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Adiabatic-Limit Coulomb Factors For Photoelectron And High-Order-Harmonic Spectra, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Minina, S. V. Popruzhenko, Anthony F. Starace 2017 Voronezh State University, Russia

Adiabatic-Limit Coulomb Factors For Photoelectron And High-Order-Harmonic Spectra, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Minina, S. V. Popruzhenko, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

A momentum-dependent Coulomb factor in the probability for nonlinear ionization of atoms by a strong low-frequency laser field is calculated analytically in the adiabatic approximation. Expressions for this Coulomb factor, valid for an arbitrary laser pulse waveform, are obtained and analyzed in detail for the cases of linear and circular polarizations. The dependence of the Coulomb factor on the photoelectron momentum is shown to be significant in both cases. Using a similar technique, the Coulomb factor for emission of high-order harmonics by an atom in a bichromatic laser field is also calculated. In contrast to the case of a single-frequency ...


Optimization And Control Of Production Of Graphene, Atharva Hans, Nimish M. Awalgaonkar, Majed Alrefae, Ilias Bilionis, Timothy S. Fisher 2017 Purdue University

Optimization And Control Of Production Of Graphene, Atharva Hans, Nimish M. Awalgaonkar, Majed Alrefae, Ilias Bilionis, Timothy S. Fisher

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Graphene is a 2-dimensional element of high practical importance. Despite its exceptional properties, graphene’s real applications in industrial or commercial products have been limited. There are many methods to produce graphene, but none has been successful in commercializing its production. Roll-to-roll plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used to manufacture graphene at large scale. In this research, we present a Bayesian linear regression model to predict the roll-to-roll plasma system’s electrode voltage and current; given a particular set of inputs. The inputs of the plasma system are power, pressure and concentration of gases; hydrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrogen and ...


Design And Fabrication Of An Electrical Breakdown Facility, Prit Chovatiya, Animesh Sharma, Alexey Shashurin 2017 Purdue University

Design And Fabrication Of An Electrical Breakdown Facility, Prit Chovatiya, Animesh Sharma, Alexey Shashurin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Usage of traditional experimental instrumentation has not kept up with the rate of advancement in the modern educational material. Teaching aids used in academia have to be updated to ensure effective understanding of content among the students. The use of outdated vacuum chambers as visual aids in plasma physics classrooms have proven to be ineffective for the students and teachers, due to limited viewing ports on the metallic walls of the vacuum chamber for viewing the plasma discharge phenomenon. It is important to address this challenge, which invigorates the need for the use of a transparent vacuum chamber as a ...


Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Two-armed helical vortex structures are predicted in the two-electron momentum distributions produced in double photoionization (DPI) of the He atom by a pair of time-delayed elliptically polarized attosecond pulses with opposite helicities. These predictions are based upon both a first-order perturbation theory analysis and numerical solutions of the two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation in six spatial dimensions. The helical vortex structures originate from Ramsey interference of a pair of ionized two-electron wave packets, each having a total angular momentum of unity, and appear in the sixfold differential DPI probability distribution for any energy partitioning between the two electrons. The vortex structures ...


Improvements For The T0c+ Geometry Of The Fast Interaction Trigger (Fit) Upgrade To Alice At The Cern Lhc, Noah Miller 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Improvements For The T0c+ Geometry Of The Fast Interaction Trigger (Fit) Upgrade To Alice At The Cern Lhc, Noah Miller

Physics

The purpose of the ALICE experiment at CERN is to investigate the properties of the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma formed in the high-energy collisions of lead nuclei in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. ALICE has been collecting data since 2009. The upcoming upgrade of the CERN LHC injectors during 2019-20 will boost the luminosity and the collision rate beyond the design parameters for several of the key ALICE detectors including the forward trigger detectors. The new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will enable ALICE to discriminate beam-beam interactions with a 99% efficiency for the collisions generated by the LHC at a ...


