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Wave Propagation In Random And Topological Media, Yuhao Kang 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Wave Propagation In Random And Topological Media, Yuhao Kang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis discusses wave propagation in two kinds of systems, random media and topological insulators. In a disordered system, the wave is randomized by multiple scattering. The scattering matrix and associated delay times are powerful tools with which to describe wave transport. We discuss the relation among the Wigner time, the transmission time, and energy density in a lossless or lossy system. We propose the zeros of the transmission matrix and show how to manipulate the zero-transmission mode in a nonunitary system. In a photonic topological insulator, we realize an edge mode and discuss its robustness in the face of ...


Yield-Stress Fluids In Confined Geometries, Thalia Magyar 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Yield-Stress Fluids In Confined Geometries, Thalia Magyar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A yield-stress fluid is a material that has properties of both solids and conventional liquids that only begins to flow when subject to a finite stress. The behaviour of yield-stress fluids is interesting and important in many applications. It is expected that the rheological properties of a yield-stress fluid will change when confined to a region with a length scale comparable to the characteristic scale of its microstructure. The particle size and polydispersity of two yield-stress fluids, Carbopol and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), were determined using dynamic light scattering. A rheological characterization was performed on these two yield-stress fluids. Flow of ...


Understanding The Magnetic Properties Of Ii-Vi Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Alex Khammang 2020 University of Maine

Understanding The Magnetic Properties Of Ii-Vi Semiconductor Nanocrystals, Alex Khammang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC) are well known for their unique size tunable optical properties making them suitable candidates for devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and cellular labels. II-VI semiconductors in the bulk form behave diamagnetically, but can inherit paramagnetic (PM) or ferromagnetic (FM) properties at the nanoscale. Reports suggest that the emergence of weak PM or FM behavior in undoped NCs are attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio compared for NCs. Traditionally, these NCs only obtain magnetic properties after doping with certain transition metals, such as Co, Mn, or Fe. Many mechanisms have been proposed ...


Fifth-Degree Elastic Energy For Predictive Continuum Stress–Strain Relations And Elastic Instabilities Under Large Strain And Complex Loading In Silicon, Hao Chen, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson, Xiancheng Zhang 2020 East China University of Science and Technology

Fifth-Degree Elastic Energy For Predictive Continuum Stress–Strain Relations And Elastic Instabilities Under Large Strain And Complex Loading In Silicon, Hao Chen, Nikolai A. Zarkevich, Valery I. Levitas, Duane D. Johnson, Xiancheng Zhang

Aerospace Engineering Publications

Materials under complex loading develop large strains and often phase transformation via an elastic instability, as observed in both simple and complex systems. Here, we represent a material (exemplified for Si I) under large Lagrangian strains within a continuum description by a 5th-order elastic energy found by minimizing error relative to density functional theory (DFT) results. The Cauchy stress—Lagrangian strain curves for arbitrary complex loadings are in excellent correspondence with DFT results, including the elastic instability driving the Si I → II phase transformation (PT) and the shear instabilities. PT conditions for Si I → II under action of cubic axial ...


Free Charge Carrier Properties In Two-Dimensional Materials And Monoclinic Oxides Studied By Optical Hall Effect, Sean Knight 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Free Charge Carrier Properties In Two-Dimensional Materials And Monoclinic Oxides Studied By Optical Hall Effect, Sean Knight

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

In this dissertation, optical Hall effect (OHE) measurements are used to determine the free charge carrier properties of important two-dimensional materials and monoclinic oxides. Two-dimensional material systems have proven useful in high-frequency electronic devices due to their unique properties, such as high mobility, which arise from their two-dimensional nature. Monoclinic oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics, for example low-crystal symmetry which could lead to anisotropic carrier properties. Here, single-crystal monoclinic gallium oxide, an AlInN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structure, and epitaxial graphene are studied as examples. To characterize these material systems, the OHE measurement technique is employed. The OHE is a ...


