Possible Schemes For A Single Photon Switch, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Possible Schemes For A Single Photon Switch, Hemlin Swaran Rag

*Theses and Dissertations*

I consider the effectiveness of a single control photon to route a target photon using two processes: the first one uses the transient excitation of a two-level system and the second one which uses the permanent population transfer in a three-level Λ-system to route the target photon. In the absence of a single control photon and when the system has additional decay channels, I find ways to optimize the success probability of routing with an increasing number of photons in the control field.

Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, Vidit Agrawal

*Theses and Dissertations*

The purpose of this research is to study the implications of Excitation/Inhibition balance and imbalance on the dynamics of ongoing (spontaneous) neural activity in the cerebral cortex region of the brain.

The first research work addresses the question that why among the continuum of Excitation-Inhibition balance configurations, particular configuration should be favored? We calculate the entropy of neural network dynamics by studying an analytically tractable network of binary neurons. Our main result from this work is that the entropy maximizes at regime which is neither excitation-dominant nor inhibition-dominant but at the boundary of both. Along this boundary we see ...

If Space-Time Is Discrete, We May Be Able To Solve Np-Hard Problems In Polynomial Time, 2019 University of Texas at El Paso

#### If Space-Time Is Discrete, We May Be Able To Solve Np-Hard Problems In Polynomial Time, Ricardo Alvarez, Nick Sims, Christian Servin, Martine Ceberio, Vladik Kreinovich

*Departmental Technical Reports (CS)*

Traditional physics assumes that space and time are continuous. However, this reasonable model leads to some serious problems. One the approaches that physicists follow to solve these problems is to assume that the space-time is actually discrete. In this paper, we analyze possible computational consequences of this discreteness. It turns out that in a discrete space-time, we may be able to solve NP-hard problems in polynomial time.

Avoiding Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (Epr) Paradox: Towards A More Physically Adequate Description Of A Quantum State, 2019 El Paso Community College

#### Avoiding Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (Epr) Paradox: Towards A More Physically Adequate Description Of A Quantum State, Joseph Bernal, Olga Kosheleva, Vladik Kreinovich

*Departmental Technical Reports (CS)*

The famous EPR paradox shows that if we describe quantum particles in the usual way -- by their wave functions -- then we get the following seeming contradiction. If we entangle the states of the two particles, then move them far away from each other, and measure the state of the first particle, then the state of the second particle immediately changes -- which contradicts to special relativity, according to which such immediate-action-at-a-distance is not possible. It is known that, from the physical viewpoint, this is not a real paradox: if we measure any property of the second particle, the results will not ...

Non-Fermi-Liquid Behaviors Associated With A Magnetic Quantum-Critical Point In Sr(Co{1-X}Ni{X})2as2 Single Crystals, 2019 Ames Laboratory

#### Non-Fermi-Liquid Behaviors Associated With A Magnetic Quantum-Critical Point In Sr(Co{1-X}Ni{X})2as2 Single Crystals, Nediadath S. Sangeetha, Lin-Lin Wang, Andrei V. Smirnov, Volodymyr Smetana, A.-V. Mudring, Duane D. Johnson, Makariy A. Tanatar, Ruslan Prozorov, David C. Johnston

*Duane D. Johnson*

Electron-doped Sr(Co{1-x}Ni{x})2As2 single crystals with compositions x = 0 to 0.9 were grown out of self-flux and SrNi2As2 single crystals out of Bi flux. The crystals were characterized using single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic susceptibility chi(H,T), isothermal magnetization M(H,T), heat capacity Cp(H,T), and electrical resistivity ho(H,T) measurements versus applied magnetic field H and temperature T. The chi(T) data show that the crystals exhibit an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state almost immediately upon Ni doping on the Co site. Ab-initio electronic-structure calculations for x = 0 and x = 0 ...

