Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Plasma and Beam Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

494 Full-Text Articles 1098 Authors 44287 Downloads 48 Institutions

All Articles in Plasma and Beam Physics

Faceted Search

494 full-text articles. Page 1 of 16.

Doubly-Excited State Effects On Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium By Time-Delayed, Oppositely Circularly-Polarized Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Doubly-Excited State Effects On Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium By Time-Delayed, Oppositely Circularly-Polarized Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We study two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of helium by a pair of time-delayed (non-overlapping), oppositely circularly-polarized attosecond pulses whose carrier frequencies are resonant with 1Po doubly-excited states. All of our TPDI results are obtained by numerical solution of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the six-dimensional case of circularly-polarized attosecond pulses, and they are analyzed using perturbation theory (PT). As compared with the corresponding nonresonant TPDI process, we find that the doubly-excited states change the character of vortex patterns in the two-electron momentum distributions for the case of back-to-back detection of the two ionized electrons in the polarization ...


Imaging Electronic Motions By Ultrafast Electron Diraction, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Imaging Electronic Motions By Ultrafast Electron Diraction, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Recently ultrafast electron diraction and microscopy have reached unprecedented temporal resolution, and transient structures with atomic precision have been observed in various reactions. It is anticipated that these extraordinary advances will soon allow direct observation of electronic motions during chemical reactions. We therefore performed a series of theoretical investigations and simulations to investigate the imaging of electronic motions in atoms and molecules by ultrafast electron diraction. Three prototypical electronic motions were considered for hydrogen atoms. For the case of a breathing mode, the electron density expands and contracts periodically, and we show that the time-resolved scattering intensities re ect such ...


Energy-Resolved Coherent Diffraction From Laser-Driven Electronic Motion In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-Resolved Coherent Diffraction From Laser-Driven Electronic Motion In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We investigate theoretically the use of energy-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction to image laser-driven electronic motion in atoms. A chirped laser pulse is used to transfer the valence electron of the lithium atom from the ground state to the first excited state. During this process, the electronic motion is imaged by 100-fs and 1-fs electron pulses in energy-resolved diffraction measurements. Simulations show that the angle-resolved spectra reveal the time evolution of the energy content and symmetry of the electronic state. The time-dependent diffraction patterns are further interpreted in terms of the momentum transfer. For the case of incident 1-fs electron pulses ...


Ionization Enhancement And Suppression By Phase-Locked Ultrafast Pulse Pairs, David B. Foote, Y. Lin, Liang-Wen Pi, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace, W. T. Hill 2017 University of Maryland at College Park

Ionization Enhancement And Suppression By Phase-Locked Ultrafast Pulse Pairs, David B. Foote, Y. Lin, Liang-Wen Pi, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace, W. T. Hill

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We present the results of a study of ionization of Xe atoms by a pair of phase-locked pulses, which is characterized by interference produced by the twin peaks. Two types of interference are considered: ordinary optical interference, which changes the intensity of the composite pulse and thus the ion yield, and a quantum interference, in which the excited electron wave packets interfere. We use the measured Xe+ yield as a function of the temporal delay and/or relative phase between the peaks to monitor the interferences and compare their relative strengths. We model the interference with a pulse intensity function ...


Adiabatic-Limit Coulomb Factors For Photoelectron And High-Order-Harmonic Spectra, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Minina, S. V. Popruzhenko, Anthony F. Starace 2017 Voronezh State University, Russia

Adiabatic-Limit Coulomb Factors For Photoelectron And High-Order-Harmonic Spectra, M. V. Frolov, N. L. Manakov, A. A. Minina, S. V. Popruzhenko, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

A momentum-dependent Coulomb factor in the probability for nonlinear ionization of atoms by a strong low-frequency laser field is calculated analytically in the adiabatic approximation. Expressions for this Coulomb factor, valid for an arbitrary laser pulse waveform, are obtained and analyzed in detail for the cases of linear and circular polarizations. The dependence of the Coulomb factor on the photoelectron momentum is shown to be significant in both cases. Using a similar technique, the Coulomb factor for emission of high-order harmonics by an atom in a bichromatic laser field is also calculated. In contrast to the case of a single-frequency ...


