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Enhancing High-Order-Harmonic Generation By Time Delays Between Two-Color, Few-Cycle Pulses, Dian Peng, Liang-Wen Pi, M. V. Frolov, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Enhancing High-Order-Harmonic Generation By Time Delays Between Two-Color, Few-Cycle Pulses, Dian Peng, Liang-Wen Pi, M. V. Frolov, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Use of time delays in high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) driven by intense two-color, few-cycle pulses is investigated in order to determine means of optimizing HHG intensities and plateau cutoff energies. Based upon numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrõdinger equation for the H atom as well as analytical analyses, we show that introducing a time delay between the two-color, few-cycle pulses can result in an enhancement of the intensity of the HHG spectrum by an order of magnitude (or more) at the cost of a reduction in the HHG plateau cutoff energy. Results for both positive and negative time delays as well ...


Velocity–Space Drag And Diffusion In A Model, Two-Dimensional Plasma, Mark Anthony Reynolds, B.D. Fried, G.J. Morales 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Velocity–Space Drag And Diffusion In A Model, Two-Dimensional Plasma, Mark Anthony Reynolds, B.D. Fried, G.J. Morales

M. Anthony Reynolds

The quasilinear fluctuation integral is calculated for a two-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma ~composed of charged rods!, and is expressed in terms of Fokker–Planck coefficients. It is found that in two dimensions, the enhanced fluctuations generated by fast electrons lead to anomalously large transport coefficients. In particular, the effect of a small population of fast electrons is only weakly dependent on their density. In three dimensions, the effect of fast electrons is masked by the dominant approximation, but higher-order terms describe processes similar to those in two dimensions, and these terms can become significant for weakly stable plasmas. The differences between ...


Ion Bernstein Waves Driven By Two Transverse Flow Layers, Mark Anthony Reynolds, G. Ganguli 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeroautical University - Daytona Beach

Ion Bernstein Waves Driven By Two Transverse Flow Layers, Mark Anthony Reynolds, G. Ganguli

M. Anthony Reynolds

The interaction between two narrow layers of E3B flow is investigated, along with their stability properties. The mode frequencies, growth rates, and eigenfunctions are calculated. It is found that the instability due to a single layer is robust to the inclusion of a second layer. Specifically, when the separation between the layers is on the order of the ion-cyclotron radius, there is strong coupling between the two layers and the second layer is destabilizing. In addition, when the flow velocities are in opposite directions a wide variety of modes is possible, including near-zero-frequency modes, resulting in broadband structure in both ...


High-Frequency Fluctuations Of A Modulated, Helical Electron Beam, Mark Anthony Reynolds 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

High-Frequency Fluctuations Of A Modulated, Helical Electron Beam, Mark Anthony Reynolds

M. Anthony Reynolds

The high-frequency electromagnetic field generated by a density-modulated, helical electron beam propagating in a magnetized plasma is calculated. The magnetic fluctuations are found to exhibit spatially localized ~evanescent! resonances at harmonics of the electron-cyclotron frequency, whose width is determined by the pitch angle of the beam, and whose existence is a consequence of the helical geometry. In addition, electrostatic modes are radiated near the hybrid frequencies, and electromagnetic modes are radiated above the upper-hybrid frequency. The predicted frequency spectrum and mode structure in configuration space are in good agreement with experimental observations of discrete emission lines at the electron-cyclotron harmonics.


Investigation Of Pyrolysis Gas Chemistry In An Inductively Coupled Plasma Facility, Corey Tillson 2017 University of Vermont

Investigation Of Pyrolysis Gas Chemistry In An Inductively Coupled Plasma Facility, Corey Tillson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The pyrolysis mechanics of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) makes it a valued material for use in thermal protection systems for spacecraft atmospheric re-entry. The present study of the interaction of pyrolysis gases and char with plasma gases in the boundary layer over PICA and its substrate, FiberForm, extends previous work on this topic that has been done in the UVM 30 kW Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Torch Facility. Exposure of these material samples separately to argon, nitrogen, oxygen, air, and carbon dioxide plasmas, and combinations of said test gases provides insight into the evolution of the pyrolysis gases as ...