Discontinuities In The Electromagnetic Fields Of Vortex Beams In The Complex Source-Sink Model, Andrew Vikartofsky, Liang-Wen Pi, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Discontinuities In The Electromagnetic Fields Of Vortex Beams In The Complex Source-Sink Model, Andrew Vikartofsky, Liang-Wen Pi, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

An analytical discontinuity is reported in what was thought to be the discontinuity-free exact nonparaxial vortex beam phasor obtained within the complex source-sink model. This discontinuity appears for all odd values of the orbital angular momentum mode. Such discontinuities in the phasor lead to nonphysical discontinuities in the real electromagnetic field components. We identify the source of the discontinuities, and provide graphical evidence of the discontinuous real electric fields for the first and third orbital angular momentum modes. A simple means of avoiding these discontinuities is presented.


Determination Of The Zinc Concentration In Human Fingernails By Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Steven J. Rehse, Vlora A. Riberdy, Christopher J. Frederickson 2017 University of Windsor

Determination Of The Zinc Concentration In Human Fingernails By Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Steven J. Rehse, Vlora A. Riberdy, Christopher J. Frederickson

Physics Publications

The absolute concentration of zinc in human fingernail clippings tested ex vivo was determined by 1064 nm laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and confirmed by speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry. A nail testing protocol that sampled across the nail (perpendicular to the direction of growth) was developed and validated by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Using this protocol, a partial least squares regression model predicted the zinc concentration in five subjects’ fingernails to within 7 ppm on average. The variation of the zinc concentration with depth into the nail as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was studied and found to ...


Low Temperature Plasma For The Treatment Of Epithelial Cancer Cells, Soheila Mohades 2017 Old Dominion University

Low Temperature Plasma For The Treatment Of Epithelial Cancer Cells, Soheila Mohades

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas (LTP) may lead to a paradigm shift in treating various diseases by conducting fundamental research on the effects of LTP on cells, tissues, organisms (plants, insects, and microorganisms). This is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field that involves engineering, physics, life sciences, and chemistry to find novel solutions for urgent medical needs. Effects of different LTP sources have shown the anti-tumor properties of plasma exposure; however, there are still many unknowns about the interaction of plasma with eukaryotic cells which must be elucidated in order to evaluate the practical potential of plasma in cancer ...


Enhancing High-Order-Harmonic Generation By Time Delays Between Two-Color, Few-Cycle Pulses, Dian Peng, Liang-Wen Pi, M. V. Frolov, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Enhancing High-Order-Harmonic Generation By Time Delays Between Two-Color, Few-Cycle Pulses, Dian Peng, Liang-Wen Pi, M. V. Frolov, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Use of time delays in high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) driven by intense two-color, few-cycle pulses is investigated in order to determine means of optimizing HHG intensities and plateau cutoff energies. Based upon numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrõdinger equation for the H atom as well as analytical analyses, we show that introducing a time delay between the two-color, few-cycle pulses can result in an enhancement of the intensity of the HHG spectrum by an order of magnitude (or more) at the cost of a reduction in the HHG plateau cutoff energy. Results for both positive and negative time delays as well ...


Velocity–Space Drag And Diffusion In A Model, Two-Dimensional Plasma, Mark Anthony Reynolds, B.D. Fried, G.J. Morales 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Velocity–Space Drag And Diffusion In A Model, Two-Dimensional Plasma, Mark Anthony Reynolds, B.D. Fried, G.J. Morales

M. Anthony Reynolds

The quasilinear fluctuation integral is calculated for a two-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma ~composed of charged rods!, and is expressed in terms of Fokker–Planck coefficients. It is found that in two dimensions, the enhanced fluctuations generated by fast electrons lead to anomalously large transport coefficients. In particular, the effect of a small population of fast electrons is only weakly dependent on their density. In three dimensions, the effect of fast electrons is masked by the dominant approximation, but higher-order terms describe processes similar to those in two dimensions, and these terms can become significant for weakly stable plasmas. The differences between ...


