Beyond Standard Model: Axial Electric Potentials Of Quarks And Neutrinos, 2024 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Axial Electric Potentials Of Quarks And Neutrinos, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

The equations of axial electric potentials are presented for our models of quarks and neutrinos as spinning composite structures where up to 3 basic elementary charges are on the axis or rotation and the other N charges are revolving about the axis. The axial potential functions at given point on the axis of rotation were calculated as the sum of electric potentials at that point from all the charges in the structure. We applied these general equations specifically to the models of two types of neutral particles (neutrinos), one with 2 like charges on the axis and the other with …

Radon Plate-Out And The Effects Of Airflow And Electric Charge For Dark Matter Experiments, 2024 Southern Methodist University

#### Radon Plate-Out And The Effects Of Airflow And Electric Charge For Dark Matter Experiments, Faith Fang

*SMU Journal of Undergraduate Research*

The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) is an international collaboration designed to search for and detect dark matter particles, which make up ~85% of the matter in the universe. The plate-out, or deposition of naturally occurring radioactive decay byproducts onto surfaces, can create backgrounds that interfere with dark matter detection experiments. In the first series of these experiments, we analyze the amount of radon progeny, 214Pb and 214Bi, that plate-out on polycarbonate samples while controlling factors such as electric charge and airflow. These samples are exposed to radon-spiked nitrogen gas in a polycarbonate wind tunnel to simulate plate-out conditions in …

Beyond Standard Model: Structure Factors Of Models Of Different Quarks And Neutrinos As Spinning Structures Made Of Basic Fractional Charges +- E/3, 2024 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Structure Factors Of Models Of Different Quarks And Neutrinos As Spinning Structures Made Of Basic Fractional Charges +- E/3, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

We consider a possible line of “elementary” particles as composite spinning structures made of just two basic elementary particles of charges + e/3 and -e/3. In considered structures, up to 3 basic charges can be on the axis of rotation and other charges can be in a revolving motion about the axis. In addition to the simplest structures of quarks, an electron and a neutral particle containing mostly one or no charges on the axis of rotation, suggested initially in [4], we analyze possible spatial structures of spinning composite particles having 2 or 3 charges on the axis of rotation. …

Questioning Reality: The Progressive Development Of Modern Physics, 2024 Golda Och Academy

#### Questioning Reality: The Progressive Development Of Modern Physics, Joshua Lancman

*STEM for Success Showcase*

Humanity has a tendency to divide time. The past is distinct from the present which is entirely separate from the future. In supposedly 20-20 vision history is neatly divided into different sections, distinct eras with sharp lines between them. What is present and in the future is always modern. What is past is something else with another name.

Yet time is not divided so neatly. We know this living through it: years and decades blend into one another in a non-uniform progression. To divide human history into separate eras is a necessary simplification, as it helps to ascribe order onto …

Counting Linearly Polarized Gluons With Lattice Qcd, 2024 Old Dominion University

#### Counting Linearly Polarized Gluons With Lattice Qcd, Shuai Zhao

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We outline an approach to calculate the transverse-momentum-dependent distribution of linearly polarized gluons inside an unpolarized hadron on the lattice with the help of large momentum effective theory. To achieve this purpose, we propose calculating a Euclidean version of the degree of polarization for a fast-moving hadron on the lattice, which is ultraviolet finite, and no soft function subtraction is needed. It indicates a practical way to explore the distribution of the linearly polarized gluons in a proton and the linearly polarized gluon effects in hadron collisions on the lattice.

Beyond Standard Model: Electromagnetic Origin Of Strong Interaction Between Composite Structures Made Of Basic Elementary ±E/3 Charges, 2023 Suffolk University

#### Beyond Standard Model: Electromagnetic Origin Of Strong Interaction Between Composite Structures Made Of Basic Elementary ±E/3 Charges, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

Interaction between spinning composite structures of quarks is considered. In simple variants of the quark structures, one basic elementary particle of charge of magnitude |e|/3 is on the axis of rotation and several basic particles of an opposite sign are revolving in the circular orbit about the axis. Each charge in the structure contributes to the electric field and electric potential around the structure. But only revolving basic particles contribute to the spin and to the magnetic moment of the structure. Equations for the axial electric field and the electric potential of each structure at points on its axis are …

Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor For Scalar Fields In Hartle-Hawking, Boulware, And Unruh States In The Reissner-Nordström Spacetime, 2023 Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe, International School for Advanced Studies, and INFN Sezione di Trieste, Trieste, Italy

#### Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor For Scalar Fields In Hartle-Hawking, Boulware, And Unruh States In The Reissner-Nordström Spacetime, Julio Arrechea, Cormac Breen, Adrian Ottewill, Peter Taylor

*Articles*

In this paper, we consider a quantum scalar field propagating on the Reissner-Nordström black hole spacetime. We compute the renormalized stress-energy tensor for the field in the Hartle-Hawking, Boulware and Unruh states. When the field is in the Hartle-Hawking state, we renormalize using the recently developed “extended coordinate” prescription. This method, which relies on Euclidean techniques, is very fast and accurate. Once, we have renormalized in the Hartle-Hawking state, we compute the stress-energy tensor in the Boulware and Unruh states by leveraging the fact that the difference between stress-energy tensors in different quantum states is already finite. We consider a …