Experimental Investigation Of Plasma Dynamics In Jets And Bubbles Using A Compact Coaxial Plasma Gun In A Background Magnetized Plasma, Yue Zhang 2016 University of New Mexico

Experimental Investigation Of Plasma Dynamics In Jets And Bubbles Using A Compact Coaxial Plasma Gun In A Background Magnetized Plasma, Yue Zhang

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Numerous solar and astrophysical observations of jet- and bubble-like plasma structures exhibit morphological similarities, suggesting that there may be common plasma physics at work in the formation and evolution processes of these structures at different system scales. The ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provide the necessary theoretical basis for employing laboratory experiments to investigate key physical processes in nonlinear astrophysical and solar systems, especially when magnetic fields are present.

A coaxial magnetized plasma gun has been designed, installed, and operated in the HelCat linear device at the University of New Mexico. In Region I, a current-driven plasma jet is formed. The plasma ...


Accordion Effect Revisited: Generation Of Comb-Like Electron Beams In Plasma Channels, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Remi Lehe, Agustin F. Lifschitz, Bradley A. Shadwick 2016 CEA, DAM DIF

Accordion Effect Revisited: Generation Of Comb-Like Electron Beams In Plasma Channels, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Remi Lehe, Agustin F. Lifschitz, Bradley A. Shadwick

Serge Youri Kalmykov

Propagating a short, relativistically intense laser pulse in a plasma channel makes it possible to generate comb-like electron beams – sequences of synchronized, low phase-space volume bunches with controllable energy difference. The tail of the pulse, confined in the accelerator cavity (electron density “bubble”), transversely flaps, as the pulse head steadily self-guides. The resulting oscillations of the cavity size cause periodic injection of electrons from ambient plasma, creating an energy comb with the number of components, their energy, and energy separation dependent on the channel radius and pulse length. Accumulation of noise (continuously injected charge) can be prevented using a negatively ...


Electron Acceleration And Generation Of High-Brilliance X-Ray Radiation In Kilojoule, Subpicosecond Laser-Plasma Interactions, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine 2016 CEA, DAM DIF

Electron Acceleration And Generation Of High-Brilliance X-Ray Radiation In Kilojoule, Subpicosecond Laser-Plasma Interactions, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine

Serge Youri Kalmykov

Petawatt, picosecond laser pulses offer rich opportunities in generating synchrotron x-rays. This paper concentrates on the regimes accessible with the PETAL laser, which is a part of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility. We explore two physically distinct scenarios through Particle-in-Cell simulations. The first one realizes in a dense plasma, such that the period of electron Langmuir oscillations is much shorter than the pulse duration. Hallmarks of this regime are longitudinal breakup (“self-modulation”) of the picosecond-scale laser pulse and excitation of a rapidly evolving broken plasma wake. It is found that electron beams with a charge of several tens of nCcan ...


Exploring Mathematical Strategies For Finding Hidden Features In Multi-Dimensional Big Datasets, Tri Duong, Fang Ren, Apurva Mehta 2016 University of Houston

Exploring Mathematical Strategies For Finding Hidden Features In Multi-Dimensional Big Datasets, Tri Duong, Fang Ren, Apurva Mehta

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

With advances in technology in brighter sources and larger and faster detectors, the amount of data generated at national user facilities such as SLAC is increasing exponentially. Humans have a superb ability to recognize patterns in complex and noisy data and therefore, data is still curated and analyzed by humans. However, a human brain is unable to keep up with the accelerated pace of data generation, and as a consequence, the rate of new discoveries hasn't kept pace with the rate of data creation. Therefore, new procedures to quickly assess and analyze the data are needed. Machine learning approaches ...


