Stability Of The Interface Between Two Immiscible Liquids During Injection Into A Tapered Hele-Shaw Cell, 2018 Purdue University

#### Stability Of The Interface Between Two Immiscible Liquids During Injection Into A Tapered Hele-Shaw Cell, Zihao Lin, Ivan C. Christov, Daihui Lu

*The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium*

In the early twentieth century, petroleum and mining engineers noticed that water does not displace oil uniformly. This phenomenon, when water penetrates through oil, is now known as viscous fingering. This discovery and the following extensive research have contributed to enhancing oil recovery. In this paper, we describe a numerical study conducted on the stability of the interface between two immiscible liquids in converging and diverging Hele-Shaw cells with varying gradients. Hele-Shaw cells are narrow flow geometries that mimic the properties of a porous medium with fixed permeability. By using computational tools built on the OpenFOAM platform, the multiphase flow ...

Fuel Flow Reduction Impact Analysis Of Drag Reducing Film Applied To Aircraft Wings, 2018 Southern Methodist University

#### Fuel Flow Reduction Impact Analysis Of Drag Reducing Film Applied To Aircraft Wings, Damon Resnick, Chris Donlan, Nimish Sakalle, Cody Pinkerman

*SMU Data Science Review*

In this paper, we present an analysis of flight data in order to determine whether the application of the Edge Aerodynamix Conformal Vortex Generator (CVG), applied to the wings of aircraft, reduces fuel flow during cruising conditions of flight. The CVG is a special treatment and film applied to the wings of an aircraft to protect the wings and reduce the non-laminar flow of air around the wings during flight. It is thought that by reducing the non-laminar flow or vortices around and directly behind the wings that an aircraft will move more smoothly through the air and provide a ...

Determining The Activation Energy Of Glucose Syrup Using The Arrhenius Equation, 2018 Queensland Academy SMT

#### Determining The Activation Energy Of Glucose Syrup Using The Arrhenius Equation, Utkarsh Sharma

*The International Student Science Fair 2018*

This experiment finds the activation energy of corn syrup using the Arrhenius equation. This was done through a simple experiment of dropping a ball into corn syrup and measuring its terminal velocity. From this, the viscosity could be derived, through the use of rearrangement of Newton’s First Law. The temperature of the corn syrup was also varied through the use of a microwave by raising it to 50 degrees Celsius. It is known that the more viscous a liquid is, the greater the activation energy for the liquid, which is essentially the energy barrier that a molecule has to ...

Finding Activation Energy Of Corn Syrup, 2018 Illinois Math and Science Academy

#### Finding Activation Energy Of Corn Syrup, Utkarsh Sharma

*The International Student Science Fair 2018*

This experiment finds the activation energy of corn syrup using the Arrhenius equation. This was done through a simple experiment of dropping a ball into corn syrup and measuring its terminal velocity. From this, the viscosity could be derived, through the use of rearrangement of Newton’s First Law. The temperature of the corn syrup was also varied through the use of a microwave by raising it to 50 degrees Celsius. It is known that the more viscous a liquid is, the greater the activation energy for the liquid, which is essentially the energy barrier that a molecule has to ...

Computer Design Of Microfluidic Mixers For Protein/Rna Folding Studies, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Computer Design Of Microfluidic Mixers For Protein/Rna Folding Studies, Venkatesh Inguva, Sagar V. Kathuria, Osman Bilsel, Blair James Perot

*Open Access Articles*

Kinetic studies of biological macromolecules increasingly use microfluidic mixers to initiate and monitor reaction progress. A motivation for using microfluidic mixers is to reduce sample consumption and decrease mixing time to microseconds. Some applications, such as small-angle x-ray scattering, also require large ( > 10 micron) sampling areas to ensure high signal-to-noise ratios and to minimize parasitic scattering. Chaotic to marginally turbulent mixers are well suited for these applications because this class of mixers provides a good middle ground between existing laminar and turbulent mixers. In this study, we model various chaotic to marginally turbulent mixing concepts such as flow turning, flow ...

Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Forward Spatter Of Blood From A Gunshot, 2018 University of Illinois at Chicago

#### Theoretical And Experimental Investigation Of Forward Spatter Of Blood From A Gunshot, P. M. Comiskey, A. L. Yarin, Daniel Attinger

*Mechanical Engineering Publications*

A theoretical model predicting forward blood spatter patterns resulting from a round nose bullet gunshot wound is proposed. The chaotic disintegration of a blood layer located ahead and aside of the bullet is considered in the framework of percolation theory. The size distribution of blood drops is determined, which allows for the prediction of a blood spatter cloud being ejected from the rear side of the target where the bullet exits. Then, droplet trajectories are numerically predicted accounting for gravity and air drag, which is affected by the collective aerodynamic interaction of drops through air. The model predicts the number ...

Elementary Computational Fluid Dynamics Using Finite-Difference Methods, 2018 Union College - Schenectady, NY

#### Elementary Computational Fluid Dynamics Using Finite-Difference Methods, Jason Turner, Scott Labrake

*Honors Theses*

Fluids permeate all of human existence, and fluid dynamics serves as a rich field of research for many physicists. Although the mathematics involved in studying fluids tends to get complicated, the physical intuition gained through daily exposure to such systems bridges the gap between abstract calculations and their physical meaning. We discuss the mathematical treatment and simulations of fluid flows found in everyday life, such as flow in a cavity and through a pipe. Our discussions follow the example set by several notable texts, referenced in the document.

The Drag Coefficient Of Varying Dimple Patterns, 2018 Linfield College

#### The Drag Coefficient Of Varying Dimple Patterns, James M. Seeley, Michael S. Crosser

*Senior Theses*

There are many golf balls on the market today with varying dimple sizes, shapes, and distribution. These proprietary differences are all designed to reduce drag on the balls during flight, allowing golfers to hit the ball farther distances. There are limited published studies comparing how varying the dimples affects the reduction of drag. An experiment was developed in which golf balls were pulled through a water tank to measure the drag force acting on each ball. The water was chosen to allow for testing at slower velocities than the typical necessary speeds to cause turbulence for balls traveling in air ...

The Advection-Diffusion Equation And The Enhanced Dissipation Effect For Flows Generated By Hamiltonians, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### The Advection-Diffusion Equation And The Enhanced Dissipation Effect For Flows Generated By Hamiltonians, Michael Kumaresan

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We study the Cauchy problem for the advection-diffusion equation when the diffusive parameter is vanishingly small. We consider two cases - when the underlying flow is a shear flow, and when the underlying flow is generated by a Hamiltonian. For the former, we examine the problem on a bounded domain in two spatial variables with Dirichlet boundary conditions. After quantizing the system via the Fourier transform in the first spatial variable, we establish the enhanced-dissipation effect for each mode. For the latter, we allow for non-degenerate critical points and represent the orbits by points on a Reeb graph, with vertices representing ...

Physical Applications Of The Geometric Minimum Action Method, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Physical Applications Of The Geometric Minimum Action Method, George L. Poppe Jr.

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This thesis extends the landscape of rare events problems solved on stochastic systems by means of the \textit{geometric minimum action method} (gMAM). These include partial differential equations (PDEs) such as the real Ginzburg-Landau equation (RGLE), the linear Schroedinger equation, along with various forms of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) including an application towards an ultra-short pulse mode-locked laser system (MLL).

Additionally we develop analytical tools that can be used alongside numerics to validate those solutions. This includes the use of instanton methods in deriving state transitions for the linear Schroedinger equation and the cubic diffusive NLSE.

These analytical solutions ...

Swelling As A Stabilizing Mechanism During Ion Bombardment Of Thin Films: An Analytical And Numerical Study, 2018 Southern Methodist University

#### Swelling As A Stabilizing Mechanism During Ion Bombardment Of Thin Films: An Analytical And Numerical Study, Jennifer M. Swenson

*Mathematics Theses and Dissertations*

Irradiation of semiconductor surfaces often leads to the spontaneous formation of rippled structures at certain irradiation angles. However, at high enough energies, these structures are observed to vanish for all angles, despite the absence of any identified, universally-stabilizing physical mechanisms in operation. Here, we examine the effect on pattern formation of radiation-induced swelling, which has been excluded from prior treatments of stress in irradiated films. After developing a suitable continuum model, we perform a linear stability analysis to determine its effect on stability. Under appropriate simplifying assumptions, we find swelling indeed to be stabilizing at wavenumbers typical of experimental observations ...

