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All Articles in Quantum Physics

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516 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

Art As A Tool In Quantum Mechanics, Zachary Vealey 2016 Oglethopre University

Art As A Tool In Quantum Mechanics, Zachary Vealey

Oglethorpe Journal of Undergraduate Research

Revolutions in scientific thought often have substantial societal consequences, however, cultural assimilation of the new idea is contingent on a widespread understanding. Historically recent developments in modern physics, such as quantum mechanics and general relativity, suffer from their notoriously perceived difficulty, thus hindering cultural assimilation. To address this issue, art can serve as a useful complement to a student studying quantum mechanics - especially through its interpretation of delocalized electron density. A cross-disciplinary approach affords a greater diversity in participation and consequently results in a broader scientific outreach.


Some 2-Categorical Aspects In Physics, Arthur Parzygnat 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Some 2-Categorical Aspects In Physics, Arthur Parzygnat

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

2-categories provide a useful transition point between ordinary category theory and infinity-category theory where one can perform concrete computations for applications in physics and at the same time provide rigorous formalism for mathematical structures appearing in physics. We survey three such broad instances. First, we describe two-dimensional algebra as a means of constructing non-abelian parallel transport along surfaces which can be used to describe strings charged under non-abelian gauge groups in string theory. Second, we formalize the notion of convex and cone categories, provide a preliminary categorical definition of entropy, and exhibit several examples. Thirdly, we provide a universal description ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

J. Kissock

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Dicke’S Superradiance In Astrophysics, Fereshteh Rajabi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Dicke’S Superradiance In Astrophysics, Fereshteh Rajabi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

It is generally assumed that in the interstellar medium much of the emission emanating from atomic and molecular transitions within a radiating gas happen independently for each atom or molecule, but as was pointed out by R. H. Dicke in a seminal paper several decades ago this assumption does not apply in all conditions. As will be discussed in this thesis, and following Dicke’s original analysis, closely packed atoms/molecules can interact with their common electromagnetic field and radiate coherently through an effect he named superradiance. Superradiance is a cooperative quantum mechanical phenomenon characterized by high intensity, spatially compact ...


Electron Correlations In Local Effective Potential Theory, Viraht Sahni, Xiao-Yin Pan, Tao Yang 2016 CUNY Graduate Center and CUNY Brooklyn College

Electron Correlations In Local Effective Potential Theory, Viraht Sahni, Xiao-Yin Pan, Tao Yang

Publications and Research

Local effective potential theory, both stationary-state and time-dependent, constitutes the mapping from a system of electrons in an external field to one of the noninteracting fermions possessing the same basic variable such as the density, thereby enabling the determination of the energy and other properties of the electronic system. This paper is a description via Quantal Density Functional Theory (QDFT) of the electron correlations that must be accounted for in such a mapping. It is proved through QDFT that independent of the form of external field, (a) it is possible to map to a model system possessing all the basic ...


Photonicstd-2d: Modeling Light Scattering In Periodic Multilayer Photonic Structures, Alexey Bondarev, Shaimaa Azzam, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev, Alexander V. Kildishev 2016 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Photonicstd-2d: Modeling Light Scattering In Periodic Multilayer Photonic Structures, Alexey Bondarev, Shaimaa Azzam, Zhaxylyk Kudyshev, Alexander V. Kildishev

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Efficient modeling of electromagnetic processes in optical and plasmonic metamaterials is important for enabling new and exciting ways to manipulate light for advanced applications. In this work, we put together a tool for numerical simulation of propagation of normally incident light through a nanostructured multilayer composite material. The user builds a unit cell of a given material layer-by-layer starting from a substrate up to a superstrate, splitting each layer further into segments. The segments are defined by width and material -- dielectric, metal or active medium. Simulations are performed with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. A database of common ...