Imaging Population Transfer In Atoms With Ultrafast Electron Pulses, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2016 Purdue University

Imaging Population Transfer In Atoms With Ultrafast Electron Pulses, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We propose the use of ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) to image a controllable, laser-driven coherent electron population transfer in lithium atoms with currently available femtosecond electron pulses. Our simulations demonstrate the ability of ultrafast electrons to image such an electronic population transfer, thus validating UED as a direct means of investigating electron dynamics. Provided the incident electron pulses have sufficient temporal resolution, the diffraction images are shown to resolve also the relative phases of the target electronic wave functions.


Optimization And Coding Of A Lcls Control Program, Tanner M. Worden 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Optimization And Coding Of A Lcls Control Program, Tanner M. Worden

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

SLAS’s, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) also known as X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) is the first X-ray laser of its kind. It gave Scientist from around the world the unique ability to observe the world at a subatomic level. Allowing for major advancements in the field of biological chemistry, drug science, material science and many more. Since the LCLS is a fairly unique scientific instrument, the demand for its use by the scientific community has always been high since it turned on back in 2009. This means that any and all time that the laser is not being used ...


High-Flux Femtosecond X-Ray Emission From Controlled Generation Of Annular Electron Beams In A Laser Wakefield Accelerator, T. Z. Zhao, K. Behm, C. F. Dong, X. Davoine, Serge Y. Kalmykov, V. Petrov, Vladimir Chvykov, P. Cummings, B. Hou, Anatoly Maksimchuk, J. A. Nees, Victor Yanovsky, A. G. R. Thomas, Karl Krushelnick 2016 Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

High-Flux Femtosecond X-Ray Emission From Controlled Generation Of Annular Electron Beams In A Laser Wakefield Accelerator, T. Z. Zhao, K. Behm, C. F. Dong, X. Davoine, Serge Y. Kalmykov, V. Petrov, Vladimir Chvykov, P. Cummings, B. Hou, Anatoly Maksimchuk, J. A. Nees, Victor Yanovsky, A. G. R. Thomas, Karl Krushelnick

Serge Youri Kalmykov

Annular quasimonoenergetic electron beams with a mean energy in the range 200–400 MeV and charge on the order of several picocoulombs were generated in a laser wakefield accelerator and subsequently accelerated using a plasma afterburner in a two-stage gas cell. Generation of these beams is associated with injection occurring on the density down ramp between the stages. This well-localized injection produces a bunch of electrons performing coherent betatron oscillations in the wakefield, resulting in a significant increase in the x-ray yield. Annular electron distributions are detected in 40% of shots under optimal conditions. Simultaneous control of the pulse duration ...


Simulation Of Relativistic Electrons Through A Magnetic Chicane, Matthias Fuchs, John Chrostek, Nathan W. Ray, Jordan O'Neal 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Simulation Of Relativistic Electrons Through A Magnetic Chicane, Matthias Fuchs, John Chrostek, Nathan W. Ray, Jordan O'Neal

UCARE Research Products

Poster describing the path length differences for two relativistic electrons going through a series of four dipoles. This preliminary work will lead to full simulation of electron beam being compressed for use in an X-Ray Free Electron Laser in conjunction with magnetic quadruple lenses to create a small electron beam.


Right-Hand Polarized 4FCe Auroral Roar Emissions: 2. Nonlinear Generation Theory, P. H. Yoon, J. LaBelle, Allan T. Weatherwax 2016 Merrimack College

Right-Hand Polarized 4FCe Auroral Roar Emissions: 2. Nonlinear Generation Theory, P. H. Yoon, J. Labelle, Allan T. Weatherwax

Physics Faculty Publications

Auroral roar emissions are commonly interpreted as Z (or upper hybrid) mode naturally excited by precipitating auroral electrons. Subsequent conversion to escaping radiation makes it possible for these emissions to be detected on the ground. Most emissions are detected as having left-hand (L) circular (or ordinary O) polarization, but the companion paper presents a systematic experimental study on the rare occurrence of the right-hand polarized, or equivalently, extraordinary (X) mode 4fce emission. A similar observation was reported earlier by Sato et al. (2015). The suggested emission mechanism is the nonlinear coalescence of two upper hybrid roars at ...