A Comparison Of The Diel Cycle Of Modeled And Measured Latent Heat Flux During The Warm Season In A Colorado Subalpine Forest, 2018 CU + NCAR

#### A Comparison Of The Diel Cycle Of Modeled And Measured Latent Heat Flux During The Warm Season In A Colorado Subalpine Forest, Sean P. Burns, Sean C. Swenson, William R. Wieder, David M. Lawrence, Gordon B. Bonan, John F. Knowles, Peter D. Blanken

*University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications*

Precipitation changes the physiological characteristics of an ecosystem. Because land-surface models are often used to project changes in the hydrological cycle, modeling the effect of precipitation on the latent heat flux E is an important aspect of land-surface models. Here we contrast conditionally sampled diel composites of the eddy-covariance fluxes from the Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux tower with the Community Land Model (CLM, version 4.5). With respect to measured E during the warm season: for the day following above-average precipitation, E was enhanced at midday by ≈40 W m−2 (relative to dry conditions), and nocturnal E increased ...

An Asymptotic Analysis For Generation Of Unsteady Surface Waves On Deep Water By Turbulence, 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

#### An Asymptotic Analysis For Generation Of Unsteady Surface Waves On Deep Water By Turbulence, Shahrdad Sajjadi

*Publications*

The detailed mathematical study of the recent paper by Sajjadi, Hunt and Drullion (2014) is presented. The mathematical developement considered by them, for unsteady growing monochromatic waves is also extended to Stokes waves. The present contribution also demonstrates agreement with the pioneering work of Belcher and Hunt (1993) which is valid in the limit of the complex part of the wave phase speed c_{i }↓ 0. It is further shown that the energy-transfer parameter and the surface shear stress for a Stokes wave reverts to a monochromatic wave when the second harmonic is excluded. Furthermore, the present theory can be ...

Electroosmotic Flow Of Viscoelastic Fluid In A Nanoslit, 2018 Old Dominion University

#### Electroosmotic Flow Of Viscoelastic Fluid In A Nanoslit, Lanju Mei, Hongna Zhang, Hongxia Meng, Shizhi Qian

*Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications*

The electroosmotic flow (EOF) of viscoelastic fluid in a long nanoslit is numerically studied to investigate the rheological property effect of Linear Phan-Thien-Tanner (LPTT) fluid on the fully developed EOF. The non-linear Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations governing the electric potential and the ionic concentration distribution within the channel are adopted to take into account the effect of the electrical double layer (EDL), including the EDL overlap. When the EDL is not overlapped, the velocity profiles for both Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids are plug-like and increase sharply near the charged wall. The velocity profile resembles that of pressure-driven flow when the EDL is ...

An Open-Source Quadrature-Based Population Balance Solver For Openfoam, 2018 Iowa State University

#### An Open-Source Quadrature-Based Population Balance Solver For Openfoam, Alberto Passalacqua, Frédérique Laurent, Ehsan Madadi-Kandjani, Jeffrey C. Heylmun, Rodney O. Fox

*Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications*

The extended quadrature method of moments (EQMOM) for the solution of population balance equations (PBE) is implemented in the open-source computational fluid dynamic (CFD) toolbox OpenFOAM as part of the OpenQBMM project. The moment inversion procedure was designed (Nguyen et al., 2016) to maximize the number of conserved moments in the transported moment set. The algorithm is implemented in a general structure to allow the addition of other kernel density functions defined on R+, and arbitrary kernels to describe physical phenomena involved in the evolution of the number density function. The implementation is verified with a set of zero-dimensional cases ...

