Structural Factors Of An Electron As The Spinning Tetrahedral Structure Composed Of Fractional Charges, 2024 Suffolk University

#### Structural Factors Of An Electron As The Spinning Tetrahedral Structure Composed Of Fractional Charges, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

**Abstract**

As suggested in our papers [1,2], the elementary particles of the 1^{st} generation such as an electron, quarks, and neutral particles, are all spinning composite structures made of basic elementary particles of fractional charges +- e/3. The tetrahedral structure of an electron was suggested as one of the possible composite structures of that particle. The structure consists of one positive and four negative charges of magnitude e/3, with one positive and one negative charge located on the axis of rotation and three negative charges revolving about the axis. In this paper, the form factors such as the angles …

How Are Entanglement Entropies Related To Entropy Bounds?, 2024 Chapman University

#### How Are Entanglement Entropies Related To Entropy Bounds?, Emily Adlam

*Philosophy Faculty Articles and Research*

In this paper we seek to understand what current knowledge of entanglement entropies suggests about the appropriate way to interpret the covariant entropy bound. We first begin by arguing that just as in the classical case, a universal bound on the von Neumann entropy could have either an epistemic or ontological origin. We then consider several possible ways of explaining the bound as a consequence of features of the entanglement entropy. We discuss consider area laws in condensed matter and quantum field theory, arguing that they suggest an epistemic reading of the bound. We also discuss the ‘spacetime from entanglement’ …

#### A Thesis, Or Digressions On Sculptural Practice: In Which, Concepts & Influences Thereof Are Explained, Set Forth, Catalogued, Or Divulged By Way Of Commentaries To A Poem, First Conceived By The Artist, Fed Through Chatg.P.T., And Re-Edited By The Artist, To Which Are Added, Annotated References, Impressions And Ruminations Thereof, Also Including Private Thoughts & Personal Accounts Of The Artist, Jaimie An

*Masters Theses*

This thesis is an exercise in, perhaps a futile, attempt to trace just some of the ideas, stories, and musings I might meander through in my process. It’s not quite a map, nor is it a neat catalogue; it is a haphazard collection of tickets and receipts from a travel abroad, carelessly tossed in a carry-on, only to be stashed upon returning home. These ideas are derived from much greater thinkers and authors than myself; I am a mere collector or a translator, if that, and not a very good one, for much is lost. I do not claim comprehensive …

Quantics Tensor Trains: The Study Of A Continuous Lattice Model And Beyond, 2024 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Quantics Tensor Trains: The Study Of A Continuous Lattice Model And Beyond, Aleix Bou Comas

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This four-chapter dissertation studies the efficient discretization of continuous variable functions with tensor train representation. The first chapter describes all the methodology used to discretize functions and store them efficiently. In this section, the algorithm tensor renormalization group is explained for self-containment purposes. The second chapter centers around the XY model. Quantics tensor trains are used to describe the transfer matrix of the model and compute one and two-dimensional quantities. The one dimensional magnitudes are compared to analytical results with an agreement close to machine precision. As for two dimensions, the analytical results cannot be computed. However, the critical temperature …

Representation Theory And Its Applications In Physics, 2024 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

#### Representation Theory And Its Applications In Physics, Max Varverakis

*Master's Theses*

Representation theory, which encodes the elements of a group as linear operators on a vector space, has far-reaching implications in physics. Fundamental results in quantum physics emerge directly from the representations describing physical symmetries. We first examine the connections between specific representations and the principles of quantum mechanics. Then, we shift our focus to the braid group, which describes the algebraic structure of braids. We apply representations of the braid group to physical systems in order to investigate quasiparticles known as anyons. Finally, we obtain governing equations of anyonic systems to highlight the differences between braiding statistics and conventional Bose-Einstein/Fermi-Dirac …

Multimode Metamaterial Ring Resonator As An Entangling Bus For Artificial Atoms, 2024 Syracuse University