Quantum Criticality In Strongly Correlated Electron Systems, Samuel Obadiah Kellar 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Quantum Criticality In Strongly Correlated Electron Systems, Samuel Obadiah Kellar

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The study of the Hubbard model in three dimensions contains a variety of phases dependent upon the chosen parameters. This thesis shows that there is the indication of a zero temperature phase transition at a finite doping. The Hubbard model has been used to identify a similar quantum critical point in two dimensions. The presented results continue these investigations. The system demonstrates a strange metal phase at finite temperature which cannot be described in term of the conventional Fermi liquid. While there have been extensive studies over the past three decades for such materials in two dimensions, there are few ...


Identifying Structure Transitions Using Machine Learning Methods, Nicholas Walker 2020 Louisiana State University

Identifying Structure Transitions Using Machine Learning Methods, Nicholas Walker

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Methodologies from data science and machine learning, both new and old, provide an exciting opportunity to investigate physical systems using extremely expressive statistical modeling techniques. Physical transitions are of particular interest, as they are accompanied by pattern changes in the configurations of the systems. Detecting and characterizing pattern changes in data happens to be a particular strength of statistical modeling in data science, especially with the highly expressive and flexible neural network models that have become increasingly computationally accessible in recent years through performance improvements in both hardware and algorithmic implementations. Conceptually, the machine learning approach can be regarded as ...


Multi-Metallic Conduction Cooled Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity With High Thermal Stability, Gianluigi Ciovati, Gary Cheng, Uttar Pudasaini, Robert A. Rimmer 2020 Old Dominion University

Multi-Metallic Conduction Cooled Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity With High Thermal Stability, Gianluigi Ciovati, Gary Cheng, Uttar Pudasaini, Robert A. Rimmer

Physics Faculty Publications

Superconducting radio-frequency cavities are commonly used in modern particle accelerators for applied and fundamental research. Such cavities are typically made of high-purity, bulk Nb and with cooling by a liquid helium bath at a temperature of ∼2 K. The size, cost and complexity of operating a particle accelerator with a liquid helium refrigerator make the current cavity technology not favorable for use in industrial-type accelerators. We have developed a multi-metallic 1.495 GHz elliptical cavity conductively cooled by a cryocooler. The cavity has a ∼2 μm thick layer of Nb3Sn on the inner surface, exposed to the rf ...


Search For Encapsulation Of Platinum, Silver, And Gold At The Surface Of Graphite, Ann Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, Dapeng Jing, Michael C. Tringides, Patricia A. Thiel 2020 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Search For Encapsulation Of Platinum, Silver, And Gold At The Surface Of Graphite, Ann Lii-Rosales, Yong Han, Dapeng Jing, Michael C. Tringides, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that Pt clusters can be encapsulated beneath the surface of graphite, whereas Ag and Au cannot. This is in complete agreement with independent predictions from density functional theory, which show that surface intercalation of single metal atoms is favorable for Pt, but unfavorable for Ag and Au. This supports the validity of using single-metal-atom energetics for predicting encapsulation of metal nanoparticles at the graphite surface. We also demonstrate that the optimal temperature for encapsulation scales with the cohesive energy of the metal.


Quantum Interference In Monocyclic Molecules: A Novel And Straightforward Phase Wave Model, Zainelabideen Yousif Mijbil 2020 Al-Qasim Green University

Quantum Interference In Monocyclic Molecules: A Novel And Straightforward Phase Wave Model, Zainelabideen Yousif Mijbil

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

We have proposed by far the simplest model, so-called phase wave model (PWM), to predict quantum interference states in monocyclic molecules. Meanwhile, transmission coefficient calculations were also performed using Green’s function method incorporated with Hückel (Tight Binding) approximation. An impressive agreement has been obtained between the results of the phase wave model and the ones from transmission coefficient calculations for the chosen model systems, namely benzene, cycloheptatriene, cyclooctatetraene, and [10]annulene. PWM represents the phase of wave functions of the incoming electrons by a wave and associates a single wavelength of the phase with five atoms/sites. Hence, the ...