Optimization And Control Of Production Of Graphene, Atharva Hans, Nimish M. Awalgaonkar, Majed Alrefae, Ilias Bilionis, Timothy S. Fisher 2017 Purdue University

Optimization And Control Of Production Of Graphene, Atharva Hans, Nimish M. Awalgaonkar, Majed Alrefae, Ilias Bilionis, Timothy S. Fisher

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Graphene is a 2-dimensional element of high practical importance. Despite its exceptional properties, graphene’s real applications in industrial or commercial products have been limited. There are many methods to produce graphene, but none has been successful in commercializing its production. Roll-to-roll plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used to manufacture graphene at large scale. In this research, we present a Bayesian linear regression model to predict the roll-to-roll plasma system’s electrode voltage and current; given a particular set of inputs. The inputs of the plasma system are power, pressure and concentration of gases; hydrogen, methane, oxygen, nitrogen and ...


Design And Fabrication Of An Electrical Breakdown Facility, Prit Chovatiya, Animesh Sharma, Alexey Shashurin 2017 Purdue University

Design And Fabrication Of An Electrical Breakdown Facility, Prit Chovatiya, Animesh Sharma, Alexey Shashurin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Usage of traditional experimental instrumentation has not kept up with the rate of advancement in the modern educational material. Teaching aids used in academia have to be updated to ensure effective understanding of content among the students. The use of outdated vacuum chambers as visual aids in plasma physics classrooms have proven to be ineffective for the students and teachers, due to limited viewing ports on the metallic walls of the vacuum chamber for viewing the plasma discharge phenomenon. It is important to address this challenge, which invigorates the need for the use of a transparent vacuum chamber as a ...


Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Two-armed helical vortex structures are predicted in the two-electron momentum distributions produced in double photoionization (DPI) of the He atom by a pair of time-delayed elliptically polarized attosecond pulses with opposite helicities. These predictions are based upon both a first-order perturbation theory analysis and numerical solutions of the two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation in six spatial dimensions. The helical vortex structures originate from Ramsey interference of a pair of ionized two-electron wave packets, each having a total angular momentum of unity, and appear in the sixfold differential DPI probability distribution for any energy partitioning between the two electrons. The vortex structures ...


Microdischarges Utilized In Portable Gas Sensing And Their Atmospheric Contaminants, Colin H. Sillerud 2017 University of New Mexico

Microdischarges Utilized In Portable Gas Sensing And Their Atmospheric Contaminants, Colin H. Sillerud

Chemical and Biological Engineering ETDs

Portable applications of microdischarges such as the chemical detection, remediation of gaseous wastes, or the destruction of volatile organic compounds will mandate operation in the presence of contaminant species. This work examines the temporal evolution of microdischarge optical and ultraviolet emissions during pulsed operation by experimental methods. By varying the pulse length of a microdischarge initiated in a 4-hole silicon microcavity array operating in a 655 Torr ambient primarily composed of Ne, we were able to measure the emission growth rates for different contaminant species native to the discharge environment as a function of pulse length. It was found that ...


Instrument Design Optimization With Computational Methods, Michael H. Moore 2017 Old Dominion University

Instrument Design Optimization With Computational Methods, Michael H. Moore

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Using Finite Element Analysis to approximate the solution of differential equations, two different instruments in experimental Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are analyzed. The time dependence of density fluctuations from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) target used in the Qweak experiment (2011-2012) are studied with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the simulation results compared to data from the experiment. The 2.5 kW liquid hydrogen target was the highest power LH2 target in the world and the first to be designed with CFD at Jefferson Lab. The first complete magnetic field simulation of the Super High ...


