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Azimuthal Anisotropy Of Different Quark-Flavored Particles In High Energy "Simulated" Proton-Proton Collisions, Mahmoud Rateb 2023 American University in Cairo

Azimuthal Anisotropy Of Different Quark-Flavored Particles In High Energy "Simulated" Proton-Proton Collisions, Mahmoud Rateb

Theses and Dissertations

Anisotropic flow in high energy heavy-ion collisions is taken as a key evidence for the formation of QGP for brief seconds right after the collisions. Hydrodynamic models including QGP formation are accurate at predicting the azimuthal anisotropy of the produced particles at low transverse momenta. At high momenta however, hydrodynamic models predict no azimuthal anisotropy for particles of different masses and quark-flavors; the logic being that because of their high momenta, the particles pass through the media without having any time to have any reactivity. This is contrary to results from experiments where measurements of particles of different quark flavors ...


Unsupervised Machine Learning Approaches To Nuclear Particle Type Classification, Daniel Ruiz, Nicholas Liebers, Jacob Huckelberry, David Fobar, Peter Chapman 2022 TRAC

Unsupervised Machine Learning Approaches To Nuclear Particle Type Classification, Daniel Ruiz, Nicholas Liebers, Jacob Huckelberry, David Fobar, Peter Chapman

West Point Research Papers

Historically, nuclear science and radiation detection fields of research used Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) to label gamma-ray and neutron interactions. However, PSD’s effectiveness relies greatly on the existence of distinguishable differences in an interaction’s measured pulse shape. In the fields of machine learning and data analytics, clustering algorithms provide ways to group samples with similar features without the need for labels. Clustering gamma-ray and neutron interactions may mitigate PSD’s pitfalls, since clustering methods view the total waveform rather than just the area under the tail and the total area under the pulse. However, traditional clustering methods, such ...


A Review On Natural Gamma Radiation Dose Levels And Its Health Effects, Shankramma K, Kamsali Nagaraja, Sathish L A, Charan Kumar K 2022 Division of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Water and Health, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru - 570015, India

A Review On Natural Gamma Radiation Dose Levels And Its Health Effects, Shankramma K, Kamsali Nagaraja, Sathish L A, Charan Kumar K

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

Exposure to the natural background gamma radiations in both indoor and outdoor environments is inevitable. The long-term exposure to such radiations could result in lung cancer (sometimes leukaemia, CNS tumours); and hence it must be constantly monitored. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the background natural gamma radiation doses reported at various locations for the south Indian environment and it was found that the gamma levels in coastal regions were relatively higher than those in sub continental locations but in most of the locations the annual effective dose rate was within the permissible limits as per UNSCEAR


The Separation Of Charm And Bottom Decays Measured In P+Au Collisions At 200 Gev, Zhiyan Wang 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Separation Of Charm And Bottom Decays Measured In P+Au Collisions At 200 Gev, Zhiyan Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It has long been observed experimentally, from previous heavy-flavor electron measurements, that heavy quarks are subject to substantial modifications of their momentum spectrum. Using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), measurements of the production of open heavy flavor hadrons with charm and bottom quarks in p+Au collisions at 200 GeV are studied and presented in this thesis. Distance of closest approach analysis of electron tracks is used to study the semileptonic decay electrons from charm and bottom hadrons. The results include invariant yield and fraction of bottom electrons. In addition to the p+p and ...


Magnetic Field Effects On The Physics Of Neutron Stars, Aric A. Hackebill 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Magnetic Field Effects On The Physics Of Neutron Stars, Aric A. Hackebill

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the context of neutron stars (NS), dense-magnetized quark and hadron models have been well studied under the assumption that the system's pressures are isotropic. However, the pressures determined from semi-classical statistical averaging of the energy momentum tensor in the presence of a uniform background magnetic field are anisotropic with different pressures arising along and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. Since large magnetic fields are expected to be present in the interior of NS, it is important to understand the roll the pressure anisotropy plays. While considering the pressure anisotropy, we revisit some important calculations in NS physics ...


Removal Of Anisotropic Background From Neutral Pion And Tagged Direct Photon–Hadron Correlations Of Au+Au 200 Gev Collisions, Zachary Rowan 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Removal Of Anisotropic Background From Neutral Pion And Tagged Direct Photon–Hadron Correlations Of Au+Au 200 Gev Collisions, Zachary Rowan

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A reaction plane dependent event mixing technique is developed to remove the collective background from two particle correlation measurements in heavy ion collisions. The method eliminates the need for any external flow measurements and is well suited for studying the path length dependence of particle production in quark-gluon plasma. Central to mid-central, as well as in vs out-of-plane, per neutral pion trigger integrated away-side hadron yield comparisons are made. Results suggest a significant path length dependent partonic energy loss in the medium. A tagging method is also introduced to measure the direct photon yield for various collision criteria. Direct photon ...


The Fermilab Spinquest Experiment: Commissioning And Plans Toward Production, Nuwan Chaminda Gunawardhana Waduge 2022 Mississippi State University

The Fermilab Spinquest Experiment: Commissioning And Plans Toward Production, Nuwan Chaminda Gunawardhana Waduge

Theses and Dissertations

E1039/SpinQuest, a transversely-polarized Drell-Yan experiment at Fermilab, plans to use the 120 GeV proton beam and polarized NH3 and ND3 cryogenic targets to study azimuthal asymmetries in dimuon production to extract the magnitude as well as sign of the sea quarks Sivers functions. The SpinQuest spectrometer is optimized to detect oppositely-charged muons with a series of tracking chambers and hodoscope stations. The scope of this manuscript is to highlight the physics goals and the experimental setup with a focus on the ongoing debugging and training of one of the tracking systems, mainly drift chambers, as preparation for the upcoming ...


The Structure Of 71ni Via Beta-Delayed Neutron Spectroscopy Of 71co, Andrew Keeler 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Structure Of 71ni Via Beta-Delayed Neutron Spectroscopy Of 71co, Andrew Keeler

Doctoral Dissertations

Studies of beta decays can give insights into the underlying structure of the nucleus. In particular, decays of closed-shell and near-closed-shell nuclei can provide important benchmarks for structure models, which are used in simulations of r-process nucleosynthesis. This work reports on a study of beta decays of 71Co produced in an experiment that was carried out in October 2016 at MSU’s National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) using the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE). In order to carry out this experiment, a novel position-sensitive scintillating detector was developed to enable the sub-nanosecond timing response that ...


Measurement Of Jet Constituent Yields In Pb-Pb Collisions At √Snn = 5.02 Tev Using The Alice Detector, Charles P. Hughes 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Measurement Of Jet Constituent Yields In Pb-Pb Collisions At √Snn = 5.02 Tev Using The Alice Detector, Charles P. Hughes

Doctoral Dissertations

Hard partonic scatterings serve as an important probe of quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) properties. The properties of jets and their constituents can provide a tool for understanding the partonic energy loss mechanisms. Low momentum jets offer a unique window into partonic energy loss because they reconstruct the partons which have lost a significant amount of energy to the QGP medium. The main difficulty in studying low momentum jets in heavy ion collisions is the presence of a significant uncorrelated background of low momentum hadrons from soft processes. One way to deal with this background is to use jet- hadron correlations to fit ...


Improving Sensitivities In 0𝒗ββ Decay Searches By Utilizing Pen As A Structural Scintillating Material, Brennan Theresa Hackett 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improving Sensitivities In 0𝒗ββ Decay Searches By Utilizing Pen As A Structural Scintillating Material, Brennan Theresa Hackett

Doctoral Dissertations

Neutrinoless double beta decay, 0nbb is currently the only experimental test to unambiguously determine the majorana nature of the neutrino. There is a large international effort to measure 0nbb decay, with several detector technologies being pursued. This dissertation will consider the LEGEND experiment (Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless bb Decay), an international effort to measure 0nbb decay with 76Ge as both the target isotope and the detecting material.

LEGEND has a 200 kg stage and a 1000 kg stage, each requiring extremely low levels of background radiation at Qbb (E = 2.039 MeV). These ultra-low background levels ...


Measurement Of Airborne Radionuclides And Their Relation To Weather Patterns At Orono, Me, James W. Deaton 2022 University of Maine

Measurement Of Airborne Radionuclides And Their Relation To Weather Patterns At Orono, Me, James W. Deaton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

7Be and 210Pb activities were measured in air sampling filters collected at The University of Maine campus from 2014 to 2019. The activities of 7Be were in the range of 1.178-98.8 Bq, with an average value of 32.13 Bq. The activities of 210Pb were in the range of 0.091 to 13.64 Bq, and an average value of 3.029 Bq. The distributions of activity for both radionuclides are lognormal. Both 7Be and 210Pb show seasonal variation with maximum values in the summer and minimum values in the fall, and the 7Be/210Pb ratio shows a ...


Computational Models To Detect Radiation In Urban Environments: An Application Of Signal Processing Techniques And Neural Networks To Radiation Data Analysis, Jose Nicolas Gachancipa 2022 Student

Computational Models To Detect Radiation In Urban Environments: An Application Of Signal Processing Techniques And Neural Networks To Radiation Data Analysis, Jose Nicolas Gachancipa

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

Radioactive sources, such as uranium-235, are nuclides that emit ionizing radiation, and which can be used to build nuclear weapons. In public areas, the presence of a radioactive nuclide can present a risk to the population, and therefore, it is imperative that threats are identified by radiological search and response teams in a timely and effective manner. In urban environments, such as densely populated cities, radioactive sources may be more difficult to detect, since background radiation produced by surrounding objects and structures (e.g., buildings, cars) can hinder the effective detection of unnatural radioactive material. This article presents a computational ...


Calibration Of The Lux-Zeplin Dual-Phase Xenon Time Projection Chamber With Internally Injected Radioisotopes, Christopher D. Nedlik 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Calibration Of The Lux-Zeplin Dual-Phase Xenon Time Projection Chamber With Internally Injected Radioisotopes, Christopher D. Nedlik

Doctoral Dissertations

Self-shielding in ton-scale liquid xenon (LXe) detectors presents a unique challenge for calibrating detector response to interactions in the detector's innermost volume. Calibration radioisotopes must be injected directly into the LXe to reach the central volume, where they must either decay away with a short half life or be purified out. We present an overview of, and results from, the prototype source injection system (SIS) developed at the University of Massachusetts Amherst for the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment (LZ). The SIS is designed to refine techniques for the injection and removal of precise activities of various calibration radioisotopes that are useful ...


Development Of Quantitative Methods To Study Pfas Using Proton Induced Gamma-Ray Emission, Colin Langton 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Development Of Quantitative Methods To Study Pfas Using Proton Induced Gamma-Ray Emission, Colin Langton

Honors Theses

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are man-made chemicals that have become a major environmental concern. They can be found in a broad range of everyday products and pose a significant risk to the public due to their adverse health effects. They are persistent, bioaccumulate and do not break down in the environment. This project specifically aims to determine the concentration of Fluorine, a key identifier of PFAS, in environmental samples. To do this, we employ proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) to screen for Fluorine within our samples. PIGE is performed at the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory using a ...


Two-Current Transition Amplitudes With Two-Body Final States, Keegan H. Sherman, Feliipe G. Ortega-Gama, Raúl A. Briceño, Andrew W. Jackura 2022 Old Dominion University

Two-Current Transition Amplitudes With Two-Body Final States, Keegan H. Sherman, Feliipe G. Ortega-Gama, Raúl A. Briceño, Andrew W. Jackura

Physics Faculty Publications

We derive the on-shell form of amplitudes containing two external currents with a single hadron in the initial state and two hadrons in the final state, denoted as 1 + J → 2 + J . This class of amplitude is relevant in precision tests of the Standard Model as well as for exploring the structure of excited states in the QCD spectrum. We present a model-independent description of the amplitudes where we sum to all orders in the strong interaction. From this analytic form we are able to extract transition and elastic resonance form factors consistent with previous work as well as a ...


The Upgraded Measurement Of The Neutron Lifetime Using The In-Beam Method, Jimmy P. Caylor 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Upgraded Measurement Of The Neutron Lifetime Using The In-Beam Method, Jimmy P. Caylor

Doctoral Dissertations

Precision measurements of neutron beta decay can provide answers to some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic decay; therefore, it provides a clean test of the charged current sector of the Standard Model (SM). A precise measurement of the neutron lifetime and λ, the ratio of axial vector and vector coupling constants of the weak interaction, allows for a determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Moskawa (CKM) matrix element Vud that is free from nuclear structure effects. The SM predicts that the CKM matrix is unitary; therefore, the measurement of ...


A High Rate Pixelated Neutron Detector For Neutron Reflectometry At The Spallation Neutron Source, Su-Ann Chong 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A High Rate Pixelated Neutron Detector For Neutron Reflectometry At The Spallation Neutron Source, Su-Ann Chong

Doctoral Dissertations

This work presents the development of a high-rate 6Li-based pixelated neutron detector for neutron reflectometry instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The current detector technology falls short on the instrument requirements, particularly on the counting rate capability. This detector was designed specifically to overcome the limitation in counting rate by having a fully pixelated design from neutron conversion layer to photodetector and readout system. For the neutron converting layer, a 6Li-based neutron scintillator was used. Each scintillator element was coupled to a photodetector, in this case, a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The output of each SiPM ...


Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby

Doctoral Dissertations

Reactor class nuclear fusion tokamaks will be inherently complex. Thousands of interconnected systems that span orders of magnitude in physical scale must operate cohesively for the machine to function. Because these reactor class tokamaks are all in an early design stage, it is difficult to quantify exactly how each subsystem will act within the context of the greater systems. Therefore, to predict the engineering parameters necessary to design the machine, simulation frameworks that can model individual systems as well as the interfaced systems are necessary. This dissertation outlines a novel framework developed to couple otherwise disparate computational domains together into ...


Measurement Of Neutrino-Induced Neutron Production In Lead, Brandon J. Becker 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Measurement Of Neutrino-Induced Neutron Production In Lead, Brandon J. Becker

Doctoral Dissertations

The COHERENT Collaboration is an experimental effort to make the first measurement of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE𝜈NS). The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides an intense, timed source of neutrinos from the decay of pions and muons produced during the spallation of mercury by 1 GeV protons generated in a particle accelerator. COHERENT seeks to make an unambiguous measurement by using a variety of low-threshold detectors capable of measuring the low-energy nuclear recoils resulting from CE𝜈NS interactions. This already challenging task is further complicated with the presence of backgrounds. Consequently, we must seek to reduce ...


Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Spectroscopy In The 78ni Region And Development Of Yso-Based Implantation Detector, Maninder Singh 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Spectroscopy In The 78ni Region And Development Of Yso-Based Implantation Detector, Maninder Singh

Doctoral Dissertations

Decays of Cu isotopes provide a laboratory to study the properties for nearly doubly-magic nuclei with a significant neutron excess which are also relevant for the r-process models. The beta-decay properties of doubly-magic 78Ni (N=50) are imprinted in the neighboring Cu decay, nuclei with a single proton outside the Z=28 core. The investigated isotopes 79,80,81Cu are strong beta-delayed neutron precursors, suggesting that their decay strength distribution lies above neutron separation energies in 79,80,81Zn daughters.

For decay studies, a segmented scintillator YSO (Y2SiO5 : Ce doped) based implantation detector was ...


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