Investigation Of Carbon Nanomaterials Embedded In A Cementitious Matrix, Clarissa A. Roe 2016 Western Kentucky University

Investigation Of Carbon Nanomaterials Embedded In A Cementitious Matrix, Clarissa A. Roe

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether the addition of carbon nanofibers had an effect on the splitting tensile strength of Hydro-Stone gypsum concrete. The carbon nanofibers used were single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), buckminsterfullerene (C60), and graphene oxide (GO). Evidence of the nanofibers interacting with gypsum crystals in a connective manner was identified in both 1 mm thick concrete discs and concrete columns possessing a height of 2 in and a diameter of 1 in. Before imaging, the columns were subjected to a splitting tensile strength test. The results illustrate that while there is a general decrease in ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock 2016 University of Dayton

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Kevin Hallinan

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Theoretical Analysis Of Single Molecule Spectroscopy Lineshapes Of Conjugated Polymers, Murali Devi 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Theoretical Analysis Of Single Molecule Spectroscopy Lineshapes Of Conjugated Polymers, Murali Devi

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conjugated Polymers(CPs) exhibit a wide range of highly tunable optical properties. Quantitative and detailed understanding of the nature of excitons responsible for such a rich optical behavior has significant implications for better utilization of CPs for more efficient plastic solar cells and other novel optoelectronic devices. In general, samples of CPs are plagued with substantial inhomogeneous broadening due to various sources of disorder. Single molecule emission spectroscopy (SMES) offers a unique opportunity to investigate the energetics and dynamics of excitons and their interactions with phonon modes. The major subject of the present thesis is to analyze and understand room ...


Elements Of The Mathematical Formulation Of Quantum Mechanics, Keunjae Go 2016 Washington University in Saint Louis

Elements Of The Mathematical Formulation Of Quantum Mechanics, Keunjae Go

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

In this paper, we will explore some of the basic elements of the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. In the first section, I will list the motivations for introducing a probability model that is quite different from that of the classical probability theory, but still shares quite a few significant commonalities. Later in the paper, I will discuss the quantum probability theory in detail, while paying a brief attention to some of the axioms (by Birkhoff and von Neumann) that illustrate both the commonalities and differences between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. This paper will end with a presentation of ...


Totally Positive Density Matrices And Linear Preservers, David Kribs, Jeremy Levick, Rajesh Pereira 2016 University of Guelph

Totally Positive Density Matrices And Linear Preservers, David Kribs, Jeremy Levick, Rajesh Pereira

Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra

The intersection between the set of totally nonnegative matrices, which are of interest in many areas of matrix theory and its applications, and the set of density matrices, which provide the mathematical description of quantum states, are investigated. The single qubit case is characterized, and several equivalent conditions for a quantum channel to preserve the set in that case are given. Higher dimensional cases are also discussed.


Fundamental Awareness: A Framework For Integrating Science, Philosophy And Metaphysics, Neil D. Theise, Menas Kafatos 2016 Icahn School of Medicine

Fundamental Awareness: A Framework For Integrating Science, Philosophy And Metaphysics, Neil D. Theise, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world ...


A Case For Chiral Contributions To Nondipole Effects In Photoionization Using Linearly Polarized Soft X-Rays, Kyle Patrick Bowen 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Case For Chiral Contributions To Nondipole Effects In Photoionization Using Linearly Polarized Soft X-Rays, Kyle Patrick Bowen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Modelling angular distributions of photoelectrons requires making accurate approximations of both the incoming light and the behavior of bound electrons. The experimental determination of photoelectron angular distributions is crucial to the development of accurate theoretical models governing the light-matter interaction. To date, many models have relied upon the dipole approximation, which assumes a constant electric field as the source of ionization. Despite knowing that the dipole approximation would break down as photon energy increased, the precise limit was unclear. Over the past two decades, a strong case has been made that corrections to the dipole approximation are necessary for accurately ...


Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, Luke Horowitz 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, Luke Horowitz

Physics

An apparatus for detecting pairs of entangled 405nm photons that have undergone Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion through β-Barium Borate is described. By using avalanche photo-diodes to detect the low-intensity converted beam and a coincidence module to register coincident photons, it is possible to create an apparatus than can be used to perform quantum information experiments under a budget appropriate for an undergraduate physics lab.


