Some 2-Categorical Aspects In Physics, 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Some 2-Categorical Aspects In Physics, Arthur Parzygnat

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

2-categories provide a useful transition point between ordinary category theory and infinity-category theory where one can perform concrete computations for applications in physics and at the same time provide rigorous formalism for mathematical structures appearing in physics. We survey three such broad instances. First, we describe two-dimensional algebra as a means of constructing non-abelian parallel transport along surfaces which can be used to describe strings charged under non-abelian gauge groups in string theory. Second, we formalize the notion of convex and cone categories, provide a preliminary categorical definition of entropy, and exhibit several examples. Thirdly, we provide a universal description ...

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, 2016 University of Dayton

#### Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

*Kevin Hallinan*

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...

Theoretical Analysis Of Single Molecule Spectroscopy Lineshapes Of Conjugated Polymers, 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Theoretical Analysis Of Single Molecule Spectroscopy Lineshapes Of Conjugated Polymers, Murali Devi

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Conjugated Polymers(CPs) exhibit a wide range of highly tunable optical properties. Quantitative and detailed understanding of the nature of excitons responsible for such a rich optical behavior has significant implications for better utilization of CPs for more efficient plastic solar cells and other novel optoelectronic devices. In general, samples of CPs are plagued with substantial inhomogeneous broadening due to various sources of disorder. Single molecule emission spectroscopy (SMES) offers a unique opportunity to investigate the energetics and dynamics of excitons and their interactions with phonon modes. The major subject of the present thesis is to analyze and understand room ...

Elements Of The Mathematical Formulation Of Quantum Mechanics, 2016 Washington University in Saint Louis

#### Elements Of The Mathematical Formulation Of Quantum Mechanics, Keunjae Go

*Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses*

In this paper, we will explore some of the basic elements of the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. In the first section, I will list the motivations for introducing a probability model that is quite different from that of the classical probability theory, but still shares quite a few significant commonalities. Later in the paper, I will discuss the quantum probability theory in detail, while paying a brief attention to some of the axioms (by Birkhoff and von Neumann) that illustrate both the commonalities and differences between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. This paper will end with a presentation of ...

Totally Positive Density Matrices And Linear Preservers, 2016 University of Guelph

#### Totally Positive Density Matrices And Linear Preservers, David Kribs, Jeremy Levick, Rajesh Pereira

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

The intersection between the set of totally nonnegative matrices, which are of interest in many areas of matrix theory and its applications, and the set of density matrices, which provide the mathematical description of quantum states, are investigated. The single qubit case is characterized, and several equivalent conditions for a quantum channel to preserve the set in that case are given. Higher dimensional cases are also discussed.

Fundamental Awareness: A Framework For Integrating Science, Philosophy And Metaphysics, 2016 Icahn School of Medicine

#### Fundamental Awareness: A Framework For Integrating Science, Philosophy And Metaphysics, Neil D. Theise, Menas Kafatos

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world ...

Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

#### Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, Luke Horowitz

*Physics*

An apparatus for detecting pairs of entangled 405nm photons that have undergone Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion through β-Barium Borate is described. By using avalanche photo-diodes to detect the low-intensity converted beam and a coincidence module to register coincident photons, it is possible to create an apparatus than can be used to perform quantum information experiments under a budget appropriate for an undergraduate physics lab.

Nonlocality Of The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, 2016 Chapman University

#### Nonlocality Of The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Yakir Aharonov, Eliahu Cohen, Daniel Rohrlich

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

Although the Aharonov-Bohm and related effects are familiar in solid-state and high-energy physics, the nonlocality of these effects has been questioned. Here we show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect has two very different aspects. One aspect is instantaneous and nonlocal; the other aspect, which depends on entanglement, unfolds continuously over time. While local, gauge-invariant variables may occasionally suffice for explaining the continuous aspect, we argue that they cannot explain the instantaneous aspect. Thus the Aharonov-Bohm effect is, in general, nonlocal.

Universal Scaling Properties After Quantum Quenches, 2016 The University of Western Ontario

#### Universal Scaling Properties After Quantum Quenches, Damian Andres Galante

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

In this Thesis, the problem of a quantum quench in quantum field theories is analyzed. This involves studying the real time evolution of observables in a theory that undergoes a change in one of its couplings. These quenches are then characterized by two parameters: $\delta \lambda$, the magnitude of the quench and most importantly, $\delta t$, the quench duration. In contrast to previous studies of abrupt quenches in the condensed matter theory community, we will be interested in smooth quenches with a finite $\delta t$.

Motivated by existing results in holographic theories, we studied the problem of a fast smooth ...

Kl−Ks Mass Difference And Supersymmetric Left-Right-Symmetric Theories, 2016 Loyola University Chicago

#### Kl−Ks Mass Difference And Supersymmetric Left-Right-Symmetric Theories, Asim Gangopadhyaya

*Asim Gangopadhyaya*

The supersymmetric contributions to the K_{L}−K_{S} mass difference makes the previously obtained bounds on the right-handed scale (M_{R}>1.6 TeV) much weaker. This raises the interesting possibility that the left-right model could be tested as an alternative to SU_{L}(2)⊗U(1) at low energies. Also we find that to demand that the supersymmetric contribution to the K_{L}−K_{S} mass difference be less than 3.5×10^{−15} GeV requires that scalar-quark masses be more than 400 GeV.