Mechanisms And Identification Of Unsteady Separation Development And Remediation, 2018 Portland State University

#### Mechanisms And Identification Of Unsteady Separation Development And Remediation, Matthew Scott Melius

*Dissertations and Theses*

Unsteady flow separation represents a highly complex and important area of study within fluid mechanics. The extent of separation and specific time scales over which it occurs are not fully understood and has significant consequences in numerous industrial applications such as helicopters, jet engines, hydroelectric turbines and wind turbines. A direct consequence of unsteady separation is the erratic movement of the separation point which causes highly dynamic and unpredictable loads on an airfoil. Current computational models underestimate the aerodynamic loads due to the inaccurate prediction of the emergence and severity of unsteady flow separation especially in response to a sudden ...

Hydrodynamic Forces Acting On A Moving Hand, 2018 Hamline University

#### Hydrodynamic Forces Acting On A Moving Hand, Elizabeth A. Gregorio

*Departmental Honors Projects*

The greatest amount of direct propulsion during swimming comes from the force exerted by the hand. It is possible for a swimmer to create a higher effective surface area of the hand by slightly spreading their fingers during the pull phase of the stroke. This phenomenon occurs because of the dynamic forces acting on the hand while it moves through the water. This investigation explores and compares how computational and experimental results suggest the occurrence of this phenomena. This is done first with a simple model of the four fingers (not including the thumb), held with different separations (0.0cm ...

Reduced Models Of Point Vortex Systems In Quasigeostrophic Fluid Dynamics, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Reduced Models Of Point Vortex Systems In Quasigeostrophic Fluid Dynamics, Jonathan Maack

*Doctoral Dissertations*

We develop a nonequilibrium statistical mechanical description of the evolution of point vortex systems governed by either the Euler, single-layer quasigeostrophic or two-layer quasigeostrophic equations. Our approach is based on a recently proposed optimal closure procedure for deriving reduced models of Hamiltonian systems. In this theory the statistical evolution is kept within a parametric family of distributions based on the resolved variables chosen to describe the macrostate of the system. The approximate evolution is matched as closely as possible to the true evolution by minimizing the mean-squared residual in the Liouville equation, a metric which quantifies the information loss rate ...

Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Streamwise Flow-Induced Oscillations Of Bluff Bodies - The Influence Of Symmetry Breaking, Tyler Gurian

*Masters Theses*

The influence of symmetry breaking on the flow induced oscillations of bluff bodies in the steamwise direction is studied. First, a series of experiments is conducted on a one-degree-of-freedom circular cylinder allowed to exhibit pure translational motion in the streamwise direction over a range of reduced velocities, 1.4 <* U* *< 4.4, corresponding to a Reynolds number range of 970 < *Re* < 3370. Two distinct regions of displacements were observed in reduced velocity ranges of 1.6 < *U** < 2.5 and 2.75 < *U** < 3.85. Measured force coefficients in the drag and lift direction were examined, along with the wake visualization, through the range of reduced velocities, to infer the resulting wake modes. A new Alternating Symmetric (AS) mode was found. This transition from symmetric to AS shedding occurred near the end of the first region of response. Similar tests were run with a square prism in the parameter space of 2.4 < *U** < 5.8 and 757 < *Re* < 1900 over angles of incidence of 0° ≤ *α *≤ 45°. A distinct region of lock-in is observed for *α* = 0°, 2.5°, 5°, 7.5° over 3.2 < *U** < 5.4 for *α* = 0°, and decreasing with increasing *α*. The wake structures were found to be roughly symmetric for *α* = 0°, but transitioned towards asymmetry with ...

Dynamic Control Of Particle Separation In Deterministic Lateral Displacement Separator With Viscoelastic Fluids, 2018 Old Dominion University

#### Dynamic Control Of Particle Separation In Deterministic Lateral Displacement Separator With Viscoelastic Fluids, Yuke Li, Hongna Zhang, Yongyao Li, Xiaobin Li, Jian Wu, Shizhi Qian, Fengchen Li

*Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications*

We proposed an innovative method to achieve dynamic control of particle separation by employing viscoelastic fluids in deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. The effects of shear-thinning and elasticity of working fluids on the critical separation size in DLD arrays are investigated. It is observed that each effect can lead to the variation of the critical separation size by approximately 40%. Since the elasticity strength of the fluid is related to the shear rate, the dynamic control can for the first time be easily realized through tuning the flow rate in microchannels.