Ion Bernstein Waves Driven By Two Transverse Flow Layers, Mark Anthony Reynolds, G. Ganguli 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeroautical University - Daytona Beach

Ion Bernstein Waves Driven By Two Transverse Flow Layers, Mark Anthony Reynolds, G. Ganguli

M. Anthony Reynolds

The interaction between two narrow layers of E3B flow is investigated, along with their stability properties. The mode frequencies, growth rates, and eigenfunctions are calculated. It is found that the instability due to a single layer is robust to the inclusion of a second layer. Specifically, when the separation between the layers is on the order of the ion-cyclotron radius, there is strong coupling between the two layers and the second layer is destabilizing. In addition, when the flow velocities are in opposite directions a wide variety of modes is possible, including near-zero-frequency modes, resulting in broadband structure in both ...


High-Frequency Fluctuations Of A Modulated, Helical Electron Beam, Mark Anthony Reynolds 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

High-Frequency Fluctuations Of A Modulated, Helical Electron Beam, Mark Anthony Reynolds

M. Anthony Reynolds

The high-frequency electromagnetic field generated by a density-modulated, helical electron beam propagating in a magnetized plasma is calculated. The magnetic fluctuations are found to exhibit spatially localized ~evanescent! resonances at harmonics of the electron-cyclotron frequency, whose width is determined by the pitch angle of the beam, and whose existence is a consequence of the helical geometry. In addition, electrostatic modes are radiated near the hybrid frequencies, and electromagnetic modes are radiated above the upper-hybrid frequency. The predicted frequency spectrum and mode structure in configuration space are in good agreement with experimental observations of discrete emission lines at the electron-cyclotron harmonics.


The Impact Of Base Stacking On The Conformations And Electrostatics Of Single-Stranded Dna, Alex Plumridge, Steve P. Meisburger, Kurt Andresen, Lois Pollack 2017 Cornell University

The Impact Of Base Stacking On The Conformations And Electrostatics Of Single-Stranded Dna, Alex Plumridge, Steve P. Meisburger, Kurt Andresen, Lois Pollack

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is notable for its interactions with ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) during fundamentally important biological processes including DNA repair and replication. Previous work has begun to characterize the conformational and electrostatic properties of ssDNA in association with SSBs. However, the conformational distributions of free ssDNA have been difficult to determine. To capture the vast array of ssDNA conformations in solution, we pair small angle X-ray scattering with novel ensemble fitting methods, obtaining key parameters such as the size, shape and stacking character of strands with different sequences. Complementary ion counting measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy ...


Cross-Scale Energy Transport And Kinetic Wave Properties Associated With Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability, Thomas W. Moore 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Cross-Scale Energy Transport And Kinetic Wave Properties Associated With Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability, Thomas W. Moore

Dissertations and Theses

In the Earth’s magnetosphere, the magnetotail plasma sheet ions are much hotter than in the shocked solar wind. On the dawn-sector, the cold-component ions are more abundant and hotter by 30-40 percent when compared to the dusk sector. Recent statistical studies of the flank magnetopause and magnetosheath have shown that the level of temperature asymmetry of the magnetosheath is unable to account for this (Dimmock et al., 2015), so additional physical mechanisms must be at play, either at the magnetopause or plasma sheet, that contribute to this asymmetry. This thesis focuses on ion heating across the magnetopause boundary separating ...


Electrostatic Mechanics Of Dust Lofting And Transport On Airless Planetary Bodies, Joseph Schwan 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Electrostatic Mechanics Of Dust Lofting And Transport On Airless Planetary Bodies, Joseph Schwan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As airless planetary bodies are directly exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation and plasma, an environment that fosters dust charging within planetary regolith will result, producing dust mobilization and transport. A multitude of unsolved in-situ planetary observations linked to electrostatic processes exist, ranging from dust ponds on the asteroid Eros, to intermittently appearing radial spokes in Saturn’s rings, and even to the lunar horizon glow. Available charging models could not adequately explain any of these phenomena. Through careful experimentation a new “Patched Charge Model” has been developed at the NASA/SSERVI’s Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres and Cosmic Dust ...