Generalized Magnetoelectronic Circuit Theory And Spin Relaxation At Interfaces In Magnetic Multilayers, G. G. Baez Flores, Alexey Kovalev, Mark van Schilfgaarde, K. D. Belashchenko 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Generalized Magnetoelectronic Circuit Theory And Spin Relaxation At Interfaces In Magnetic Multilayers, G. G. Baez Flores, Alexey Kovalev, Mark Van Schilfgaarde, K. D. Belashchenko

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

Spin transport at metallic interfaces is an essential ingredient of various spintronic device concepts, such as giant magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque, and spin pumping. Spin-orbit coupling plays an important role in many such devices. In particular, spin current is partially absorbed at the interface due to spin-orbit coupling. We develop a general magnetoelectronic circuit theory and generalize the concept of spin-mixing conductance, accounting for various mechanisms responsible for spin-flip scattering. For the special case when exchange interactions dominate, we give a simple expression for the spin-mixing conductance in terms of the contributions responsible for spin relaxation (i.e., spin memory loss ...


Fabrication Of Magnetocaloric La(Fe,Si)13 Thick Films, N H. Dung, N B. Doan, P De Rango, L Ranno, Karl G. Sandeman, N M. Dempsey 2020 Université Grenoble Alpes

Fabrication Of Magnetocaloric La(Fe,Si)13 Thick Films, N H. Dung, N B. Doan, P De Rango, L Ranno, Karl G. Sandeman, N M. Dempsey

Publications and Research

La(Fe,Si)13–based compounds are considered to be very promising magnetocaloric materials for magnetic refrigeration applications. Many studies have focused on this material family but only in bulk form. In this paper we report on the fabrication of thick films of La(Fe,Si)13, both with and without post-hydriding. These films exhibit magnetic and structural properties comparable to bulk materials. We also observe that the ferromagnetic phase transition has a negative thermal hysteresis, a phenomenon not previously found in this material but which may have its origins in the availability of a strain energy reservoir, as in ...


First-Order Magnetic Phase Transition In Pr2in With Negligible Thermomagnetic Hysteresis, Anis Biswas, N. A. Zarkevich, Arjun Pathak, Oleksandr Dolotko, Ihor Z. Hlova, A. V. Smirnov, Yaroslav Mudryk, Duane D. Johnson, Vitalij K. Pecharsky 2020 Ames Laboratory

First-Order Magnetic Phase Transition In Pr2in With Negligible Thermomagnetic Hysteresis, Anis Biswas, N. A. Zarkevich, Arjun Pathak, Oleksandr Dolotko, Ihor Z. Hlova, A. V. Smirnov, Yaroslav Mudryk, Duane D. Johnson, Vitalij K. Pecharsky

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Magnetic first-order phase transitions are key for the emergence of functionalities of fundamental and applied significance, including magnetic shape memory as well as magnetostrictive and magnetocaloric effects. Such transitions are usually associated with thermomagnetic hysteresis. We report the observation of a first-order transition in Pr2In from a paramagnetic to a ferromagnetic state at TC=57K without a detectable thermomagnetic hysteresis, which is also accompanied by a large magnetocaloric effect. The peculiar electronic structure of Pr2In exhibiting a large density of states near the Fermi energy explains the highly responsive magnetic behavior of the material. The magnetic properties of Pr2In are ...


Modeling Single Microtubules As A Colloidal System To Measure The Harmonic Interactions Between Tubulin Dimers In Bovine Brain Derived Versus Cancer Cell Derived Microtubules, Arooj Aslam 2020 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Modeling Single Microtubules As A Colloidal System To Measure The Harmonic Interactions Between Tubulin Dimers In Bovine Brain Derived Versus Cancer Cell Derived Microtubules, Arooj Aslam

Dissertations

The local properties of tubulin dimers dictate the properties of the larger microtubule assembly. In order to elucidate this connection, tubulin-tubulin interactions are be modeled as harmonic interactions to map the stiffness matrix along the length of the microtubule. The strength of the interactions are measured by imaging and tracking the movement of segments along the microtubule over time, and then performing a fourier transform to extract the natural vibrational frequencies. Using this method the first ever reported experimental phonon spectrum of the microtubule is reported. This method can also be applied to other biological materials, and opens new doors ...


