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Dual Energy Electron Storage Ring Cooler Design For Relativistic Ion Beams, Bhawin Dhital 2022 Old Dominion University

Dual Energy Electron Storage Ring Cooler Design For Relativistic Ion Beams, Bhawin Dhital

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Collider experiments demand small beam emittances in order to achieve high luminosity. For light particles such as electrons, there exists a natural synchrotron radiation damping resulting in low emittance beams at equilibrium. In the case of heavy particle beams such as proton or ion beams, there is no significant synchrotron radiation damping effect and some cooling mechanism is needed to get to low emittance beams. A dual energy storage ring cooler is a novel concept proposed to cool hadron beams at higher energies. The design consists of two rings: a low energy ring and a high energy ring connected by …


Sars-Cov-2 Spike Conformation Determines Plasma Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Wide Panel Of Human Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Young-Jun Park, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Alexandra C. Walls, Anshu Joshi, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq, Najeeha Talat Iqbal 2022 University of Washington, United States of America

Sars-Cov-2 Spike Conformation Determines Plasma Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Wide Panel Of Human Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Young-Jun Park, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Alexandra C. Walls, Anshu Joshi, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq, Najeeha Talat Iqbal

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Numerous safe and effective coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines have been developed worldwide that use various delivery technologies and engineering strategies. We show here that vaccines containing prefusion-stabilizing S mutations elicit antibody responses in humans with enhanced recognition of S and the S1 subunit relative to postfusion S as compared with vaccines lacking these mutations or natural infection. Prefusion S and S1 antibody binding titers positively and equivalently correlated with neutralizing activity, and depletion of S1-directed antibodies completely abrogated plasma neutralizing activity. We show that neutralizing activity is almost entirely directed to the S1 subunit and that variant cross-neutralization is mediated …


Classification Of Pixel Tracks To Improve Track Reconstruction From Proton-Proton Collisions, Kebur Fantahun, Jobin Joseph, Halle Purdom, Nibhrat Lohia 2022 Southern Methodist University

Classification Of Pixel Tracks To Improve Track Reconstruction From Proton-Proton Collisions, Kebur Fantahun, Jobin Joseph, Halle Purdom, Nibhrat Lohia

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, machine learning techniques are used to reconstruct particle collision pathways. CERN (Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire) uses a massive underground particle collider, called the Large Hadron Collider or LHC, to produce particle collisions at extremely high speeds. There are several layers of detectors in the collider that track the pathways of particles as they collide. The data produced from collisions contains an extraneous amount of background noise, i.e., decays from known particle collisions produce fake signal. Particularly, in the first layer of the detector, the pixel tracker, there is an overwhelming amount of background noise that …


Kinetic Modeling Of Ionospheric Outflows Observed By The Visions-1 Sounding Rocket, Robert M. Albarran II 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Kinetic Modeling Of Ionospheric Outflows Observed By The Visions-1 Sounding Rocket, Robert M. Albarran Ii

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Plasma escape from the high-latitude ionosphere (ion outflow) serves as a significant source of heavy plasma to magnetospheric plasma sheet and ring current regions. Outflows alter mass density and reconnection rates, hence global responses of the magnetosphere. The VISIONS-1 (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) sounding rocket was launched on Feb. 7, 2013 at 8:21 UTC from Poker Flat, Alaska, into an auroral substorm with the objective of identifying the drivers and dynamics of nightside ion outflow at altitudes where it is initiated, below 1000 km. Energetic ion data from the VISIONS-1 polar cap boundary crossing …


Arrayed Waveguide Lens For Beam Steering, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Ali Binaie, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar, Nicholas Madamopoulos, Mohammad-Ali Miri 2022 CUNY Queens College

Arrayed Waveguide Lens For Beam Steering, Mostafa Honari-Latifpour, Ali Binaie, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar, Nicholas Madamopoulos, Mohammad-Ali Miri

