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Three-Dimensional Time-Resolved Trajectories From Laboratory Insect Swarms, Michael Sinhuber, Kasper van der Vaart, Rui Ni, James G. Puckett, Douglas H. Kelley, Nicholas T. Ouelette 2019 Stanford University

Three-Dimensional Time-Resolved Trajectories From Laboratory Insect Swarms, Michael Sinhuber, Kasper Van Der Vaart, Rui Ni, James G. Puckett, Douglas H. Kelley, Nicholas T. Ouelette

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Aggregations of animals display complex and dynamic behaviour, both at the individual level and on the level of the group as a whole. Often, this behaviour is collective, so that the group exhibits properties that are distinct from those of the individuals. In insect swarms, the motion of individuals is typically convoluted, and swarms display neither net polarization nor correlation. The swarms themselves, however, remain nearly stationary and maintain their cohesion even in noisy natural environments. This behaviour stands in contrast with other forms of collective animal behaviour, such as flocking, schooling, or herding, where the motion of individuals is ...


A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak 2019 Purdue University

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

The realization of Internet of Underground Things (IOUT) relies on the establishment of reliable communication links, where the antenna becomes a major design component due to the significant impacts of soil. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to capture the impacts of change of soil moisture on the return loss, resonant frequency, and bandwidth of a buried dipole antenna. Experiments are conducted in silty clay loam, sandy, and silt loam soil, to characterize the effects of soil, in an indoor testbed and field testbeds. It is shown that at subsurface burial depths (0.1-0.4m), change in soil ...


Fluorine Chemistry At Extreme Conditions: Possible Synthesis Of Hgf4, Michael G. Pravica, Sarah Schyck, Blake Harris, Petrika Cifligu, Eunja Kim, Brant Billinghurst 2019 University of Neveda, Las Vegas

Fluorine Chemistry At Extreme Conditions: Possible Synthesis Of Hgf4, Michael G. Pravica, Sarah Schyck, Blake Harris, Petrika Cifligu, Eunja Kim, Brant Billinghurst

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

By irradiating a pressurized mixture of a fluorine-bearing compound (XeF2XeF2) and HgF2HgF2 with synchrotron hard x-rays ... (See full text for complete abstract)


Fundamental Limits Of Measuring Single-Molecule Rotational Mobility, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew 2019 Washington University in St Louis

Fundamental Limits Of Measuring Single-Molecule Rotational Mobility, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Various methods exist for measuring molecular orientation, thereby providing insight into biochemical activities at nanoscale. Since fluorescence intensity and not electric field is detected, these methods are limited to measuring even-order moments of molecular orientation. However, any measurement noise, for example photon shot noise, will result in nonzero measurements of any of these even-order moments, thereby causing rotationally-free molecules to appear to be partially constrained. Here, we build a model to quantify measurement errors in rotational mobility. Our theoretical framework enables scientists to choose the optimal single-molecule orientation measurement technique for any desired measurement accuracy and photon budget.


Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Free Radicals Generation And Their Impact In Different Polymers, Sunita Humagain 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Free Radicals Generation And Their Impact In Different Polymers, Sunita Humagain

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Studies of free radicals in the physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science have contributed to advancements in those fields. The presence of radicals can damage the material and system in some instances and, in some cases, they may enhance the property of the material as well. Knowledge of free radical transformations helps in resilience of certain polymers and inhibition of the oxidation of food and medicine. In this thesis, using the magnetic resonance techniques, EPR and NMR, the generation of free radicals and their effect on the structure of the material is being studied.

Kapton Polyimide (PI, Kapton®) used in ...


Kinetics Of The Γ–Δ Phase Transition In Energetic Nitramine-Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine, P. Bowlan, B. F. Henson, L. Smilowitz, Valery I. Levitas, N. Suvorova, D. Oschwald 2019 Los Alamos National Laboratory

Kinetics Of The Γ–Δ Phase Transition In Energetic Nitramine-Octahydro-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine, P. Bowlan, B. F. Henson, L. Smilowitz, Valery I. Levitas, N. Suvorova, D. Oschwald

Aerospace Engineering Publications

The solid, secondary explosive nitramine-octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7 or HMX has four different stable polymorphs which have different molecular conformations, crystalline structures, and densities, making structural phase transitions between these nontrivial. Previous studies of the kinetics of the βδ HMX structural transition found this to happen by a nucleation and growth mechanism, where growth was governed by the heat of fusion, or melting, even though the phase transition temperature is more than 100 K below the melting point. A theory known as virtual melting could easily justify this since the large volume difference in the two ...