#### Multimode Metamaterial Ring Resonator As An Entangling Bus For Artificial Atoms, Tianna Carroll

*Dissertations - ALL*

Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) systems with superconducting qubits coupled to linear microwave resonators are a prominent platform for realizing scalable quantum information processors. Combining cQED architectures with multimode resonators leads to a broad set of applications for performing analog quantum simulation, implementing dense quantum memory, and generating multimode entangled states between physically distant qubits. Microwave resonators in cQED are typically formed from distributed transmission lines that exhibit conventional dispersion with harmonic mode spacing; in such systems, usually only a single resonant mode can be strongly coupled to a qubit. Superconducting metamaterial resonators comprised of lumped circuit elements can be designed …

A Realist Interpretation Of Unitarity In Quantum Gravity, 2024 Chapman University

#### A Realist Interpretation Of Unitarity In Quantum Gravity, Indrajit Sen, Stephon Alexander, Justin Dressel

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

Unitarity is a difficult concept to implement in canonical quantum gravity because of state non-normalisability and the problem of time. We take a realist approach based on pilot-wave theory to address this issue in the Ashtekar formulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. We use the postulate of a definite configuration in the theory to define a global time for the gravitational-fermionic system recently discussed in Alexander *et al* (2022 *Phys. Rev.* D **106** 106012), by parameterising a variation of a Weyl-spinor that depends on the Kodama state. The total Hamiltonian constraint yields a time-dependent Schrodinger equation, without semi-classical approximations, which we …

Development Of A High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Apparatus For The Study Of Methane And Other Astrochemical Molecules., 2024 University of Louisville

#### Development Of A High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Apparatus For The Study Of Methane And Other Astrochemical Molecules., S M Shah Riyadh

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

This research documents steps towards building a novel spectroscopic technique, namely, cavity-enhanced double-resonance (CEDR) spectroscopy, for investigating methane (CH_{4}) and other molecules with significance in astrochemistry. These efforts focus on tackling the complexities of their ro-vibrational energy levels and the inefficiencies in analyzing vibrational spectra, particularly for molecules with high symmetry and strong intramolecular interactions. In the CEDR spectroscopy, the first photon, generated by a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (CW-OPO) locked to a Doppler-free saturation absorption line, excites the molecule from its ground level to a selected excited ro-vibrational (rotational-vibrational) level, e.g., that of the asymmetric CH-stretch mode. …

Improving The Scalability Of Neural Network Surface Code Decoders, 2024 William & Mary

#### Improving The Scalability Of Neural Network Surface Code Decoders, Kevin Wu

*Undergraduate Honors Theses*

Quantum computers have recently gained significant recognition due to their ability to solve problems intractable to classical computers. However, due to difficulties in building actual quantum computers, they have large error rates. Thus, advancements in quantum error correction are urgently needed to improve both their reliability and scalability. Here, we first present a type of topological quantum error correction code called the surface code, and we discuss recent developments and challenges of creating neural network decoders for surface codes. In particular, the amount of training data needed to reach the performance of algorithmic decoders grows exponentially with the size of …

The Search For Photonuclear Interactions Of Muons Utilizing Test Beam Data At The Large Hadron Collider, 2024 University of Texas at Arlington

#### The Search For Photonuclear Interactions Of Muons Utilizing Test Beam Data At The Large Hadron Collider, Miranda M. Williams

*2024 Spring Honors Capstone Projects*

The ATLAS Detector is one of four different types of detectors within the Large Hadron Collider and is used to study the fundamental theories of the universe. Within the ATLAS experiment, beams of known composition and energies – otherwise known as “test beams” – are one of the many methods used to study specific physical phenomena. In this study, a test beam of muons with an energy of 160 GeV was analyzed to search for evidence of photonuclear interactions. This necessitated analyzing and filtering over 50,000 total events using specific parameters that would indicate such an event had occurred. To …

Two-Photon Quantum Gates With Single Atoms, 2024 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