Hole Doping And Antiferromagnetic Correlations Above The Néel Temperature Of The Topological Semimetal (Sr1-X Kx) Mnsb2, 2019 Ames Laboratory

#### Hole Doping And Antiferromagnetic Correlations Above The Néel Temperature Of The Topological Semimetal (Sr1-X Kx) Mnsb2, Yong Liu, Farhan Islam, Kevin W. Dennis, Wei Tian, Benjamin G. Ueland, Robert J. Mcqueeney, David Vaknin

*Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts*

Neutron diffraction and magnetic susceptibility studies of orthorhombic single crystal (Sr0.97K0.03)MnSb2 confirm the three-dimensional (3D) C-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering of the Mn2+ moments at TN=305±3 K, which is slightly higher than that of the parent SrMnSb2 with TN=297±3 K. Susceptibility measurements of the K-doped and parent crystals above TN are characteristic of 2D AFM systems. This is consistent with high-temperature neutron diffraction of the parent compound that displays persisting 2D AFM correlations well above TN to at least ∼560 K with no evidence of a ferromagnetic phase. Analysis of the de Haas–van ...

Single Pair Of Weyl Fermions In The Half-Metallic Semimetal Eucd2as2, 2019 Ames Laboratory

#### Single Pair Of Weyl Fermions In The Half-Metallic Semimetal Eucd2as2, Lin-Lin Wang, Na Hyun Jo, Brinda Kuthanazhi, Yun Wu, Robert J. Mcqueeney, Adam Kaminski, Paul C. Canfield

*Paul C. Canfield*

Materials with the ideal case of a single pair of Weyl points (WPs) are highly desirable for elucidating the unique properties of Weyl fermions. EuC d 2 A s 2 is an antiferromagnetic topological insulator or Dirac semimetal depending on the different magnetic configurations. Using first-principles band-structure calculations, we show that inducing ferromagnetism in EuC d 2 A s 2 can generate a single pair of WPs from splitting the single pair of antiferromagnetic Dirac points due to its half-metallic nature. Analysis with a low-energy effective Hamiltonian shows that a single pair of WPs is obtained in EuC d 2 ...

Interplay Between Superconductivity And Itinerant Magnetism In Underdoped Ba1−Xkxfe2as2 (X = 0.2) Probed By The Response To Controlled Point-Like Disorder, 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

#### Interplay Between Superconductivity And Itinerant Magnetism In Underdoped Ba1−Xkxfe2as2 (X = 0.2) Probed By The Response To Controlled Point-Like Disorder, Ruslan Prozorov, Marcin Kończykowski, Makariy A. Tanatar, Hai-Hu Wen, Rafael M. Fernandes, Paul C. Canfield

*Paul C. Canfield*

The response of superconductors to controlled introduction of point-like disorder is an important tool to probe their microscopic electronic collective behavior. In the case of iron-based superconductors, magnetic fluctuations presumably play an important role in inducing high-temperature superconductivity. In some cases, these two seemingly incompatible orders coexist microscopically. Therefore, understanding how this unique coexistence state is affected by disorder can provide important information about the microscopic mechanisms involved. In one of the most studied pnictide family, hole-doped Ba1−*x*K*x*Fe2As2 (BaK122), this coexistence occurs over a wide range of doping levels, 0.16 ≲ *x* ≲ 0.25. We used ...

Transverse Localization Of Transmission Eigenchannels, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Transverse Localization Of Transmission Eigenchannels, Hasan Yılmaz, Chia Wei Hsu, Alexey Yamilov, Hui Cao

*Alexey Yamilov*

Transmission eigenchannels are building blocks of coherent wave transport in diffusive media, and selective excitation of individual eigenchannels can lead to diverse transport behaviour. An essential yet poorly understood property is the transverse spatial profile of each eigenchannel, which is relevant for the associated energy density and critical for coupling light into and out of it. Here, we discover that the transmission eigenchannels of a disordered slab possess exponentially localized incident and outgoing profiles, even in the diffusive regime far from Anderson localization. Such transverse localization arises from a combination of reciprocity, local coupling of spatial modes and non-local correlations ...

Few-Body Dynamics Underlying Postcollision Effects In The Ionization Of H₂ By 75-Kev Proton Impact, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Few-Body Dynamics Underlying Postcollision Effects In The Ionization Of H₂ By 75-Kev Proton Impact, M. Dhital, S. Bastola, A. Silvus, Don H. Madison, Michael Schulz

*Michael Schulz*

We have measured fully differential cross sections (FDCS) for ionization in 75-keVp+H2 collisions for ejected electron speeds close to the projectile speed. The data were analyzed in dependence on both the electron emission angle and the projectile scattering angle. Pronounced postcollisional effects between the projectile and the ejected electrons were observed. Significant differences between experiment and theory and between two conceptually very similar theoretical models were found. This shows that in the region of electron-projectile velocity-matching the FDCS is very sensitive to the details of the underlying few-body dynamics.

The Role Of Multiple Electron Capture In The X-Ray Emission Process Following Charge Exchange Collisions With Neutral Targets, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### The Role Of Multiple Electron Capture In The X-Ray Emission Process Following Charge Exchange Collisions With Neutral Targets, Sebastian Otranto, N. D. Cariatore, Ronald E. Olson

*Ronald E. Olson*

In this work we theoretically study photonic spectra that follow charge exchange processes between highly charged ions and neutral argon and CO targets. The range of collision energies studied is 5 eV/amu-10 keV/amu, covering typical EBIT-traps and Solar Wind energies. Our studies are based on multiple electrons schemes within the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. Electrons are sorted with the sequential binding energies for the target under consideration. The role played by the multiple electron capture process for the different collision systems under consideration is explicitly analyzed and its contribution separated as arising from double radiative decay and ...

Low Energy Electron And Positron Impact Differential Cross Sections For The Ionization Of Water Molecules In The Coplanar And Perpendicular Kinematics, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Low Energy Electron And Positron Impact Differential Cross Sections For The Ionization Of Water Molecules In The Coplanar And Perpendicular Kinematics, P. Singh, G. Purohit, C. Champion, D. Sebilleau, Don H. Madison

*Don H. Madison*

We report here triply differential cross sections (TDCSs) for 81 eV electron and positron-impact ionization of the combined (1b_{1} + 3a_{}1 ) orbitals of the water molecule by using the second-order distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA2) for ejection electron and positron energies of 5 eV and 10 eV and different momentum transfer conditions. The electron-impact TDCS will be compared with the experimental data measured by Ren et al. [Phys. Rev. A 95, 022701 (2017)] and with the molecular 3-body distorted wave (M3DW) approximation results in the scattering plane as well as the perpendicular plane. The DWBA2 results are in better ...

Triple Differential Cross Sections For Electron-Impact Ionization Of Methane At Intermediate Energy, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Triple Differential Cross Sections For Electron-Impact Ionization Of Methane At Intermediate Energy, Esam Ali, Carlos Granados, Ahmad Sakaamini, Don H. Madison

*Don H. Madison*

We report an experimental and theoretical investigation of electron-impact single ionization of the highest occupied molecular orbital 1t_{2} and the next highest occupied molecular orbital 2a_{1} states of CH_{4} at an incident electron energy of 250 eV. Triple differential cross sections measured in two different laboratories were compared with results calculated within the molecular 3-body distorted wave and generalized Sturmian function theoretical models. For ionization of the 1t_{2} state, the binary peak was observed to have a single maximum near the momentum transfer direction that evolved into a double peak for increasing projectile scattering angles, as ...

Few-Body Dynamics Underlying Postcollision Effects In The Ionization Of H₂ By 75-Kev Proton Impact, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Few-Body Dynamics Underlying Postcollision Effects In The Ionization Of H₂ By 75-Kev Proton Impact, M. Dhital, S. Bastola, A. Silvus, Don H. Madison, Michael Schulz

*Don H. Madison*

We have measured fully differential cross sections (FDCS) for ionization in 75-keVp+H2 collisions for ejected electron speeds close to the projectile speed. The data were analyzed in dependence on both the electron emission angle and the projectile scattering angle. Pronounced postcollisional effects between the projectile and the ejected electrons were observed. Significant differences between experiment and theory and between two conceptually very similar theoretical models were found. This shows that in the region of electron-projectile velocity-matching the FDCS is very sensitive to the details of the underlying few-body dynamics.

Modelling And Evaluation Of Electrical Resonance Eddy Current For Submillimeter Defect Detection, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Modelling And Evaluation Of Electrical Resonance Eddy Current For Submillimeter Defect Detection, Yew San Hor, Vinod K. Sivaraja, Yu Zhong, Bui V. Phuong, Christopher Lane

*Yew San Hor*

Eddy current (EC) inspection is used extensively in non-destructive testing (NDT) to detect surface-breaking defects of engineering components. However, the sensitivity of conventional eddy current inspection has plateaued in recent years. The ability to detect submillimetre defects before it becomes critical would allow engineering components to remain in-service safely for longer. Typically, it is required that higher frequency EC is employed to achieve a suitable sensitivity for detection of such submillimetre defects. However, that would lead to significant electromagnetic noise affecting the sensitivity of the inspection. To overcome this issue, the electrical-resonance based eddy current method has been proposed, where ...