D-Orbital Occupancy Of Transition Metal Oxides By X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (Xanes), Eric Kurywczak 2020 Seton Hall University

D-Orbital Occupancy Of Transition Metal Oxides By X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (Xanes), Eric Kurywczak

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

XANES L2 and L3-edge X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectra (XANES) for 4d and 5d row transition metals (TM) oxides are assumed to be directly reflecting unoccupied d orbitals influenced by the local symmetry of the metal ion. XANES L2- and L3-edge data analysis through non-linear curve fitting allows for a unique, efficient look at the structural eccentricities of transition metal oxides. In this way it is possible to determine the oxidation state of a material as well as its site symmetry. We have used non-linear least-squares fitting across the near-edge region of ...


Pressure Tuning Of Structural And Magnetic Transitions In Euag4as2, Sergey L. Bud’ko, Li Xiang, Chaowei Hu, Bing Shen, Ni Ni, Paul C. Canfield 2020 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Pressure Tuning Of Structural And Magnetic Transitions In Euag4as2, Sergey L. Bud’Ko, Li Xiang, Chaowei Hu, Bing Shen, Ni Ni, Paul C. Canfield

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We report temperature-dependent measurements of ambient-pressure specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, anisotropic resistivity, and thermal expansion as well as in-plane resistivity under pressure up to 20.8 kbar on single crystals of EuAg4As2. Based on thermal expansion and in-plane electrical transport measurements at ambient pressure this compound has two, first-order, structural transitions in the 80–120 K temperature range. Ambient-pressure specific heat, magnetization, and thermal expansion measurements show a cascade of up to seven transitions between 8 and 16 K associated with the ordering of the Eu2+ moments. In-plane electrical transport is able to detect the more prominent of these transitions ...


Density Functional Theory Calculations Of Al Doped Hafnia For Different Crystal Symmetry Configurations, Joshua Steier 2020 Seton Hall University

Density Functional Theory Calculations Of Al Doped Hafnia For Different Crystal Symmetry Configurations, Joshua Steier

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Dogan et al.[1], investigated the causes of ferroelectricity in doped hafnia using ab initio methods. Similarly, we investigated the stability of Al doped hafnia using quantum mechanical methods.

There are many different phases of Hafnia: monoclinic, tetragonal, cubic and orthorhombic. Starting with the monoclinic phase of Hafnia, Hafnia undergoes phase transitions which result in different space groups. The temperature at which the tetragonal phase is induced is 2000 K and cubic phase is induced at 2900 K[1]. Different dielectric constants vary from phase to phase. The average dielectric constants are highest for the cubic and tetragonal phases. In ...


Thermophysical Properties And Phase Transformations In Metallic Liquids And Silicate Glasses, Daniel Christian Van Hoesen 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Thermophysical Properties And Phase Transformations In Metallic Liquids And Silicate Glasses, Daniel Christian Van Hoesen

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The first quantitative measurements of the electrical resistivity in binary metallic liquids, used to probe local order in the liquid, are reported in this dissertation. The electrical resistivity is very sensitive to short and medium range ordering because the electron mean free path is approximately the same length scale as the atomic spacing. Particular attention is given to the resistivity value at a crossover temperature that, based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, is the onset of cooperative motion in liquid alloys. Experimental evidence for the crossover is found in measurements of the shear viscosity, a dynamical property. An indication of ...


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Symmetry And Interface Considerations For Interactions On Mos2, Prescott E. Evans 2020 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Symmetry And Interface Considerations For Interactions On Mos2, Prescott E. Evans

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

The critical role of symmetry, in adsorbate-MoS2 interactions, has been demonstrated through a variety of electronic structure, topology, and catalytic studies of MoS2 and MoS2 composites.A combination of density functional theory and experiment exhibiting diiodobenzene isomer dependent adsorption rates highlight frontier orbital symmetry as key to adsorption on MoS2. It is clear that the geometry and symmetry of MoS2 influences the creation and stability of surface defects, that in turn affect catalytic activity and a myriad of other applications. We have shown that surface reactions such the methanol to methoxy reaction can create defects ...


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