Search For Exotic Higgs Boson Decay To Multiple B-Quarks With The Atlas Detector At Lhc Using Machine Learning Methods, 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Search For Exotic Higgs Boson Decay To Multiple B-Quarks With The Atlas Detector At Lhc Using Machine Learning Methods, Yuan-Tang Chou

*Doctoral Dissertations*

The discovery of the Higgs boson has opened up new possibilities for investigating physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). New particles may interact with the SM through the Higgs boson, and deviations from SM predictions can indicate the presence of new physics. This dissertation focuses on the search for exotic Higgs decay, $H\rightarrow aa \rightarrow (b\bbar)(b\bbar)$ where a is a new scalar boson and focuses on the case where the Higgs boson is produced in association with a Z boson. The data were collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at center-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s} =~13~\TeV$ from 2015 …

Tev-Scale Lepton Number Violation: 0Νββ Decay, The Origin Of Matter, And Energy Frontier Probes, 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Tev-Scale Lepton Number Violation: 0Νββ Decay, The Origin Of Matter, And Energy Frontier Probes, Sebastian Urrutia Quiroga

*Doctoral Dissertations*

Lepton number violation (LNV) offers promising theoretical pathways to several unresolved problems in particle and nuclear physics and unveils a diverse range of phenomenology across different energy scales. TeV-scale LNV is especially relevant for both its experimental accessibility and its broad-ranging impact, making it a key area of interest for both theoretical and experimental physicists. In this thesis, we explore three distinct scenarios within the LNV research landscape. Our first analysis concerns the implications of TeV-scale LNV effects in thermal leptogenesis and its complementary sensitivity in neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay and collider experiments. We employed a simplified model to …

K-Long Identification Efficiency Of The Klm Detector In The Belle Ii Experiment Using Splot, 2023 University of Louisville

#### K-Long Identification Efficiency Of The Klm Detector In The Belle Ii Experiment Using Splot, Andrew J. Davis, Diptaparna Biswas, Swagato Banerjee

*The Cardinal Edge*

Long-lived neutral kaon mesons (neutral K-longs) are identified by energy deposits in the KLM detector of the Belle II experiment. However, various other particles can also deposit energy in the KLM detector. A statistical method known as sPlot can be utilized to distinguish between the energy deposit patterns of neutral K-longs vs. other backgrounds. This technique, currently developed with Monte-Carlo events, allows for a more robust determination of K-long identification efficiency in the KLM detector, which can eventually be applied on real data.

Study Of Microphonic Effects On The C100 Cryomodule For High Energy Electron Beam Accelerators, 2023 Old Dominion University

#### Study Of Microphonic Effects On The C100 Cryomodule For High Energy Electron Beam Accelerators, Caleb James Hull

*Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations*

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) is a particle accelerator which can accelerate an electron beam to relativistic speeds and apply the beam onto target samples. The C100 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity is the primary accelerating structure of the C100 cryomodule, one of the many cryomodules which compose the CEBAF linear accelerator. SRF cavities are particularly sensitive to internal and external vibrations that can result in a phenomenon called microphonics which degrade the operational stability of a cryomodule.

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the significance of mechanical disturbances on …

Deep Virtual Pion Pair Production, 2023 Old Dominion University

#### Deep Virtual Pion Pair Production, Dilini Lakshani Bulumulla

*Physics Theses & Dissertations*

This experiment investigates the deep virtual production of both σ− and ρ− mesons, with a particular focus on the microscopic structure of the σ mesons. While the ρ meson is an ordinary qq¯ pair, the σ meson is composed of not only the typical qq¯ pair, making it a topic of controversy for nearly six decades. Although the existence of the σ− meson is now well established, its microscopic structure remains poorly understood. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the σ meson by analyzing its deep virtual production. The main focus of this …

Inverse Mappers For Qcd Global Analysis, 2023 Old Dominion University

#### Inverse Mappers For Qcd Global Analysis, Manal Almaeen

*Computer Science Theses & Dissertations*

Inverse problems – using measured observations to determine unknown parameters – are well motivated but challenging in many scientific problems. Mapping parameters to observables is a well-posed problem with unique solutions, and therefore can be solved with differential equations or linear algebra solvers. However, the inverse problem requires backward mapping from observable to parameter space, which is often nonunique. Consequently, solving inverse problems is ill-posed and a far more challenging computational problem.

Our motivated application in this dissertation is the inverse problems in nuclear physics that characterize the internal structure of the hadrons. We first present a machine learning framework …

Modified Geometries, Clifford Algebras And Graphs: Their Impact On Discreteness, Locality And Symmetr, 2023 University of New Mexico

#### Modified Geometries, Clifford Algebras And Graphs: Their Impact On Discreteness, Locality And Symmetr, Roma Sverdlov

*Mathematics & Statistics ETDs*

In this dissertation I will explore the question whether various entities commonly used in quantum field theory can be “constructed". In particular, can spacetime be “constructed" out of building blocks, and can Berezin integral be “constructed" in terms of Riemann integrals.

As far as “constructing" spacetime out of building blocks, it has been attempted by multiple scientific communities and various models were proposed. But the common downfall is they break the principles of relativity. I will explore the ways of doing so in such a way that principles of relativity are respected. One of my approaches is to replace points …

A Statistical Framework For Automating Resonance Detection: Modelling Pion Proton Collision Activity, 2023 Indian Institute of Technology Joghpur

#### A Statistical Framework For Automating Resonance Detection: Modelling Pion Proton Collision Activity, Shahnaz Abdul Hameed

*2023 REYES Proceedings*

In this paper, we analyze* π− − p* elastic collision data from the *Particle Data Group* (PDG), by creating a general framework to study resonance activity: automating peak detection, extrapolating, parametrizing thresholds, filtering resonances and further comparing and extracting characteristics, to identify *Delta* (Δ) baryons. We then analyse experimental *Energy vs Phase-Shift* (δ) data for the collision* π+ +π− → π− +π+*, model the *T* matrix from a curve fitted polynomial representation of the *K ^{−1}* matrix, simulate its

*Riemann sheets*and analyse it to identify the characteristics of

*ρ*(770) meson, as well as estimate their uncertainties. …

^{0}Fractional Charge Concept Opened Gates For New Ideas On Composition Of Matter, 2023 Suffolk University

#### Fractional Charge Concept Opened Gates For New Ideas On Composition Of Matter, Polievkt Perov

*College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works*

Before the concept of quarks with fractional electric charges was introduced, the electron charge magnitude *e* was considered as the smallest amount of charge in nature so the charge of any object could be only an integer number of ± e. Then it was suggested that the proton and neutrons are composed of quarks with the fractional charges, combined in such a way that the total charge of a proton occurred to be that same known charge +e, and the charge of a neutron was zero. We suggest expanding that fruitful concept of fractional charges to build structural models of …

Cosmological Vector Fields And Constraining The Neutrino Masses, 2023 Dartmouth College

#### Cosmological Vector Fields And Constraining The Neutrino Masses, Avery J. Tishue

*Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations*

In this thesis I explore two main topics: the role and consequences of cosmological vector fields, and new ideas for constraining fundamental physics with state-of-the-art experiments. These topics are disparate in content and technique but unified in their attempt to leverage novel approaches to better understand longstanding questions in cosmology. These questions, such as ``What is causing the universe to accelerate today?'' and ``What are the neutrino masses?'', underpin the modern cosmological paradigm. They play a key role in our understanding of cosmic history, the formation of structure, and the fate of our universe. Answers to or hints about these …

Extension Of The Lux-Zeplin Nr Background To 600 Phd, 2023 Macalester College

#### Extension Of The Lux-Zeplin Nr Background To 600 Phd, Jackson Codd

*Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy*

In June 2022, the LUX-ZEPLIN collaboration released its first results, with the

most precise measurements of any direct dark matter detector. The findings were

calculated using the expected spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interaction model,

which would result in small energies deposited in the detector. Therefore, the

background of non-dark interactions was calculated for events with S1 areas up to

80 phd (Aalbers et al. 2022). In order to increase the sensitivity to high energy

WIMP-nucleon interaction events, as predicted by other models, we extended the

non-dark NR background to events with S1 areas of up to 600 phd. We found a

large …

A Study Of Data/Monte Carlo Agreement In Charmed Baryon Decays At Belle Ii, 2023 University of Mississippi

#### A Study Of Data/Monte Carlo Agreement In Charmed Baryon Decays At Belle Ii, Kaitlyn Thurmond

*Honors Theses*

The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB electron-positron accelerator facility in Tsukuba, Japan has a primary goal of searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Extremely precise measurements of particle decays will be compared with Standard Model predictions in order to expose the presence of new particles and interactions. These measurements are prepared using simulated samples to avoid potential biases when studying the data. The Belle II collaboration produces two types of simulated samples for this purpose. One is produced with consistent calibration payloads and another with payloads calibrated as a function of data taking. This …

An Analysis Of Detection Asymmetry Using Baryon Decays In Belle Ii, 2023 University of Mississippi

#### An Analysis Of Detection Asymmetry Using Baryon Decays In Belle Ii, Matthew Mestayer

*Honors Theses*

The purpose of this study was to determine the detection asymmetry of the Belle II detector using decays of two common baryons, Λ^{0} → ��π^{-} and Σ^{+} → ��π^{0}. A Monte Carlo simulation of both decays was used to determine the validity of signal isolation criteria. These criteria were then applied to the Belle II data, allowing for a comparison of the detection asymmetry in the data relative to the simulation. The results show a moderate detection asymmetry when using the Λ^{0} → ��π^{-} decay, particularly for forward-going baryons. For the Σ^{+ …}