Multistart Spiral Electron Vortices In Ionization By Circularly Polarized Uv Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Alexei V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multistart Spiral Electron Vortices In Ionization By Circularly Polarized Uv Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Alexei V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Multistart spiral vortex patterns are predicted for the electron momentum distributions in the polarization plane following ionization of the helium atom by two time-delayed circularly polarized ultrashort laser pulses. For two ultraviolet (UV) pulses having the same frequency (such that two photons are required for ionization), single-color two-photon interferometry with corotating or counter-rotating time-delayed pulses is found to lead respectively to zero-start or four-start spiral vortex patterns in the ionized electron momentum distributions in the polarization plane. In contrast, two-color one-photon plus two-photon interferometry with time-delayed corotating or counter-rotating UV pulses is found to lead respectively to one ...


Power And Langmuir Probe Measurements Of H2 Rf Plasma, Alexander A. Stowell 2016 Macalester College

Power And Langmuir Probe Measurements Of H2 Rf Plasma, Alexander A. Stowell

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Methane based gases are often used to produce thin films of biomaterials, such as diamond-like carbon, through Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The characterization of the H2 plasma will give a deeper understanding of the physical processes occurring. Understanding these processes could lead to the optimization of the production of these thin films in the future. In this paper, we examine the H2 plasma using a Langmuir probe to gain information on the electron temperature and density of the plasma discharge. We measured electron temperatures of 6eV. Our Langmuir probe data indicates the electron temperature remains constant as ...


Dissociative Excitation Of H2 In An Rf Plasma, John Carlson 2016 Macalester College

Dissociative Excitation Of H2 In An Rf Plasma, John Carlson

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a widely used method for depositing thin films. In order to optimize the properties of the films, it is important to understand the plasma processes that occur during film growth. In this research we use optical emission spectroscopy in order to measure the spectral emission lines of a plasma produced with hydrogen gas. In conjunction with other measurements and modeling, these measurements can provide insight to the electron energy distribution of the plasma.


Investigation Of Langmuir Probes In Non-Maxwellian Plasma Using Particle-In-Cell (Pic) Modeling, Densu Aktas Lister 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Investigation Of Langmuir Probes In Non-Maxwellian Plasma Using Particle-In-Cell (Pic) Modeling, Densu Aktas Lister

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the development of a capability for simulating the plasma dynamics of Langmuir probes (LP) in complex plasmas where the velocity distributions are non-equilibrium and the electron energy spectrum is non-Maxwellian with respect to laboratory and space experiments. The results of this investigation are interpreted to give recommendations for design and use of LPs. This work is conducted using computational techniques to create the exact plasma conditions of the experimental testing environments. The investigations address the following topics:

  • development of a technique to model non-Maxwellian physics,
  • modification of a baseline-technique and optimization of it for this application,
  • creation ...


Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, Luke Horowitz 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, Luke Horowitz

Physics

An apparatus for detecting pairs of entangled 405nm photons that have undergone Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion through β-Barium Borate is described. By using avalanche photo-diodes to detect the low-intensity converted beam and a coincidence module to register coincident photons, it is possible to create an apparatus than can be used to perform quantum information experiments under a budget appropriate for an undergraduate physics lab.


Modeling The Sps Feedback And Feedforward Systems For Improved Performance, Jake Hargrove 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Modeling The Sps Feedback And Feedforward Systems For Improved Performance, Jake Hargrove

Physics

The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is the last link in the chain of accelerators providing protons to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SPS is currently the limiting factor on the maximum number of protons and thus collisions in the LHC. The SPS upgrade is under way to expand the discovery potential of the LHC. The accelerating system — Radio Frequency (RF) — is being improved. Models of the SPS RF feedback systems were developed. These models could assist with design choices, evaluating the upgraded system performance, and anticipate limitations and issues.


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