#### Two-Photon Quantum Gates With Single Atoms, Arkan Mahmood Hassan

*Graduate Theses and Dissertations*

In the first part of this dissertation we study in detail the interaction of single-photon and two-photon wavepackets with a three-level V-type atom in a cavity without any control over the interaction time. We solve analytically for the spectrum of the outgoing wavepackets as a function of the incident wavepacket that is valid in all the cavity limits. We consider the potential performance of this system as a CPHASE gate by considering several special input pulses. We optimize for the gate fidelity and find values of the cavity, atomic and pulse parameters that yield a conditional phase shift of π, …

Towards Continuous Variable Quantum Computation Of Lattice Gauge Theories, 2024 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

#### Towards Continuous Variable Quantum Computation Of Lattice Gauge Theories, Shane Nicklaus Thompson

*Doctoral Dissertations*

The calculation of physical quantities in a relativistic quantum field theory (rQFT) is a computationally demanding task due to the presence of an infinite number of degrees of freedom. This problem carries over to discretized versions of these theories, i.e. lattice field theories, where the Hilbert space size increases exponentially with the size of the lattice. Despite the success of some classical techniques such as Monte Carlo, their applicability is limited. For instance, Monte Carlo is associated with a sign problem that makes real-time evolution and high-fermion-density systems particularly challenging to compute. Quantum computation is a promising avenue thanks to …

Experimental Quantum Key Distribution In Turbulent Channels, 2024 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

#### Experimental Quantum Key Distribution In Turbulent Channels, Kazi Mh Reaz

*Doctoral Dissertations*

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) ensures security by relying on the laws of quantum physics rather than the mathematical intricacy of encryption algorithms. The transmission medium is a critical restricting factor for any quantum communication protocol. Fiber-based optical networks suffer great losses, making quantum communication impossible beyond metropolitan scales. Here free-space quantum communication can be a great alternative for long-distance communication. Even though modern Communications are mostly wireless the atmosphere poses a challenge for QKD. So QKD must be resistant to both atmospheric loss and variations in transmittance. In this thesis we conduct an experiment to strengthen the BB84 protocol's resistance …

Gate-Controlled Supercurrent Effect In Dry-Etched Dayem Bridges Of Non-Centrosymmetric Niobium Rhenium, 2024 University of Konstanz

#### Gate-Controlled Supercurrent Effect In Dry-Etched Dayem Bridges Of Non-Centrosymmetric Niobium Rhenium, Jennifer Koch, Carla Cirillo, Sebastiano Battisti, Leon Ruf, Zahra Makhdoumi Kakhaki, Alessandro Paghi, Armen Gulian, Serafim Teknowijoyo, Giorgio De Simoni, Francesco Giazotto, Carmine Attanasio, Elke Scheer, Angelo Di Bernardo

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

The application of a gate voltage to control the superconducting current flowing through a nanoscale superconducting constriction, named as gate-controlled supercurrent (GCS), has raised great interest for fundamental and technological reasons. To gain a deeper understanding of this effect and develop superconducting technologies based on it, the material and physical parameters crucial for the GCS effect must be identified. Top-down fabrication protocols should also be optimized to increase device scalability, although studies suggest that top-down fabricated devices are more resilient to show a GCS. Here, we investigate gated superconducting nanobridges made with a top-down fabrication process from thin films of …

Plasma Diagnostics For Anode Cathode Plasmas And High Energy Density Physics On A Linear Transformer Driver, 2024 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

#### Plasma Diagnostics For Anode Cathode Plasmas And High Energy Density Physics On A Linear Transformer Driver, Robert Beattie-Rossberg

*Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs*

A twelve-brick air insulated linear transformer driver (LTD) was characterized by charging to voltages ranging from 30 to 70 kV and delivering energy to two separate resistive loads. Various plasma diagnostics were built and fielded with an emphasis on the design, implementation and analysis of a Mach Zehnder interferometer, a moiré deflectometer and a spectroscopy system providing information on the temporal evolution of plasma electron density and atomic composition. Rogowski coils, XRD radiation detectors, framing camera images and time integrated DSLR images are used to further understand load conditions where current data, x ray radiation data, velocity data and instability …