Improvements For The T0c+ Geometry Of The Fast Interaction Trigger (Fit) Upgrade To Alice At The Cern Lhc, Noah Miller 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Improvements For The T0c+ Geometry Of The Fast Interaction Trigger (Fit) Upgrade To Alice At The Cern Lhc, Noah Miller

Physics

The purpose of the ALICE experiment at CERN is to investigate the properties of the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma formed in the high-energy collisions of lead nuclei in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. ALICE has been collecting data since 2009. The upcoming upgrade of the CERN LHC injectors during 2019-20 will boost the luminosity and the collision rate beyond the design parameters for several of the key ALICE detectors including the forward trigger detectors. The new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will enable ALICE to discriminate beam-beam interactions with a 99% efficiency for the collisions generated by the LHC at a ...


Observing Orbital Angular Momentum Transfer From Electron Vortex Beams To Matter, Hannah DeVyldere 2017 Linfield College

Observing Orbital Angular Momentum Transfer From Electron Vortex Beams To Matter, Hannah Devyldere

Senior Theses

It is possible to produce electron beams with non-zero orbital angular momentum. Such beams, known as electron vortex beams, are theoretically able to transfer their orbital angular momenta to matter, causing the matter to rotate. Nanoparticles in an aqueous solution were observed with an electron vortex beam to detect the transfer of orbital angular momentum in a low-friction environment. Observing the transfer of orbital angular momentum to particles in solution is difficult due to the necessity of imaging the particles through a liquid and the random movement of particles in the solution. Thus, orbital angular momentum transfer to matter could ...


Discontinuities In The Electromagnetic Fields Of Vortex Beams In The Complex Source-Sink Model, Andrew Vikartofsky, Liang-Wen Pi, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Discontinuities In The Electromagnetic Fields Of Vortex Beams In The Complex Source-Sink Model, Andrew Vikartofsky, Liang-Wen Pi, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

An analytical discontinuity is reported in what was thought to be the discontinuity-free exact nonparaxial vortex beam phasor obtained within the complex source-sink model. This discontinuity appears for all odd values of the orbital angular momentum mode. Such discontinuities in the phasor lead to nonphysical discontinuities in the real electromagnetic field components. We identify the source of the discontinuities, and provide graphical evidence of the discontinuous real electric fields for the first and third orbital angular momentum modes. A simple means of avoiding these discontinuities is presented.


Determination Of The Zinc Concentration In Human Fingernails By Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Steven J. Rehse, Vlora A. Riberdy, Christopher J. Frederickson 2017 University of Windsor

Determination Of The Zinc Concentration In Human Fingernails By Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Steven J. Rehse, Vlora A. Riberdy, Christopher J. Frederickson

Physics Publications

The absolute concentration of zinc in human fingernail clippings tested ex vivo was determined by 1064 nm laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and confirmed by speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry. A nail testing protocol that sampled across the nail (perpendicular to the direction of growth) was developed and validated by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Using this protocol, a partial least squares regression model predicted the zinc concentration in five subjects’ fingernails to within 7 ppm on average. The variation of the zinc concentration with depth into the nail as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was studied and found to ...


Low Temperature Plasma For The Treatment Of Epithelial Cancer Cells, Soheila Mohades 2017 Old Dominion University

Low Temperature Plasma For The Treatment Of Epithelial Cancer Cells, Soheila Mohades

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas (LTP) may lead to a paradigm shift in treating various diseases by conducting fundamental research on the effects of LTP on cells, tissues, organisms (plants, insects, and microorganisms). This is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field that involves engineering, physics, life sciences, and chemistry to find novel solutions for urgent medical needs. Effects of different LTP sources have shown the anti-tumor properties of plasma exposure; however, there are still many unknowns about the interaction of plasma with eukaryotic cells which must be elucidated in order to evaluate the practical potential of plasma in cancer ...