Publications and Research

Integrated planar lenses are critical components for analog optical information processing that enable a wide range of applications including beam steering. Conventional planar lenses require gradient index control which makes their on-chip realization challenging. Here, we introduce a new approach for beam steering by designing an array of coupled waveguides with segmented tails that allow for simultaneously achieving planar lensing and off-chip radiation. The proposed arrayed waveguide lens is built on engineering the evanescent coupling between adjacent channels to realize a photonic lattice with an equi-distant ladder of propagation constants that emulates the continuous parabolic index profile. Through coupled-mode analysis …


A Progress Report On Numerical Methods For Bgk-Type Kinetic Equations, Evan Habbershaw, Steven M. Wise 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Progress Report On Numerical Methods For Bgk-Type Kinetic Equations, Evan Habbershaw, Steven M. Wise

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Mathematics

In this report we review some preliminary work on the numerical solution of BGK-type kinetic equations of particle transport. Such equations model the motion of fluid particles via a density field when the kinetic theory of rarefied gases must be used in place of the continuum limit Navier-Stokes and Euler equations. The BGK-type equations describe the fluid in terms of phase space variables, and, in three space dimensions, require 6 independent phase-space variables (3 for space and 3 for velocity) for accurate simulation. This requires sophisticated numerical algorithms and efficient code to realize predictions over desired space and time scales. …


Synthesis Of Cuo/Zno And Mgo/Zno Core/Shell Nanoparticles With Plasma Jets And Study Of Their Structural And Optical Properties, Raghad S. Mohammed, Kadhim A. Aadim, Khalid A. Ahmed 2022 Department of Physics, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq

Synthesis Of Cuo/Zno And Mgo/Zno Core/Shell Nanoparticles With Plasma Jets And Study Of Their Structural And Optical Properties, Raghad S. Mohammed, Kadhim A. Aadim, Khalid A. Ahmed

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This paper reports the synthesis of CuO/ZnO and MgO/ZnO core/shell nanoparticles using atmospheric plasma jets. The characterization of the synthesized CuO/ZnO and MgO/ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were confirmed by a series of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The XRD analysis confirmed no other peaks related to the secondary phases for CuO, MgO, or ZnO, indicating the purity of these nanoparticles. Additionally, EDX analysis confirmed the formation of high purity CuO/ZnO and MgO/ZnO core/shell nanoparticles. The surface morphology, which represented the high agglomeration rate, was investigated using …


Structural And Spectroscopic Analysis For Silver Bulk And Nanoparticles, Hajir M. Fadhil, Khaleel I. Hassoon, Hyder A. Salih 2022 Department of Applied Science, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

Structural And Spectroscopic Analysis For Silver Bulk And Nanoparticles, Hajir M. Fadhil, Khaleel I. Hassoon, Hyder A. Salih

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

In this research work, a pulsed Nd-YْAG laser having a wavelength of 1064 nm and energy (400-700 mJ (has been utilized as a source in an induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment to determine the density of electron and the tem-perature of Ag-plasma. Two forms of silver (as a bulk and as a compressed nano powder) have been used as targets in the LIBSs setup. The aim of the present work is to study the impact of target properties and laser energy on the plasma fea-tures formed by the interaction between a pulsed laser and these two forms of silver. The …


Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby

Doctoral Dissertations

Reactor class nuclear fusion tokamaks will be inherently complex. Thousands of interconnected systems that span orders of magnitude in physical scale must operate cohesively for the machine to function. Because these reactor class tokamaks are all in an early design stage, it is difficult to quantify exactly how each subsystem will act within the context of the greater systems. Therefore, to predict the engineering parameters necessary to design the machine, simulation frameworks that can model individual systems as well as the interfaced systems are necessary. This dissertation outlines a novel framework developed to couple otherwise disparate computational domains together into …


Towards The Production Of A Self-Consistent Phase Space Distribution, Austin Hoover 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Towards The Production Of A Self-Consistent Phase Space Distribution, Austin Hoover