Bose-Einstein Condensation Of Potassium Atoms By Sympathetic Cooling, 2016 Universita di Firenze and Istituto Nazionale

#### Bose-Einstein Condensation Of Potassium Atoms By Sympathetic Cooling, Giovanni Modugno, Gabriele Ferrari, Giacomo Roati, Robert Brecha, A. Simoni, Massimo Inguscio

*Robert J. Brecha*

We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms, whereby quantum degeneracy is achieved by sympathetic cooling with evaporatively cooled rubidium. Because of the rapid thermalization of the two different atoms, the efficiency of the cooling process is high. The ability to achieve condensation by sympathetic cooling with a different species may provide a route to the production of degenerate systems with a larger choice of components.

Collapse Of A Degenerate Fermi Gas, 2016 Universita di Firenze and Istituto Nazionale

#### Collapse Of A Degenerate Fermi Gas, Giovanni Modugno, Giacomo Roati, Francesco Riboli, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Massimo Inguscio

*Robert J. Brecha*

A degenerate gas of identical fermions is brought to collapse by the interaction with a Bose-Einstein condensate. We used an atomic mixture of fermionic potassium-40 and bosonic rubidium-87, in which the strong interspecies attraction leads to an instability above a critical number of particles. The observed phenomenon suggests a direction for manipulating fermion-fermion interactions on the route to superfluidity.

Cost Optimization With Solar And Conventional Energy Production, Energy Storage, And Real Time Pricing, 2016 University of Dayton

#### Cost Optimization With Solar And Conventional Energy Production, Energy Storage, And Real Time Pricing, Ata Raziei, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

*Robert J. Brecha*

Research is presented that investigates the potential for solar power generation with battery energy storage for reducing the effective cost of energy delivered to residential customers if real time pricing is present. A linear optimization approach is developed based upon a two-step process. In step one, given a specified solar array area and battery capacity, the optimal means to meet loads based upon grid power, solar power, and/or battery power is determined. This analysis considers an expected lifespan of the solar panel. With these results established, in the next step, the capital costs for the solar arrays and batteries ...

Dipolar Oscillations In A Quantum Degenerate Fermi–Bose Atomic Mixture, 2016 Universita di Firenze and Istituto Nazionale

#### Dipolar Oscillations In A Quantum Degenerate Fermi–Bose Atomic Mixture, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Peter Hannaford, Francesco Riboli, Giacomo Roati, Giovanni Modugno, Massimo Inguscio

*Robert J. Brecha*

We study the dynamics of coupled dipolar oscillations in a Fermi–Bose mixture of 40K and 87Rb atoms. This low-energy collective mode is strongly affected by the interspecies interactions. Measurements are performed in the classical and quantum degenerate regimes and reveal the crucial role of the statistical properties of the mixture. At the onset of quantum degeneracy, we investigate the role of Pauli blocking and superfluidity for K and Rb atoms, respectively, resulting in a change in the collisional interactions.

Zncdmgse As A Materials Platform For Advanced Photonic Devices: Broadband Quantum Cascade Detectors And Green Semiconductor Disk Lasers, 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Zncdmgse As A Materials Platform For Advanced Photonic Devices: Broadband Quantum Cascade Detectors And Green Semiconductor Disk Lasers, Joel De Jesus

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The ZnCdMgSe family of II-VI materials has unique and promising characteristics that may be useful in practical applications. For example they can be grown lattice matched to InP substrates with lattice matched bandgaps that span from 2.1 to 3.5 eV, they can be successfully doped n-type, have a large conduction band offset (CBO) with no intervalley scattering present when strained, they have lower average phonon energies, and the InP lattice constant lies in the middle of the ZnSe and CdSe binaries compounds giving room to experiment with tensile and compressive stress. However they have not been studied in ...

The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

#### The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert Brecha

*Robert J. Brecha*

By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent ...

Analyzing Major Challenges Of Wind And Solar Variability In Power Systems, 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

#### Analyzing Major Challenges Of Wind And Solar Variability In Power Systems, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert Brecha, Gunnar Luderer

*Robert J. Brecha*

Ambitious policy targets together with current and projected high growth rates indicate that future power systems will likely show substantially increased generation from renewable energy sources. A large share will come from the variable renewable energy (VRE) sources wind and solar photovoltaics (PV); however, integrating wind and solar causes challenges for existing power systems. In this paper we analyze three major integration challenges related to the structural matching of demand with the supply of wind and solar power: low capacity credit, reduced utilization of dispatchable plants, and over-produced generation. Based on residual load duration curves we define corresponding challenge variables ...

Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

#### Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler

*Robert J. Brecha*

We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs of resource extraction and commodity prices on international markets. We explain this observation in terms of (a) the intertemporal scarcity rent, (b) regional price differentials arising from trade and transport costs, (c) heterogeneity and inertia in the extraction sector. These effects are captured by the REMIND model. We use the model to explore economic effects of changes ...

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, 2016 University of Dayton

#### Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha

*Robert J. Brecha*

Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the ...

Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, 2016 University of Dayton

#### Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

*Robert J. Brecha*

A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input-output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can ...