Kinetics, Energetics, And Size Dependence Of The Transformation From Pt To Ordered Ptsn Intermetallic Nanoparticles, Minda Chen, Yong Han, Tian Wei Goh, Rong Sun, Raghu V. Maligal‐Ganesh, Yuchen Pei, Chia‐ Kuang Tsung, James W. Evans, Wenyu Huang 2019 Iowa State University

Kinetics, Energetics, And Size Dependence Of The Transformation From Pt To Ordered Ptsn Intermetallic Nanoparticles, Minda Chen, Yong Han, Tian Wei Goh, Rong Sun, Raghu V. Maligal‐Ganesh, Yuchen Pei, Chia‐ Kuang Tsung, James W. Evans, Wenyu Huang

Chemistry Publications

The outstanding catalytic activity and chemical selectivity of intermetallic compounds make them excellent candidates for heterogeneous catalysis. However, the kinetics of their formation at the nanoscale is poorly understood or characterized, and precise control of their size, shape as well as composition during synthesis remains challenging. Here, using well-defined Pt nanoparticles (5 nm and 14 nm) encapsulated in mesoporous silica, we study the transformation kinetics from monometallic Pt to intermetallic PtSn at different temperatures by a series of time-evolution X-ray diffraction studies. Observations indicate an initial transformation stage mediated by Pt surface-controlled intermixing kinetics, followed by a second stage with ...


Effect Of (Poly)Electrolytes On The Interfacial Assembly Of Peg Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles, Srikanth Nayak, Max Fieg, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin 2019 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Effect Of (Poly)Electrolytes On The Interfacial Assembly Of Peg Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles, Srikanth Nayak, Max Fieg, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Surya Mallapragada, David Vaknin

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

We report on the effect of interpolymer complexes (IPCs) of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with poly(ethylene glycol) functionalized Au nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) as they assemble at the vapor-liquid interface, using surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Depending on the suspension pH, PAA functions both as a weak polyelectrolyte and a hydrogen bond donor, and these two roles affect the interfacial assembly of PEG-AuNPs differently. Above its isoelectric point, we find that PAA leads to the formation of a PEG-AuNPs monolayer at the interface with hexagonal structure. In the presence of high concentration of HCl (i.e., below the isoelectric point ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski 2018 Wojciech Budzianowski Consulting Services

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Nonlinear Sliding Mode Observer Applied To Microalgae Growth, Rebecca J. Griffith 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Nonlinear Sliding Mode Observer Applied To Microalgae Growth, Rebecca J. Griffith

Dissertations and Theses

Modeling biological processes, such as algae growth, is an area of ongoing research. The ability to understand the multitude of parameters that influence this system provides a platform for better understanding the dynamics of microalgae growth. Empirical modeling efforts look to understand sources of driving nutrients that influence harmful algal blooms (HABs). These harmful algal blooms are dense aggregates that have an increasingly negative impact on local economics, marine and freshwater systems, and public health. They result from a high influx of nitrogen and nutrients that drive the algae biomass to exponentially grow. This growth blocks out the sun, potentially ...


Innate Immunity, The Hepatic Extracellular Matrix, And Liver Injury: Mathematical Modeling Of Metastatic Potential And Tumor Development In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Shanice V. Hudson 2018 University of Louisville

Innate Immunity, The Hepatic Extracellular Matrix, And Liver Injury: Mathematical Modeling Of Metastatic Potential And Tumor Development In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Shanice V. Hudson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The overarching goals of the current work are to fill key gaps in the current understanding of alcohol consumption and the risk of metastasis to the liver. Considering the evidence this research group has compiled confirming that the hepatic matrisome responds dynamically to injury, an altered extracellular matrix (ECM) profile appears to be a key feature of pre-fibrotic inflammatory injury in the liver. This group has demonstrated that the hepatic ECM responds dynamically to alcohol exposure, in particular, sensitizing the liver to LPS-induced inflammatory damage. Although the study of alcohol in its role as a contributing factor to oncogenesis and ...