Enhancing High-Order-Harmonic Generation By Time Delays Between Two-Color, Few-Cycle Pulses, Dian Peng, Liang-Wen Pi, M. V. Frolov, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Enhancing High-Order-Harmonic Generation By Time Delays Between Two-Color, Few-Cycle Pulses, Dian Peng, Liang-Wen Pi, M. V. Frolov, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Use of time delays in high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) driven by intense two-color, few-cycle pulses is investigated in order to determine means of optimizing HHG intensities and plateau cutoff energies. Based upon numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrõdinger equation for the H atom as well as analytical analyses, we show that introducing a time delay between the two-color, few-cycle pulses can result in an enhancement of the intensity of the HHG spectrum by an order of magnitude (or more) at the cost of a reduction in the HHG plateau cutoff energy. Results for both positive and negative time delays as well ...


Velocity–Space Drag And Diffusion In A Model, Two-Dimensional Plasma, Mark Anthony Reynolds, B.D. Fried, G.J. Morales 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Velocity–Space Drag And Diffusion In A Model, Two-Dimensional Plasma, Mark Anthony Reynolds, B.D. Fried, G.J. Morales

M. Anthony Reynolds

The quasilinear fluctuation integral is calculated for a two-dimensional, unmagnetized plasma ~composed of charged rods!, and is expressed in terms of Fokker–Planck coefficients. It is found that in two dimensions, the enhanced fluctuations generated by fast electrons lead to anomalously large transport coefficients. In particular, the effect of a small population of fast electrons is only weakly dependent on their density. In three dimensions, the effect of fast electrons is masked by the dominant approximation, but higher-order terms describe processes similar to those in two dimensions, and these terms can become significant for weakly stable plasmas. The differences between ...


Ion Bernstein Waves Driven By Two Transverse Flow Layers, Mark Anthony Reynolds, G. Ganguli 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeroautical University - Daytona Beach

Ion Bernstein Waves Driven By Two Transverse Flow Layers, Mark Anthony Reynolds, G. Ganguli

M. Anthony Reynolds

The interaction between two narrow layers of E3B flow is investigated, along with their stability properties. The mode frequencies, growth rates, and eigenfunctions are calculated. It is found that the instability due to a single layer is robust to the inclusion of a second layer. Specifically, when the separation between the layers is on the order of the ion-cyclotron radius, there is strong coupling between the two layers and the second layer is destabilizing. In addition, when the flow velocities are in opposite directions a wide variety of modes is possible, including near-zero-frequency modes, resulting in broadband structure in both ...


High-Frequency Fluctuations Of A Modulated, Helical Electron Beam, Mark Anthony Reynolds 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

High-Frequency Fluctuations Of A Modulated, Helical Electron Beam, Mark Anthony Reynolds

M. Anthony Reynolds

The high-frequency electromagnetic field generated by a density-modulated, helical electron beam propagating in a magnetized plasma is calculated. The magnetic fluctuations are found to exhibit spatially localized ~evanescent! resonances at harmonics of the electron-cyclotron frequency, whose width is determined by the pitch angle of the beam, and whose existence is a consequence of the helical geometry. In addition, electrostatic modes are radiated near the hybrid frequencies, and electromagnetic modes are radiated above the upper-hybrid frequency. The predicted frequency spectrum and mode structure in configuration space are in good agreement with experimental observations of discrete emission lines at the electron-cyclotron harmonics.


The Impact Of Base Stacking On The Conformations And Electrostatics Of Single-Stranded Dna, Alex Plumridge, Steve P. Meisburger, Kurt Andresen, Lois Pollack 2017 Cornell University

The Impact Of Base Stacking On The Conformations And Electrostatics Of Single-Stranded Dna, Alex Plumridge, Steve P. Meisburger, Kurt Andresen, Lois Pollack

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is notable for its interactions with ssDNA binding proteins (SSBs) during fundamentally important biological processes including DNA repair and replication. Previous work has begun to characterize the conformational and electrostatic properties of ssDNA in association with SSBs. However, the conformational distributions of free ssDNA have been difficult to determine. To capture the vast array of ssDNA conformations in solution, we pair small angle X-ray scattering with novel ensemble fitting methods, obtaining key parameters such as the size, shape and stacking character of strands with different sequences. Complementary ion counting measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress