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Simulation And Optimization Of Kinematics Measurements For The Moller Parity-Violating Electron-Electron Scattering Experiment, Lauren Carver 2021 William & Mary

Simulation And Optimization Of Kinematics Measurements For The Moller Parity-Violating Electron-Electron Scattering Experiment, Lauren Carver

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This report describes the optimization of the sieve collimator that will be used for the MOLLER experiment at Jefferson Laboratory. The MOLLER experiment seeks to study the parity-violating asymmetry in electron-electron elastic scattering. For this project, Monte Carlo simulations were run using a GEANT4 simulation package, which includes the main geometry of the proposed experiment, and the essential physics reaction processes. A sieve collimator was added to the simulated geometry. This collimator has pin-hole openings to select scattered electrons at certain locations (radial and azimuthal positions) corresponding to specific scattering angles (theta, and phi). Analysis of the simulated data were ...


Topology Of The O(3) Non-Linear Sigma Model Under The Gradient Flow, Stuart Thomas, Christopher Monahan 2021 William & Mary

Topology Of The O(3) Non-Linear Sigma Model Under The Gradient Flow, Stuart Thomas, Christopher Monahan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Quantum field theory is an extraordinarily successful framework that describes phenomena in particle physics and condensed matter. The O(3) non-linear sigma model (NLSM) is a specific theory used in both of these fields, describing ferromagnets and acting as a prototype for the strong nuclear force. It features topologically stable configurations known as instantons which cannot continuously evolve to the ground state. The topological susceptibility is a parameter that describes this stability and is predicted to vanish in physical theories, however numerical simulations find that the topological susceptibility diverges in the continuum limit. This issue has motivated the application of ...


Applying Machine Learning To Neutron-Gamma Ray Discrimination From Scintillator Readout Using Wavelength Shifting Fibers, Michael K. Moore CDT'21, M H. Scherrer, Sean Clement, Daniel S. Hawthorne, Daniel C. Ruiz, Chad C. Schools, Craig Smith, Brian Wade 2021 United States Military Academy

Applying Machine Learning To Neutron-Gamma Ray Discrimination From Scintillator Readout Using Wavelength Shifting Fibers, Michael K. Moore Cdt'21, M H. Scherrer, Sean Clement, Daniel S. Hawthorne, Daniel C. Ruiz, Chad C. Schools, Craig Smith, Brian Wade

West Point Research Papers

Advances in machine learning have found wide applications including radiation detection. In this work, machine learning is applied to neutron-gamma ray discrimination of an organic liquid scintillator (OLS) readout using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. The objective of using WLS fiber is to enable the transfer of the light signal from the scintillation medium, with almost any active volume geometry, to a low-profile photomultiplier. This is a common practice in high-energy physics research and has proven to be very effective for such applications. The drawback of this approach is the light pulses carried to the photomultiplier through the WLS fibers do ...


Investigation Of The Use Of Coincidences Between Fast Neutrons And Gamma Rays For The Detection Of Special Nuclear Materials, Débora M. Trombetta, Bo Cederwall, Kåre Axell 2021 Royal Institute of Technology - KTH

Investigation Of The Use Of Coincidences Between Fast Neutrons And Gamma Rays For The Detection Of Special Nuclear Materials, Débora M. Trombetta, Bo Cederwall, Kåre Axell

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The emergence of new methodologies with promising applications that could impact nuclear security and emergency preparedness detection systems in the near future motivate the development of computational tools that allow the theoretical investigation of the relevant design parameters for such detection systems. Here, we present Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP6 code to investigate the use of fast neutron-neutron and gamma-neutron coincidences in addition to conventional methods for detection of special nuclear materials (SNM) using inorganic scintillator detectors. The results show fair agreement between MCNP6 and MCNP-PoliMi simulations for neutron-neutron coincidences and that coincident detection of gamma rays and fast ...


Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer 2021 Department of Chemistry, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer

Ramifications

Abstract

In this experiment, the Rydberg constants for the hydrogen atom and He+ were determined by analysis of the emission spectra of Hand He, respectively, in comparison to the principal quantum numbers of each transition. Using both a hydrogen and then a helium atomic lamp attached to a 0.5 m grating spectrometer and a photomultiplier detector (PMT), a change in voltage detected by the PMT can be paired with a corresponding wavelength passing through the spectrometer from each emission peak in the visible to ultraviolet range. The peaks acquired from this change in voltage were analyzed to find their ...


Analyzing The Effect Of Second-Class Currents On Neutron Beta Decay Observables And The Effect Of Thomas Rotation On The Relativistic Transformations Of Electromagnetic Fields, Lakshya Malhotra 2021 University of Kentucky

Analyzing The Effect Of Second-Class Currents On Neutron Beta Decay Observables And The Effect Of Thomas Rotation On The Relativistic Transformations Of Electromagnetic Fields, Lakshya Malhotra

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

The next generation of neutron beta decay measurements will attempt to analyze various beta decay observables of up to O(10-4) precision. At this level of experimental precision, the effects of second-class currents will contribute theoretical uncertainties to the interpretation of these measurements. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of these second-class currents on decay parameters, such as the Fierz interference term b which is linear in beyond standard model couplings. A maximum likelihood statistical framework and Rfit techniques are employed to study these second-class currents effects. Inputs to the Rfit technique are obtained through ...


Beam Spin Asymmetry In Semi-Inclusive Electroproduction Of Hadron Pairs, M. J. Amaryan, M. Hattawy, S. E. Kuhn, Y. Prok, J. Zhang, Z. W. Zhao, et al., CLAS Collaboration 2021 Old Dominion University

Beam Spin Asymmetry In Semi-Inclusive Electroproduction Of Hadron Pairs, M. J. Amaryan, M. Hattawy, S. E. Kuhn, Y. Prok, J. Zhang, Z. W. Zhao, Et Al., Clas Collaboration

Physics Faculty Publications

A first measurement of the longitudinal beam spin asymmetry ALU in the semi-inclusive electroproduction of pairs of charged pions is reported. ALU is a higher-twist observable and offers the cleanest access to the nucleon twist-3 parton distribution function e(x). Data have been collected in the Hall-B at Jefferson Lab by impinging a 5.498-GeV electron beam on a liquid-hydrogen target, and reconstructing the scattered electron and the pion pair with the CLAS detector. One-dimensional projections of the AsinLUϕR moments are extracted for the kinematic variables of interest in the valence quark region. The understanding ...


Analysis And Implementation Of The Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization Algorithm For Find, Angus Boyd Jameson 2020 University of New Hampshire

Analysis And Implementation Of The Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization Algorithm For Find, Angus Boyd Jameson

Student Research Projects

This thesis presents an organized explanation and breakdown of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization image reconstruction algorithm. This background research was used to develop a means of implementing the algorithm into the imaging code for UNH's Field Deployable Imaging Neutron Detector to improve its ability to resolve complex neutron sources. This thesis provides an overview for this implementation scheme, and include the results of a couple of reconstruction tests for the algorithm. A discussion is given on the current state of the algorithm and its integration with the neutron detector system, and suggestions are given for how the work ...


Rapid Radiological Analysis Of Building Materials, Askar Safarov, Joseph Sharonov, Ali Mukhamedov, Askarali Azimov, Akmal Safarov, Mukhammad Salimov, B Radzhabboev 2020 Samarkand State University

Rapid Radiological Analysis Of Building Materials, Askar Safarov, Joseph Sharonov, Ali Mukhamedov, Askarali Azimov, Akmal Safarov, Mukhammad Salimov, B Radzhabboev

Scientific Journal of Samarkand University

Measurements of the dose-forming radionuclide concentrations such as Rа-226, Тh-232 and К-40 were carried out in samples of building materials with different ageing times. The radium equivalent activities of the samples were determined. Possible values of the correcting coefficients to the activity of Ra-226 that take into account the radioactive equilibrium were calculated. This, in turn, allows to perform rapid radiological analysis of building materials.


Parton Distribution Functions From Ioffe Time Pseudodistributions From Lattice Calculations: Approaching The Physical Point, Bálint Joó, Joseph Karpie, Kostas Orginos, Anatoly V. Radyushkin, David G. Richards, Savvas Zafeiropoulos 2020 Old Dominion University

Parton Distribution Functions From Ioffe Time Pseudodistributions From Lattice Calculations: Approaching The Physical Point, Bálint Joó, Joseph Karpie, Kostas Orginos, Anatoly V. Radyushkin, David G. Richards, Savvas Zafeiropoulos

Physics Faculty Publications

We present results for the unpolarized parton distribution function of the nucleon computed in lattice QCD at the physical pion mass. This is the first study of its kind employing the method of Ioffe time pseudodistributions. Beyond the reconstruction of the Bjorken-x dependence, we also extract the lowest moments of the distribution function using the small Ioffe time expansion of the Ioffe time pseudodistribution. We compare our findings with the pertinent phenomenological determinations.


Measurement Of Pion-Pion Final State Interactions In Η → Π +Π −Γ With Clas At Jefferson Lab, Torri C. Jeske 2020 Old Dominion University

Measurement Of Pion-Pion Final State Interactions In Η → Π +Π −Γ With Clas At Jefferson Lab, Torri C. Jeske

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Decays of pseudoscalar mesons proceed from the chiral anomaly, which arises from spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In the limit of massless quarks (chiral limit), the η → π +π −γ the decay width is determined solely by the box anomaly term in the Wess Zumino Witten Lagrangian. Since the physical quarks are not massless, the decay region of the η meson is far from the chiral limit and thus proper inclusion of the momentum dependence is essential to reproduce the measured decay width. Several theoretical frameworks have been proposed to describe these interactions. We report a new measurement of the α ...


Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering At Hall A, Jefferson Lab, Mohamed Nuhman Hashir Rashad 2020 Old Dominion University

Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering At Hall A, Jefferson Lab, Mohamed Nuhman Hashir Rashad

Physics Theses & Dissertations

The Standard Model of particle physics defines quarks and leptons as the basic building blocks of all matter. The interaction between them are mediated by force carrying gauge bosons. Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD), the theory that explains the strong interaction is still not complete enough to derive the physical observables of a Quark-Gluon system from the fundamental degrees of freedom of it’s constituents. Experimentally observable single particle densities provide important insights into our understanding of the quark-gluon system and hence help fill in the gaps of QCD. Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide simultaneous information of both spacial and longitudinal momentum ...


A Study Of 26al(P, Γ)27si With The Silicon Array For Branching Ratio Experiments (Sabre), Erin Courtney Good 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

A Study Of 26al(P, Γ)27si With The Silicon Array For Branching Ratio Experiments (Sabre), Erin Courtney Good

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The observation of the radioisotope 26Al is an indicator of ongoing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy due to its short lifetime (t1/2 = 7.2 × 105 yr) on Galactic timescales. It is thought to be synthesized in several different environments in our Galaxy, one of which is in classical novae. Classical novae are stellar explosions that occur on the surface of a white dwarf in a binary system with a main sequence star. The isotopic production resulting from the nucleosynthesis that drives these explosions can be modeled with the input of nuclear reaction rates. In recent years, many ...


Precision Measurement Of The Beam-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry In Forward-Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering, Qweak Collaboration, David Armstrong, Wouter Deconinck, K. Bartlett, J. C. Cornejo, R. D. Carlini, James F. Dowd, J. M. Finn, Valerie M. Gray, K. Grimm, J. R. Hoskins, J. P. Leckey, Jeong Han Lee, Joshua A. Magee, Victoria F. Owen 2020 William & Mary

Precision Measurement Of The Beam-Normal Single-Spin Asymmetry In Forward-Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering, Qweak Collaboration, David Armstrong, Wouter Deconinck, K. Bartlett, J. C. Cornejo, R. D. Carlini, James F. Dowd, J. M. Finn, Valerie M. Gray, K. Grimm, J. R. Hoskins, J. P. Leckey, Jeong Han Lee, Joshua A. Magee, Victoria F. Owen

Arts & Sciences Articles

A beam-normal single-spin asymmetry generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons is an observable related to the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange process. We report a 2% precision measurement of the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering with a mean scattering angle of theta_lab = 7.9 degrees and a mean energy of 1.149 GeV. The asymmetry result is B_n = -5.194 +- 0.067 (stat) +- 0.082 (syst) ppm. This is the most precise measurement of this quantity available to date and therefore provides a stringent test of two-photon exchange models at far-forward scattering ...


Simulation And Development Of The Radial Time Projection Chamber For The Bonus12 Experiment In Clas12, Nathan M. Dzbenski 2020 Old Dominion University

Simulation And Development Of The Radial Time Projection Chamber For The Bonus12 Experiment In Clas12, Nathan M. Dzbenski

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Knowledge of the structure of nucleons (i:e: protons and neutrons) is a central topic of interest to nuclear/particle physicists. Much more is known about the structure of the proton than the neutron due to the lack of high-density free neutron targets. The Barely Off-shell Nucleon Structure experiment (BONuS12) at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a second generation experiment upgraded/optimized to advance our knowledge of the neutron's structure using the deep-inelastic scattering of electrons off deuterium. Typically, since deuterium is a nuclear target, corrections for off-shell and nuclear binding effects must be taken into account in order to ...


Eusectra: European Nuclear Security Training Centre Providing Hands-On Training And Education In Nuclear Security And Safeguards, Willem Janssens, Veronique Berthou, Abbas Kamel, Jean Galy, Klaus Luetzenkirchen, Klaus Mayer, Stefan Nonneman 2020 Joint Research Centre, European Commission

Eusectra: European Nuclear Security Training Centre Providing Hands-On Training And Education In Nuclear Security And Safeguards, Willem Janssens, Veronique Berthou, Abbas Kamel, Jean Galy, Klaus Luetzenkirchen, Klaus Mayer, Stefan Nonneman

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The European Nuclear Security Training Centre (EUSECTRA) inaugurated under this global name about 10 years ago and operated by the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), located both on the Karlsruhe (Germany) and Ispra (Italy) sites, includes a large variety of capacity building and professional development activities which span from the hands-on training for nuclear security and safeguards actors (e.g. respectively border guards or customs and nuclear inspectors) to educational efforts in both nuclear security and safeguards. Whereas the first ones, which gave rise to the new name, focus mainly on detection, on-site assistance, crime-scene management, technical reach-back and ...


Physical Protection System, Corrective Actions, And Weaknesses Identification Based On Nuclear Security Series: The Hypothetical Atomic Research Institute (Hari) Case, Ouadie Kabach 2020 University of Mohammed V Agdal, Rabat, Morocco

Physical Protection System, Corrective Actions, And Weaknesses Identification Based On Nuclear Security Series: The Hypothetical Atomic Research Institute (Hari) Case, Ouadie Kabach

International Journal of Nuclear Security

The paper is an attempt, based on the IAEA’s Nuclear Security Series (NSS), to identify any unacceptable dysfunction of Physical Protection System (PPS) of the Material Test Reactor (MTR) facility in a Hypothetical Atomic Research Institute (HARI). The evaluation of an existing or a proposed PPS requires a methodical approach whereby the ability of the security system to meet defined protection goals as the safeguard against possibility of sabotage and theft should be measured. Without such kind of careful assessment, the PPS might waste valuable resources on unnecessary protection or, worse yet, fail to provide adequate protection at critical ...


Cross Section Measurements Of Deuteron Electro-Disintegration At Very High Recoil Momenta And Large 4-Momentum Transfers (Q2), Carlos Yero 2020 Florida International University

Cross Section Measurements Of Deuteron Electro-Disintegration At Very High Recoil Momenta And Large 4-Momentum Transfers (Q2), Carlos Yero

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The 2H(e,e′p)n cross sections have been measured at negative 4-momentum transfers of Q2 = 4.5±0.5 (GeV/c)2 and Q2 = 3.5±0.5 (GeV/c)2 reaching neutron recoil (missing) momenta up to pr ∼1.0 GeV/c. The data have been obtained at fixed neutron recoil angles 5o ≤ θnq ≤ 95o with respect to the 3-momentum transfer q. The new data agree well with the previous data which reached pr ∼ 500 MeV/c. At θnq = 35o and 45o, final state interactions (FSI ...


Investigation Of Finite Temperature And Continuum Effects On Nuclear Excitations, Herlik Wibowo 2020 Western Michigan University

Investigation Of Finite Temperature And Continuum Effects On Nuclear Excitations, Herlik Wibowo

Dissertations

The low-energy nuclear response at finite-temperature significantly affects the radiative neutron capture reaction rates of the r-process nucleosynthesis. In order to address this topic, the first part of this study focuses on the response of compound nuclei or nuclei at finite temperature. The thermal nuclear response satisfies the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) with the static and dynamical kernels of different origins. While the origin of the static kernel is the nearly instantaneous nucleon-meson interaction, the dynamical kernel is induced by the coupling between nucleons and phonons. The presence of singularities in the dynamical kernel makes the BSE unsolvable, however, a time ...


Small-X Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Small-X Qcd Calculations With A Biased Ensemble, Gary Kapilevich

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this dissertation, I will argue that we can study functional fluctuations in unintegrated gluon distributions, in the MV model as well as JIMWLK, using reweighting techniques, which will allow me to calculate QCD observables with "biased ensembles". This technique will enable me to study rare functional configurations of the gluon distributions, that might have been selected for in, for example, the centrality criteria used by the ATLAS and ALICE collaborations. After a review of these techniques, as well as a review of QCD physics at high energy in general, I will use biased ensembles to compute observables in two ...


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