Plasmonic Enhancement Of Photoluminescence And Photobrightening In Cdse Quantum Dots, David Alan French 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Plasmonic Enhancement Of Photoluminescence And Photobrightening In Cdse Quantum Dots, David Alan French

Theses and Dissertations

Quantum dots are gaining recognition not just in the physics and chemistry community, but in the public eye as well. Quantum dot technologies are now being used in sensors, detectors, and even television displays. By exciting quantum dots with light or electricity, they can be made to emit light, and by altering the quantum dot characteristics the wavelength can be finely tuned. The light emitted can be also be made more intense by an increase in the excitation energy. The excitation light can be increased via plasmonic enhancement, leading to increased luminescence. Aside from the relatively steady-state response, quantum dots ...


Combined High-Speed Single Particle Tracking Of Membrane Proteins And Super-Resolution Of Membrane-Associated Structures, Hanieh Mazloom Farsibaf, Keith A. Lidke 2018 University of New Mexico

Combined High-Speed Single Particle Tracking Of Membrane Proteins And Super-Resolution Of Membrane-Associated Structures, Hanieh Mazloom Farsibaf, Keith A. Lidke

Shared Knowledge Conference

Many experiments have shown that the diffusive motion of lipids and membrane proteins are slower on the cell surface than those in artificial lipid bilayers or blebs. One hypothesis that may partially explain this mystery is the effect of the cytoskeleton structures on the protein dynamics. A model proposed by Kusumi [1] is the Fence-Picket Model which describes the cell membrane as a set of compartment regions, each ~ 10 to 200 nm in size, created by direct or indirect interaction of lipids and proteins with actin filaments just below the membrane. To test this hypothesis, we have assembled a high-speed ...


Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due To Different Cell Culture Environments In Live Cells In Vitro, Mahmoud Gargotti, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh J Byrne, Alan Casey 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due To Different Cell Culture Environments In Live Cells In Vitro, Mahmoud Gargotti, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh J Byrne, Alan Casey

Articles

The in vitro cell culture environment can impact on cell biochemistry and cell cycle. The manifestation of such substrate-induced changes in cell cycle in the Raman microspectroscopic profiles of cell cultures is investigated at the level of nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm. HeLa immortalised human cervical cells and HaCaT dermal cells were cultured on three different substrates, conventional polystyrene cell culture dishes, CaF2 slides as a commonly used Raman substrate, and glass slides coated with Collagen Rat Tail, as a mimic of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) environment. A cell cycle study, based on percentage DNA content, as determined using Propidium ...


Estimating And Correcting Interference Fringes In Infrared Spectra In Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, Ghazal Azarfar, Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Nicholas Walter,, Simona Ratti, Camilla Olivieri, Alessandra Alessandra, Michael Nasse, Achim Kohler, Mario Giordano, Carol Hirschmugl 2018 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Estimating And Correcting Interference Fringes In Infrared Spectra In Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, Ghazal Azarfar, Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Nicholas Walter,, Simona Ratti, Camilla Olivieri, Alessandra Alessandra, Michael Nasse, Achim Kohler, Mario Giordano, Carol Hirschmugl

Physics Faculty Articles

Short-term acclimation response of individual cells of Thalassiosira weissflogii was monitored by Synchrotron FTIR imaging over the span of 75 minutes. The cells, collected from batch cultures, were maintained in a constant flow of medium, at an irradiance of 120 μmol m−2 s−1 and at 20 °C. Multiple internal reflections due to the micro fluidic channel were modeled, and showed that fringes are additive sinusoids to the pure absorption of the other components of the system. Preprocessing of the hyperspectral cube (x, y, Abs(λ)) included removing spectral fringe using an EMSC approach. Principal component analysis of the ...


