentalphenomena. Computer models of such theories are routinely used to corroborate or explain experiments and predict properties of chemical systems. Therefore, an important effort in computational chemistry is the development of more accurate and efficient chemical models. Current-generation models are only beginning to approach experimental-quality predictions of hydration free energies (HFEs).Using computations of quantum mechanical (QM) forces and classical simulations based on these forces, I investigate models to predict several properties of solutes and solutions. This dissertation is a collection of projects exemplifying methods used to gain insight into chemical systems ...


Useable Coarse-Grained Models For Semiconducting Polymers And Thermosets, Michael Montgomery Henry 2020 Boise State University

Useable Coarse-Grained Models For Semiconducting Polymers And Thermosets, Michael Montgomery Henry

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

This work aims to inform the formulation and processing of polymer mixtures through the use of models that have minimally sufficient complexity. Models with minimal complexity are easier to develop, understand, explain, and extend, all of which underpin model validation, verification, and reproducibility.

We develop simplified models for two different material systems, semiconducting polymers and thermosets. With the relatively low cost of predicting morphologies enabled by these models, we investigate structure-property-processing relationships in record system sizes and combinatorial parameter spaces. The insight from these models lays the foundation for improving the efficiency of organic solar cells and air travel.

The ...


Mathematical Modelling Of Temperature Effects On The Afd Neuron Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zachary Mobille, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa 2020 Illinois State University

Mathematical Modelling Of Temperature Effects On The Afd Neuron Of Caenorhabditis Elegans, Zachary Mobille, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


An Accurate Solution Of The Self-Similar Orbit-Averaged Fokker-Planck Equation For Core-Collapsing Isotropic Globular Clusters: Properties And Application, Yuta Ito 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

An Accurate Solution Of The Self-Similar Orbit-Averaged Fokker-Planck Equation For Core-Collapsing Isotropic Globular Clusters: Properties And Application, Yuta Ito

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hundreds of dense star clusters exist in almost all galaxies. Each cluster is composed of approximately ten thousand through ten million stars. The stars orbit in the clusters due to the clusters' self-gravity. Standard stellar dynamics expects that the clusters behave like collisionless self-gravitating systems on short time scales (~ million years) and the stars travel in smooth continuous orbits. Such clusters temporally settle to dynamically stable states or quasi-stationary states (QSS). Two fundamental QSS models are the isothermal- and polytropic- spheres since they have similar structures to the actual core (central part) and halo (outskirt) of the clusters. The two ...


Nano- And Micro-Structured Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels For Rapidly Responsive Devices, Qi Lu 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Nano- And Micro-Structured Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels For Rapidly Responsive Devices, Qi Lu

Doctoral Dissertations

This thesis aims to extend the understanding and explore the application of temperature-responsive hydrogel systems by integrating microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Stimuli-responsive hydrogel systems are immensely investigated and applied in numerous fields, and interfacing with micro- and nano-fabrication techniques will open up more possibilities.

In Chapter 2, the first biologically relevant, in vitro cell stretching device based on hydrogel surface instability was developed. This dynamic platform is constructed by embedding micro-heater devices under temperature-responsive surface-attached hydrogels. The fast and regional temperature change actuates the stretching and relaxation of the seeded human artery smooth muscle cell (HASMC) via controllable surface creasing instability ...


Kinetics Of The Crystal-Melt Phase Transformation In Semicrystalline Polymers, Kiran Subramaniam Iyer 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Kinetics Of The Crystal-Melt Phase Transformation In Semicrystalline Polymers, Kiran Subramaniam Iyer

Doctoral Dissertations

The assembly of long-chain polymers into an ordered state is a process that has puzzled polymer scientists for several decades. A process that is largely controlled by the strength of intermolecular attractions in small molecular systems, this crystallization in the case of polymers is controlled by a competition between the aforementioned force of attraction between monomers and the formidable conformational entropy of polymer chains. Any factor that affects this conformational entropy, whether that is an equilibrium thermodynamic factor or a kinetic factor, has the ability to control polymer crystallization. In this thesis, we focus on understanding the underlying kinetic processes ...


Generalized Hydrodynamic Analysis Of Transport Through A Finite Open Nanopore For Two-Component Single-File Systems, King C. Lai, Tyler J. Pleasant, Andrés García, James W. Evans 2020 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Generalized Hydrodynamic Analysis Of Transport Through A Finite Open Nanopore For Two-Component Single-File Systems, King C. Lai, Tyler J. Pleasant, Andrés García, James W. Evans

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Single-file diffusion (SFD) in finite open nanopores is characterized by nonzero spatially varying tracer diffusion coefficients within a generalized hydrodynamic description. This contrasts with infinite SFD systems where tracer diffusivity vanishes. In standard tracer counterpermeation (TCP) analysis, two reservoirs, each containing a different species, are connected to opposite ends of a finite pore. We implement an extended TCP analysis to allow the two reservoirs to contain slightly different mixtures of the two species. Then, determination of diffusion fluxes through the pore allows extraction of diffusion coefficients for near-constant partial concentrations of the two species. This analysis is applied for a ...


Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. DeWeese 2020 University of California Berkeley

Emergence, Mechanics, And Development: How Behavior And Geometry Underlie Cowrie Seashell Form, Michael G. Levy, Michael R. Deweese

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


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