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Generation Of Phase Transitions Boundaries Via Convolutional Neural Networks, Christopher Alexis Ibarra 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Generation Of Phase Transitions Boundaries Via Convolutional Neural Networks, Christopher Alexis Ibarra

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Accurate mapping of phase transitions boundaries is crucial in accurately modeling the equation of state of materials. The phase transitions can be structural (solid-solid) driven by temperature or pressure or a phase change like melting which defines the solid-liquid melt line. There exist many computational methods for evaluating the phase diagram at a particular point in temperature (T) and pressure (P). Most of these methods involve evaluation of a single (P,T) point at a time. The present work partially automates the search for phase boundaries lines utilizing a machine learning method based on convolutional neural networks and an efficient search …


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2023), Philip C. Nelson 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2023), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


A Mode-Sum Prescription For The Renormalized Stress Energy Tensor On Black Hole Spacetimes, Peter Taylor, Cormac Breen, Adrian Ottewill 2022 Dublin City University

A Mode-Sum Prescription For The Renormalized Stress Energy Tensor On Black Hole Spacetimes, Peter Taylor, Cormac Breen, Adrian Ottewill

Articles

In this paper, we describe an extremely efficient method for computing the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum scalar field in spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes. The method applies to a scalar field with arbitrary field parameters. We demonstrate the utility of the method by computing the renormalized stress-energy tensor for a scalar field in the Schwarzschild black hole spacetime, applying our results to discuss the null energy condition and the semiclassical backreaction.


Classification Of Pixel Tracks To Improve Track Reconstruction From Proton-Proton Collisions, Kebur Fantahun, Jobin Joseph, Halle Purdom, Nibhrat Lohia 2022 Southern Methodist University

Classification Of Pixel Tracks To Improve Track Reconstruction From Proton-Proton Collisions, Kebur Fantahun, Jobin Joseph, Halle Purdom, Nibhrat Lohia

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, machine learning techniques are used to reconstruct particle collision pathways. CERN (Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire) uses a massive underground particle collider, called the Large Hadron Collider or LHC, to produce particle collisions at extremely high speeds. There are several layers of detectors in the collider that track the pathways of particles as they collide. The data produced from collisions contains an extraneous amount of background noise, i.e., decays from known particle collisions produce fake signal. Particularly, in the first layer of the detector, the pixel tracker, there is an overwhelming amount of background noise that …


Search For A W' Boson Decaying To A Vector-Like Quark And A Top Or Bottom Quark In The All-Jets Final State At √S = 13 Tev, The CMS collaboration 2022 The CMS collaboration

Search For A W' Boson Decaying To A Vector-Like Quark And A Top Or Bottom Quark In The All-Jets Final State At √S = 13 Tev, The Cms Collaboration

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

A search is presented for a heavy W0 boson resonance decaying to a B or T vector-like quark and a t or a b quark, respectively. The analysis is performed using protonproton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb−1 at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV. Both decay channels result in a signature with a t quark, a Higgs or Z boson, and a b quark, each produced with a significant Lorentz boost. The all-hadronic decays of the Higgs or Z boson and of the t quark are …


Astrophysics, Cosmology And Particle Phenomenology At The Energy Frontier, Jorge Fernandez Soriano 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Astrophysics, Cosmology And Particle Phenomenology At The Energy Frontier, Jorge Fernandez Soriano

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation consists of two parts, treating significantly separated fields. Each part consists on several chapters, each treating a somewhat isolated topic from the rest. In each chapter, I present some of the work developed during my passage through the graduate program, which has mostly been published elsewhere.

Part I – Cosmic Rays and Particle Physics

  • Chapter 1: In this chapter we present an introduction to the topic of cosmic ray physics, with an special focus on the so-called ultra high energy cosmic rays: their potential origins, effects during their propagation between their sources and Earth, the different techniques used …


The Separation Of Charm And Bottom Decays Measured In P+Au Collisions At 200 Gev, Zhiyan Wang 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Separation Of Charm And Bottom Decays Measured In P+Au Collisions At 200 Gev, Zhiyan Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It has long been observed experimentally, from previous heavy-flavor electron measurements, that heavy quarks are subject to substantial modifications of their momentum spectrum. Using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), measurements of the production of open heavy flavor hadrons with charm and bottom quarks in p+Au collisions at 200 GeV are studied and presented in this thesis. Distance of closest approach analysis of electron tracks is used to study the semileptonic decay electrons from charm and bottom hadrons. The results include invariant yield and fraction of bottom electrons. In addition to the p+p and Au+Au collisions’ …


Magnetic Field Effects On The Physics Of Neutron Stars, Aric A. Hackebill 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Magnetic Field Effects On The Physics Of Neutron Stars, Aric A. Hackebill

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the context of neutron stars (NS), dense-magnetized quark and hadron models have been well studied under the assumption that the system's pressures are isotropic. However, the pressures determined from semi-classical statistical averaging of the energy momentum tensor in the presence of a uniform background magnetic field are anisotropic with different pressures arising along and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. Since large magnetic fields are expected to be present in the interior of NS, it is important to understand the roll the pressure anisotropy plays. While considering the pressure anisotropy, we revisit some important calculations in NS physics.

We …


Qcd Corrections In Tqγ Production At Hadron Colliders, Nikolaos Kidonakis, Nodoka Yamanaka 2022 Kennesaw State University

Qcd Corrections In Tqγ Production At Hadron Colliders, Nikolaos Kidonakis, Nodoka Yamanaka

Faculty Publications

We study QCD corrections for the associated production of a single top quark and a photon (tqγ production) at hadron colliders. We calculate the NLO cross section at LHC and future collider energies for a variety of kinematical cuts, and we estimate uncertainties from scale dependence and from parton distributions. We also calculate differential distributions in top-quark transverse-momentum and rapidity as well as photon energy. Finally, we study higher-order corrections from soft-gluon emission for this process, and we provide approximate NNLO (aNNLO) results for the cross section and top-quark differential distributions. We also compare our calculations with recent measurements from …


Search For A Dark Leptophilic Scalar Produced In Association With Taupair In Electron-Positron Annihilation At Center-Of-Mass Energies Near 10.58 Gev., Diptaparna Biswas 2022 University of Louisville

Search For A Dark Leptophilic Scalar Produced In Association With Taupair In Electron-Positron Annihilation At Center-Of-Mass Energies Near 10.58 Gev., Diptaparna Biswas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dark matter is believed to be a form of matter which seemingly accounts for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe and about 27% of its total mass–energy density. It doesn't participate in electromagnetic interaction, i.e. doesn't interact with light. Consequently, we cannot see it using optical or radio telescope and hence the name dark matter. However, it participates in gravitational interaction, and we hypothesize its existence based on a variety of astrophysical observations, including gravitational effects, that cannot be explained by the accepted theories of gravity unless we account for more matter than can be perceived through electromagnetic …


Fermion-Induced Electroweak Symmetry Non-Restoration Via Temperature-Dependent Masses, Yu Hang Ng 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fermion-Induced Electroweak Symmetry Non-Restoration Via Temperature-Dependent Masses, Yu Hang Ng

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

Standard Model (SM) and many extensions of SM predict that the electroweak (EW) symmetry was restored in the early universe when the temperature was around 160 GeV. However, recent studies showed that the interactions between some new scalars and SU(2)_L Higgs doublet(s) can cause the EW symmetry to remain broken at temperatures well above the EW scale in certain renormalizable extensions of SM. In this study, we found that new fermions from renormalizable models can also induce this EW symmetry non-restoration effect, provided that they have the appropriate temperature-dependent masses. These masses can arise naturally from the interactions between the …


Measurement Of The Fiducial Cross Section For Vector-Boson-Fusion Production Of The Higgs Boson In The Ww Decay Channel With The Atlas Detector, Guy Rosin 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Measurement Of The Fiducial Cross Section For Vector-Boson-Fusion Production Of The Higgs Boson In The Ww Decay Channel With The Atlas Detector, Guy Rosin