Doctoral Dissertations

A self-consistent phase space distribution is a charged particle beam in which the electric field has a linear dependence on the particle coordinates, and in which the linearity of the electric field is conserved as the beam is transported through arbitrary linear focusing fields. These features could increase the possible beam intensity in a circular accelerator by minimizing/eliminating the space charge tune shift/spread. Additionally, the uniform density of known self-consistent distributions would be ideal for fixed-target applications. Finally, certain self-consistent distributions can be flattened by exploiting the relationships between their phases space coordinates and would therefore be useful in a …


Foundations Of Plasmas For Medical Applications, T. von Woedtke, Mounir Laroussi, M. Gherardi 2022 Old Dominion University

Foundations Of Plasmas For Medical Applications, T. Von Woedtke, Mounir Laroussi, M. Gherardi

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Plasma medicine refers to the application of nonequilibrium plasmas at approximately body temperature, for therapeutic purposes. Nonequilibrium plasmas are weakly ionized gases which contain charged and neutral species and electric fields, and emit radiation, particularly in the visible and ultraviolet range. Medically-relevant cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) sources and devices are usually dielectric barrier discharges and nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets. Plasma diagnostic methods and modelling approaches are used to characterize the densities and fluxes of active plasma species and their interaction with surrounding matter. In addition to the direct application of plasma onto living tissue, the treatment of liquids …


Electrothermal Plenum Thruster Simulations Varying Input Pressure And Voltage, Naomi Nicole Ingram 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Electrothermal Plenum Thruster Simulations Varying Input Pressure And Voltage, Naomi Nicole Ingram

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

A radiofrequency electrothermal thruster is designed and simulated to create a low ionization energy plasma from a neutral propellant using a radio-frequency power. With an asymmetrical surface area ratio between the grounded and powered electrode, ion-neutral charge exchange collisions occurring within the propellant result in propellant heating. The Electrothermal Plenum Thruster conducts this propellant heating in an annular plenum chamber in attempt to maximize propellant heating. A software called CFD-ACE+ is utilized to demonstrate the effects of an enhanced sheath from the asymmetrical power coupling arrangement. Two sets of simulations are run to understand how input variables affect the plasma …


Lattice Optics Optimization For Recirculatory Energy Recovery Linacs With Multi-Objective Optimization, Isurumali Neththikumara, Todd Satogata, Alex Bogacz, Ryan Bodenstein, Arthur Vandenhoeke 2022 Old Dominion University

Lattice Optics Optimization For Recirculatory Energy Recovery Linacs With Multi-Objective Optimization, Isurumali Neththikumara, Todd Satogata, Alex Bogacz, Ryan Bodenstein, Arthur Vandenhoeke

College of Sciences Posters

Beamline optics design for recirculatory linear accelerators requires special attention to suppress beam instabilities arising due to collective effects. The impact of these collective effects becomes more pronounced with the addition of energy recovery (ER) capability. Jefferson Lab’s multi-pass, multi-GeV ER proposal for the CEBAF accelerator, ER@CEBAF, is a 10- pass ER demonstration with low beam current. Tighter control of the beam parameters at lower energies is necessary to avoid beam break-up (BBU) instabilities, even with a small beam current. Optics optimizations require balancing both beta excursions at high-energy passes and overfocusing at low-energy passes. Here, we discuss an optics …


Whistler Waves: Modeling And Observations, Daniel Williams 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Whistler Waves: Modeling And Observations, Daniel Williams

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

The thesis presents the results of all the research from the published and in publication process research in the Journal of Geophysical Research [1]. This research focuses on whistler wave ducting events in the equatorial magnetosphere. High-density ducts are the main focus of whistler study in both studies as they are commonly observed by the Van Allen Probe satellites. A three-step procedure based on the analysis of the whistler wave dispersion relation and numerical simulations of the electron magnetohydrodynamics model. We use this model to identify the parallel and perpendicular wave numbers of the “most trapped” wave in an attempt …