Numerical Case Study Of An Atom-Photon Interaction In A Cavity Exploring Quantum Control, Javier Jalandoni 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Numerical Case Study Of An Atom-Photon Interaction In A Cavity Exploring Quantum Control, Javier Jalandoni

Dissertations and Theses

We study Magnus expansion (ME) approximation scheme for the interaction between an atom and a single quantized cavity mode (Jaynes-Cumming model) in a closed quantum system in resonance or near resonance for a time-dependent coupling coefficient g(t) in both the interaction and rotating picture by implementing a novel numerical method called MG4 and compare out results to the Runge-Kutta 4th (RK4) order solution to demonstrate the conservation of unitary evolution of the ME. A cursory study of open quantum system is given to encourage the study of ME for dissipative systems. Furthermore, we assume that our time-dependent coupling coefficient ...


Nonlocality Of The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Yakir Aharonov, Eliahu Cohen, Daniel Rohrlich 2016 Chapman University

Nonlocality Of The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Yakir Aharonov, Eliahu Cohen, Daniel Rohrlich

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Although the Aharonov-Bohm and related effects are familiar in solid-state and high-energy physics, the nonlocality of these effects has been questioned. Here we show that the Aharonov-Bohm effect has two very different aspects. One aspect is instantaneous and nonlocal; the other aspect, which depends on entanglement, unfolds continuously over time. While local, gauge-invariant variables may occasionally suffice for explaining the continuous aspect, we argue that they cannot explain the instantaneous aspect. Thus the Aharonov-Bohm effect is, in general, nonlocal.


Universal Scaling Properties After Quantum Quenches, Damian Andres Galante 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Universal Scaling Properties After Quantum Quenches, Damian Andres Galante

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this Thesis, the problem of a quantum quench in quantum field theories is analyzed. This involves studying the real time evolution of observables in a theory that undergoes a change in one of its couplings. These quenches are then characterized by two parameters: $\delta \lambda$, the magnitude of the quench and most importantly, $\delta t$, the quench duration. In contrast to previous studies of abrupt quenches in the condensed matter theory community, we will be interested in smooth quenches with a finite $\delta t$.

Motivated by existing results in holographic theories, we studied the problem of a fast smooth ...


Kl−Ks Mass Difference And Supersymmetric Left-Right-Symmetric Theories, Asim Gangopadhyaya 2016 Loyola University Chicago

Kl−Ks Mass Difference And Supersymmetric Left-Right-Symmetric Theories, Asim Gangopadhyaya

Asim Gangopadhyaya

The supersymmetric contributions to the KL−KS mass difference makes the previously obtained bounds on the right-handed scale (MR>1.6 TeV) much weaker. This raises the interesting possibility that the left-right model could be tested as an alternative to SUL(2)⊗U(1) at low energies. Also we find that to demand that the supersymmetric contribution to the KL−KS mass difference be less than 3.5×10−15 GeV requires that scalar-quark masses be more than 400 GeV.


Bose-Einstein Condensation Of Potassium Atoms By Sympathetic Cooling, Giovanni Modugno, Gabriele Ferrari, Giacomo Roati, Robert Brecha, A. Simoni, Massimo Inguscio 2016 Universita di Firenze and Istituto Nazionale

Bose-Einstein Condensation Of Potassium Atoms By Sympathetic Cooling, Giovanni Modugno, Gabriele Ferrari, Giacomo Roati, Robert Brecha, A. Simoni, Massimo Inguscio

Robert J. Brecha

We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms, whereby quantum degeneracy is achieved by sympathetic cooling with evaporatively cooled rubidium. Because of the rapid thermalization of the two different atoms, the efficiency of the cooling process is high. The ability to achieve condensation by sympathetic cooling with a different species may provide a route to the production of degenerate systems with a larger choice of components.


Collapse Of A Degenerate Fermi Gas, Giovanni Modugno, Giacomo Roati, Francesco Riboli, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Massimo Inguscio 2016 Universita di Firenze and Istituto Nazionale

Collapse Of A Degenerate Fermi Gas, Giovanni Modugno, Giacomo Roati, Francesco Riboli, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Massimo Inguscio

Robert J. Brecha

A degenerate gas of identical fermions is brought to collapse by the interaction with a Bose-Einstein condensate. We used an atomic mixture of fermionic potassium-40 and bosonic rubidium-87, in which the strong interspecies attraction leads to an instability above a critical number of particles. The observed phenomenon suggests a direction for manipulating fermion-fermion interactions on the route to superfluidity.


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