The Black-To-White Hole Transition, 2024 Western University

#### The Black-To-White Hole Transition, Farshid Soltani

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Classically, an isolated black hole is a stable gravitational object. If however semiclassical effects are taken into account, an isolated black hole can be shown to slowly radiate its mass away in a process called evaporation. At the end of the evaporation process, when the size of the horizon becomes Planckian, the quantum nature of the gravitational field can no longer be neglected and the dynamics of the horizon is governed by quantum gravity. The main objective of this thesis is the systematic investigation of a tentative scenario for the “end of the life” of a black hole: the black-to-white …

Longitudinal Solid Polarized Target For Clas12 And Study Of Spin Structure Of Nucleons, 2024 Old Dominion University

#### Longitudinal Solid Polarized Target For Clas12 And Study Of Spin Structure Of Nucleons, Pushpa Pandey

*Physics Theses & Dissertations*

A suite of experiments measuring target-spin observables in electron-nucleon scattering (dubbed Run Group C) was conducted at Jefferson Lab’s Hall B in Newport News, VA with a new polarized nuclear target known as ‘APOLLO’ (Ammonia Polarized Longitudinally). This innovative target is engineered to seamlessly integrate with the advanced 12 GeV CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator and the Hall B CLAS12 (12 GeV CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer) detector array. The ‘APOLLO’ target harnesses the power of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) to achieve longitudinal polarization of solid ammonia, thereby creating a net polarization in both protons (NH_{3}) and …

Toward Local Madelung Mechanics In Spacetime, 2024 Chapman University

#### Toward Local Madelung Mechanics In Spacetime, Mordecai Waegell

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

It has recently been shown that relativistic quantum theory leads to a local interpretation of quantum mechanics wherein the universal wavefunction in configuration space is entirely replaced with an ensemble of local fluid equations in spacetime. For want of a fully relativistic quantum fluid treatment, we develop a model using the nonrelativistic Madelung equations, and obtain conditions for them to be local in spacetime. Every particle in the Madelung fluid is equally real, and has a definite position, momentum, kinetic energy, and potential energy. These are obtained by defining quantum momentum and kinetic energy densities for the fluid and separating …

Mechanistic Investigation Of C—C Bond Activation Of Phosphaalkynes With Pt(0) Complexes, 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

#### Mechanistic Investigation Of C—C Bond Activation Of Phosphaalkynes With Pt(0) Complexes, Roberto M. Escobar, Abdurrahman C. Ateşin, Christian Müller, William D. Jones, Tülay Ateşin

*Research Symposium*

Carbon–carbon (C–C) bond activation has gained increased attention as a direct method for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Due to the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inaccessibility of the C–C bonds, however, activation of C–C bonds by homogeneous transition-metal catalysts under mild homogeneous conditions is still a challenge. Most of the systems in which the activation occurs either have aromatization or relief of ring strain as the primary driving force. The activation of unstrained C–C bonds of phosphaalkynes does not have this advantage. This study employs Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to elucidate Pt(0)-mediated C–CP bond activation mechanisms in phosphaalkynes. Investigating the …

Alternative Robust Ways Of Witnessing Nonclassicality In The Simplest Scenario, 2024 University of California, Santa Barbara

#### Alternative Robust Ways Of Witnessing Nonclassicality In The Simplest Scenario, Massy Khoshbin, Lorenzo Catani, Matthew Leifer

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

In this paper we relate notions of nonclassicality in what is known as the simplest nontrivial scenario (a prepare and measure scenario composed of four preparations and two binary-outcome tomographically complete measurements). Specifically, we relate the established method developed by Pusey [M. F. Pusey, Phys. Rev. A **98**, 022112 (2018)] to witness a violation of preparation noncontextuality, that is not suitable in experiments where the operational equivalences to be tested are specified in advance, with an approach based on the notion of bounded ontological distinctness for preparations, defined by Chaturvedi and Saha [A. Chaturvedi and D. Saha, Quantum …