Mms Observations Of The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability And Associated Ion Scale Waves, Rachel C. Rice 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Mms Observations Of The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability And Associated Ion Scale Waves, Rachel C. Rice

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

The detailed mechanisms coupling the solar wind to Earth's magnetosphere are not yet fully understood. Solar wind plasma is heated non-adiabatically as it penetrates the magnetosphere, and this process must span scale sizes. Reconnection alone is not able to account for the observed heating; other mechanisms must be at work. One potential process is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The KHI is a convective instability which operates at the fluid scale in plasmas, but is capable of driving secondary process at smaller scales. Previous work has shown evidence of magnetic reconnection, various ion scale wave modes, mode conversion, and turbulence associated …


Ion Velocity Distribution Functions In Cutting-Edge Plasmas, Mitchell Cameron Paul 2022 West Virginia University

Ion Velocity Distribution Functions In Cutting-Edge Plasmas, Mitchell Cameron Paul

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Cutting-edge plasma experiments continue to push the frontiers of plasma science. Two such groups of experiments, helicon sources and laboratory magnetic reconnection, are the focus of this thesis. The relatively high plasma density achieved for modest input powers makes helicon source plasmas ideal testbeds for fusion-relevant phenomena without the complexities associated with fusion devices. Examples include plasma-material interaction (PMI) studies, divertor region studies, and boundary physics studies. As advancements in helicon source design and technology make operation at higher power for longer times possible, understanding of the plasma dynamics, particularly ion dynamics, is vital.

Laboratory experiments are essential to advancing …


Microwave Enhanced Electron Energy Distribution Functions, John Samuel McKee 2022 West Virginia University

Microwave Enhanced Electron Energy Distribution Functions, John Samuel Mckee

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The use of two (or more) radio frequency (RF) sources at different frequencies is a common technique in the plasma processing industry to control ion energy characteristics separately from plasma generation. A similar approach is presented here with the focus on modifying the electron population in argon and helium plasmas. The plasma is generated by a helicon source at a frequency f0 = 13.56 MHz. Microwaves of frequency f1 = 2.45 GHz are then injected into the helicon source chamber perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The microwaves damp on the electrons via R-mode (anti-parallel to the background magnetic field …


Scaling Theory Of 3d Magnetic Reconnection X-Line Spreading, Milton Arencibia 2022 West Virginia University

Scaling Theory Of 3d Magnetic Reconnection X-Line Spreading, Milton Arencibia

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Magnetic reconnection is fundamental process in plasmas that converts magnetic energy into kinetic and thermal energy via a change in magnetic topology. Magnetic reconnection is known to mediate eruptive solar flares, geomagnetic substorms that create the Northern lights, heating and particle acceleration in controlled fusion devices, and is thought to be an important process in numerous settings in high-energy astrophysics. Classical models of reconnection are two-dimensional (2D), but naturally occurring reconnection is three-dimensional (3D), and a manifestation of the 3D nature is that the x-line where the magnetic field topology changes has a finite extent in the direction normal to …


Comparing Twins Ion Temperature Maps With Mms, Ampere, And Themis Observations During July 26, 2017 Reconnection Event, Isabella M. Householder 2022 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Comparing Twins Ion Temperature Maps With Mms, Ampere, And Themis Observations During July 26, 2017 Reconnection Event, Isabella M. Householder

Honors Theses and Capstones

The solar wind releases a constant stream of ionized particles into space which causes complex behaviors to occur within Earth’s magnetosphere. These disruptions can initiate magnetic reconnection and cause flow reversal of ions in the magnetotail. Two flow reversal events were locally detected by the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) on July 26, 2017 at 0700 UT and 0730 UT. The Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) provide a global measurement of heated signatures of the magnetic field and detected an increase in ion temperature during these reconnection events without the presence of a geomagnetic storm. Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics …


Cross-Section Measurement Of Virtual Photoproduction Of Iso-Triplet Three-Body Hypernucleus, ⋀Nn, T. Gogami, K. N. Suzuki, B. Pandey, K. Itabashi, S. Nagao, K. Okuyama, S. N. Nakamura, L. Tang, D. Abrams, T. Akiyama, D. Androic, K. Aniol, C. Ayerbe Gayoso, J. Bane, S. Barcus, J. Barrow, V. Bellini, H. Bhatt, D. Bhetuwal, D. Biswas, A. Camsonne, J. Castellanos, J-P. Chen, J. Chen, S. Covrig, D. Chrisman, R. Cruz-Torres, R. Das, E. Fuchey, K. Gnanvo, F. Garibaldi, T. Gautam, J. Gomez, P. Gueye, T.J. Hague, O. Hansen, W. Henry, F. Hauenstein, D. W. Higinbotham, C. E. Hyde, M. Kaneta, C. Keppel, T. Kutz, N. Lashley-Colthirst, S. Li, H. Liu, J. Mammei, P. Markowitz, R. E. McClellan, F. Meddi, D. Meekins, R. Michaels, M. Mihovilovic, A. Moyer, D. Nguyen, M. Nycz, V. Owen, C. Palatchi, S. Park, T. Petkovic, S. Premathilake, P.E. Reimer, J. Reinhold, S. Riordan, V. Rodriguez, C. Samanta, S. N. Santiesteban, B. Sawatzky, S. Širca, K. Slifer, T. Su, Y. Tian, Y. Toyama, K. Uehara, G. M. Urciuoli, D. Votaw, J. Williamson, B. Wojtsekhowski, S. A. Wood, B. Yale, Z. Ye, J. Zhang, X. Zheng 2022 Old Dominion University

Cross-Section Measurement Of Virtual Photoproduction Of Iso-Triplet Three-Body Hypernucleus, ⋀Nn, T. Gogami, K. N. Suzuki, B. Pandey, K. Itabashi, S. Nagao, K. Okuyama, S. N. Nakamura, L. Tang, D. Abrams, T. Akiyama, D. Androic, K. Aniol, C. Ayerbe Gayoso, J. Bane, S. Barcus, J. Barrow, V. Bellini, H. Bhatt, D. Bhetuwal, D. Biswas, A. Camsonne, J. Castellanos, J-P. Chen, J. Chen, S. Covrig, D. Chrisman, R. Cruz-Torres, R. Das, E. Fuchey, K. Gnanvo, F. Garibaldi, T. Gautam, J. Gomez, P. Gueye, T.J. Hague, O. Hansen, W. Henry, F. Hauenstein, D. W. Higinbotham, C. E. Hyde, M. Kaneta, C. Keppel, T. Kutz, N. Lashley-Colthirst, S. Li, H. Liu, J. Mammei, P. Markowitz, R. E. Mcclellan, F. Meddi, D. Meekins, R. Michaels, M. Mihovilovic, A. Moyer, D. Nguyen, M. Nycz, V. Owen, C. Palatchi, S. Park, T. Petkovic, S. Premathilake, P.E. Reimer, J. Reinhold, S. Riordan, V. Rodriguez, C. Samanta, S. N. Santiesteban, B. Sawatzky, S. Širca, K. Slifer, T. Su, Y. Tian, Y. Toyama, K. Uehara, G. M. Urciuoli, D. Votaw, J. Williamson, B. Wojtsekhowski, S. A. Wood, B. Yale, Z. Ye, J. Zhang, X. Zheng

Physics Faculty Publications

Missing-mass spectroscopy with the 3H(e, e′K+) reaction was carried out at Jefferson Lab’s (JLab) Hall A in Oct–Nov, 2018. The differential cross section for the 3H(γ, K+nn was deduced at ω = EeEe′ = 2.102 GeV and at the forward K+-scattering angle (0° ≤ θγK ≤ 5°) in the laboratory frame. Given typical predicted energies and decay widths, which are (BΛ, Γ) = (−0.25, 0.8) and (−0.55, 4.7) MeV, the cross sections were found …


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