Tests Of General Relativity With Gw170817, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Tests Of General Relativity With Gw170817, B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia

*Marco Cavaglia*

The recent discovery by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo of a gravitational wave signal from a binary neutron star inspiral has enabled tests of general relativity (GR) with this new type of source. This source, for the first time, permits tests of strong-field dynamics of compact binaries in the presence of matter. In this Letter, we place constraints on the dipole radiation and possible deviations from GR in the post-Newtonian coefficients that govern the inspiral regime. Bounds on modified dispersion of gravitational waves are obtained; in combination with information from the observed electromagnetic counterpart we can also constrain effects due ...

Search For Multimessenger Sources Of Gravitational Waves And High-Energy Neutrinos With Advanced Ligo During Its First Observing Run, Antares, And Icecube, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Search For Multimessenger Sources Of Gravitational Waves And High-Energy Neutrinos With Advanced Ligo During Its First Observing Run, Antares, And Icecube, A. Albert, M. André, M. Anghinolfi, Marco Cavaglia

*Marco Cavaglia*

Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, such as binary neutron star and black hole mergers or core-collapse supernovae, can drive relativistic outflows, giving rise to non-thermal high-energy emission. High-energy neutrinos are signatures of such outflows. The detection of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos from common sources could help establish the connection between the dynamics of the progenitor and the properties of the outflow. We searched for associated emission of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical transients with minimal assumptions using data from Advanced LIGO from its first observing run O1, and data from the Antares and IceCube neutrino observatories from ...

Properties Of The Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Properties Of The Binary Neutron Star Merger Gw170817, B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia

*Marco Cavaglia*

On August 17, 2017, the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors observed a low-mass compact binary inspiral. The initial sky localization of the source of the gravitational-wave signal, GW170817, allowed electromagnetic observatories to identify NGC 4993 as the host galaxy. In this work, we improve initial estimates of the binary's properties, including component masses, spins, and tidal parameters, using the known source location, improved modeling, and recalibrated Virgo data. We extend the range of gravitational-wave frequencies considered down to 23 Hz, compared to 30 Hz in the initial analysis. We also compare results inferred using several signal models ...

Constraining The P-Mode-G-Mode Tidal Instability With Gw170817, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### Constraining The P-Mode-G-Mode Tidal Instability With Gw170817, B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, Marco Cavaglia

*Marco Cavaglia*

We analyze the impact of a proposed tidal instability coupling p modes and g modes within neutron stars on GW170817. This nonresonant instability transfers energy from the orbit of the binary to internal modes of the stars, accelerating the gravitational-wave driven inspiral. We model the impact of this instability on the phasing of the gravitational wave signal using three parameters per star: An overall amplitude, a saturation frequency, and a spectral index. Incorporating these additional parameters, we compute the Bayes factor (ln B^{pg}_{!pg}) comparing our p-g model to a standard one. We find that the observed signal is ...

A Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor Search For Electromagnetic Signals Coincident With Gravitational-Wave Candidates In Advanced Ligo's First Observing Run, 2019 Missouri University of Science and Technology

#### A Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor Search For Electromagnetic Signals Coincident With Gravitational-Wave Candidates In Advanced Ligo's First Observing Run, E. Burns, A. Goldstein, C. M. Hui, Marco Cavaglia

*Marco Cavaglia*

We present a search for prompt gamma-ray counterparts to compact binary coalescence gravitational wave (GW) candidates from Advanced LIGO's first observing run (O1). As demonstrated by the multimessenger observations of GW170817/GRB 170817A, electromagnetic and GW observations provide complementary information about the astrophysical source, and in the case of weaker candidates, may strengthen the case for an astrophysical origin. Here we investigate low-significance GW candidates from the O1 compact binary coalescence searches using the *Fermi* Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), leveraging its all sky and broad energy coverage. Candidates are ranked and compared to background to measure the significance. Those ...