Orbital Stability Results For Soliton Solutions To Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations With External Potentials, Joseph B. Lindgren 2017 University of Kentucky

Orbital Stability Results For Soliton Solutions To Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations With External Potentials, Joseph B. Lindgren

Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics

For certain nonlinear Schroedinger equations there exist solutions which are called solitary waves. Addition of a potential $V$ changes the dynamics, but for small enough $||V||_{L^\infty}$ we can still obtain stability (and approximately Newtonian motion of the solitary wave's center of mass) for soliton-like solutions up to a finite time that depends on the size and scale of the potential $V$. Our method is an adaptation of the well-known Lyapunov method.

For the sake of completeness, we also prove long-time stability of traveling solitons in the case $V=0$.


Laboratory Simulation Of Solar Wind Interaction With A Magnetic Dipole Field On Lunar Surface, Jia Han 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Laboratory Simulation Of Solar Wind Interaction With A Magnetic Dipole Field On Lunar Surface, Jia Han

Undergraduate Honors Theses

We perform laboratory experiments on the Colorado Solar Wind Experiment (CSWE) device to study the dynamics of the solar wind interaction with lunar magnetic anomalies. A large cross- section plasma ow with ion energies between 100 and 800 eV is incident on an insulating surface embedded in a magnetic dipole field. Plasma is created by a Kaufman ion source. The beam profile has been characterized using a Langmuir probe and an ion Energy Analyzer. The dipole field is created with a permanent magnet behind the surface. 2D potential profiles are measured above the surface using an emissive Langmuir probe. With ...


Investigation Of Pyrolysis Gas Chemistry In An Inductively Coupled Plasma Facility, Corey Tillson 2017 University of Vermont

Investigation Of Pyrolysis Gas Chemistry In An Inductively Coupled Plasma Facility, Corey Tillson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The pyrolysis mechanics of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablators (PICA) makes it a valued material for use in thermal protection systems for spacecraft atmospheric re-entry. The present study of the interaction of pyrolysis gases and char with plasma gases in the boundary layer over PICA and its substrate, FiberForm, extends previous work on this topic that has been done in the UVM 30 kW Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Torch Facility. Exposure of these material samples separately to argon, nitrogen, oxygen, air, and carbon dioxide plasmas, and combinations of said test gases provides insight into the evolution of the pyrolysis gases as ...


Plasma Striations In Vacuum Chambers, Loren Hamilton Jackson 2017 Bard College

Plasma Striations In Vacuum Chambers, Loren Hamilton Jackson

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Plasma, often referred to as the fourth state of matter, is ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons. Specifically, a glow discharge is a glowing plasma formed by a voltage across a low pressure gas. The area of the glow discharge of interest in this study is the positive column, a relatively long column of pink, glowing plasma, and its bright and dark striated patterns.

The striated positive column resembles pattern phenomena caused by standing pressure waves. These pressure wave patterns are due to the length of the tube in which they are contained. However, in past plasma ...


Experimental Investigation Of Plasma Dynamics In Jets And Bubbles Using A Compact Coaxial Plasma Gun In A Background Magnetized Plasma, Yue Zhang 2016 University of New Mexico

Experimental Investigation Of Plasma Dynamics In Jets And Bubbles Using A Compact Coaxial Plasma Gun In A Background Magnetized Plasma, Yue Zhang

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Numerous solar and astrophysical observations of jet- and bubble-like plasma structures exhibit morphological similarities, suggesting that there may be common plasma physics at work in the formation and evolution processes of these structures at different system scales. The ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provide the necessary theoretical basis for employing laboratory experiments to investigate key physical processes in nonlinear astrophysical and solar systems, especially when magnetic fields are present.

A coaxial magnetized plasma gun has been designed, installed, and operated in the HelCat linear device at the University of New Mexico. In Region I, a current-driven plasma jet is formed. The plasma ...


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