From Photon To Neuron Chapter 16: Tunneling Of Photons And Electrons, Philip C. Nelson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 16: Tunneling Of Photons And Electrons, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book From Photon to Neuron (Princeton Univ Press 2017). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


E. Coli Elongation Factor Tu Bound To A Gtp Analogue Displays An Open Conformation Equivalent To The Gdp-Bound Form, Jesper S. Johansen, Darius Kavaliauskas, Shawn H. Pfeill, Mickael Blaise, Barry C. Cooperman, Yale E. Goldman, Søren S. Thirup, Charlotte R. Knudsen 2018 University of Aarhus

E. Coli Elongation Factor Tu Bound To A Gtp Analogue Displays An Open Conformation Equivalent To The Gdp-Bound Form, Jesper S. Johansen, Darius Kavaliauskas, Shawn H. Pfeill, Mickael Blaise, Barry C. Cooperman, Yale E. Goldman, Søren S. Thirup, Charlotte R. Knudsen

Physics

According to the traditional view, GTPases act as molecular switches, which cycle between distinct ‘on’ and ‘off’ conformations bound to GTP and GDP, respectively. Translation elongation factor EF-Tu is a GTPase essential for prokaryotic protein synthesis. In its GTP-bound form, EF-Tu delivers aminoacylated tRNAs to the ribosome as a ternary complex. GTP hydrolysis is thought to cause the release of EF-Tu from aminoacyl-tRNA and the ribosome due to a dramatic conformational change following Pi release. Here, the crystal structure of Escherichia coli EF-Tu in complex with a non-hydrolysable GTP analogue (GDPNP) has been determined. Remarkably, the overall conformation of EF-Tu ...


Investigation Of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Delivery Accuracy On An Elekta Linear Accelerator, Addie Barron 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Investigation Of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Delivery Accuracy On An Elekta Linear Accelerator, Addie Barron

LSU Master's Theses

Purpose: This work investigated the delivery accuracy of high-dose lung and spine stereotactic treatments delivered with the Elekta Infinity and Versa HD platforms. The accuracy of these platforms will be used for consideration in implementing a spine stereotactic radiosurgery (SSRS) program at Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center.

Methods: A geometric phantom was used to perform Winston-Lutz type tests that assessed the relevant degrees of freedom (gantry, collimator, and couch) of the delivery system. A lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and spine SRS treatment plan were generated for use in end-to-end testing. Delivery accuracy was tested using a novel diode ...


Spatial–Temporal Spectroscopy Characterizations And Electronic Structure Of Methylammonium Perovskites, Zhaoyu Liu, K. C. Bhamu, Liang Luo, Satvik Shah, Joong-Mok Park, Di Cheng, Men Long, Rana Biswas, F. Fungara, Ruth Shinar, Joseph Shinar, Javier Vela, Jigang Wang 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Spatial–Temporal Spectroscopy Characterizations And Electronic Structure Of Methylammonium Perovskites, Zhaoyu Liu, K. C. Bhamu, Liang Luo, Satvik Shah, Joong-Mok Park, Di Cheng, Men Long, Rana Biswas, F. Fungara, Ruth Shinar, Joseph Shinar, Javier Vela, Jigang Wang

Chemistry Publications

Using time-resolved laser-scanning confocal microscopy and ultrafast optical pump/THz probe spectroscopy, we measure photoluminescence and THz-conductivity in perovskite micro-crystals and films. Photoluminescence quenching and lifetime variations occur from local heterogeneity. Ultrafast THz-spectra measure sharp quantum transitions from excitonic Rydberg states, providing weakly bound excitons with a binding energy of ~13.5 meV at low temperatures. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations give a direct band gap of 1.64 eV, a dielectric constant ~18, heavy electrons, and light holes, resulting in weakly bound excitons, consistent with the binding energies from experiment. The complementary spectroscopy and simulations reveal fundamental insights into perovskite ...


Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov 2018 Physical-Technical High School

Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The goal of our work was to determine the principal mechanisms that provide the difference in visual perception of two marine species that live on different depths: T. Pacificus and O. Vulgaris. In nature, visual perception of species that live deeper is shifted towards the blue region. This is related to the fact that red, orange and yellow light is absorbed more strongly by water than the blue light. On the other hand, the visual perception spectrum of an animal is determined by the absorption spectrum of the "light sensor" located in rods and cones of its eye retina. These ...


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