Doctoral Dissertations

This doctoral thesis presents a measurement of the fiducial and differential cross section of vector boson fusion produced Higgs boson.The measurement is taken in the H → WW∗ → lνlν channel with 139 fb−1 of data. Proton-proton collisions from the Large Hadron Collider at √s = 13 TeV were recorded by the ATLAS detector. New analysis techniques using boosted decision trees with a statistical fit are introduced to accurately estimate backgrounds in the signal region. The fiducial cross section is measured to be 1.7 ± 0.42fb. The differential cross section was measured for 13 kinematic variables. No significant deviations …


Calibration Of The Lux-Zeplin Dual-Phase Xenon Time Projection Chamber With Internally Injected Radioisotopes, Christopher D. Nedlik 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Calibration Of The Lux-Zeplin Dual-Phase Xenon Time Projection Chamber With Internally Injected Radioisotopes, Christopher D. Nedlik

Doctoral Dissertations

Self-shielding in ton-scale liquid xenon (LXe) detectors presents a unique challenge for calibrating detector response to interactions in the detector's innermost volume. Calibration radioisotopes must be injected directly into the LXe to reach the central volume, where they must either decay away with a short half life or be purified out. We present an overview of, and results from, the prototype source injection system (SIS) developed at the University of Massachusetts Amherst for the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment (LZ). The SIS is designed to refine techniques for the injection and removal of precise activities of various calibration radioisotopes that are useful in …


General Covariance With Stacks And The Batalin-Vilkovisky Formalism, Filip Dul 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

General Covariance With Stacks And The Batalin-Vilkovisky Formalism, Filip Dul

Doctoral Dissertations

In this thesis we develop a formulation of general covariance, an essential property for many field theories on curved spacetimes, using the language of stacks and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We survey the theory of stacks, both from a global and formal perspective, and consider the key example in our work: the moduli stack of metrics modulo diffeomorphism. This is then coupled to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism–a formulation of field theory motivated by developments in derived geometry–to describe the associated equivariant observables of a theory and to recover and generalize results regarding current conservation.


What Is A Photon? Foundations Of Quantum Field Theory, Charles G. Torre 2022 Utah State University

What Is A Photon? Foundations Of Quantum Field Theory, Charles G. Torre

All Physics Faculty Publications

This is a brief, informal, and relatively low-level course on the foundations of quantum field theory. The prerequisites are undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics and electromagnetism.


Introduction To Classical Field Theory, Charles G. Torre 2022 Department of Physics, Utah State University

Introduction To Classical Field Theory, Charles G. Torre

All Complete Monographs

This is an introduction to classical field theory. Topics treated include: Klein-Gordon field, electromagnetic field, scalar electrodynamics, Dirac field, Yang-Mills field, gravitational field, Noether theorems relating symmetries and conservation laws, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms.


Partial Automation Of Data Analysis In A Z Prime Boson Search, Ethan Colbert 2022 Bellarmine University

Partial Automation Of Data Analysis In A Z Prime Boson Search, Ethan Colbert

Undergraduate Theses

Analysis of data from the ATLAS experiment at the LHC has been a research focus in the Department of Physics at Bellarmine University (BU). At BU, analysis has largely been focused on Z boson decays and searching for evidence of a Z’ (Z Prime) boson. The data are stored in the form of .xml files, with one file representing one collision event inside the ATLAS detector. Previous analyses have been conducted on an event-by-event basis, using the Hypatia software package. While this allows for high-quality visualization and effective event analysis, it is highly time-consuming. I propose and implement a piece …


A Performance Analysis Of The Belle Ii Detector, John Stacy 2022 University of Mississippi

A Performance Analysis Of The Belle Ii Detector, John Stacy

Honors Theses

The Belle II experiment has recently (2018) started data taking at the SuperKEKB electron-positron collider in Tsukuba, Japan. Detector performance studies are necessary to understand early data and prepare for more complex analyses. This study of the proton detection efficiency of the Belle II detector compares real and simulated data to find discrepancies with the intention to provide useful information for detector and calibration experts to better gauge detector performance. It also attempts to improve the characterization of proton identification efficiency at low momenta, which performs poorly under the current fitting model. This helps analysts exploring final states that include …


Lifetime Measurement Of The Xi_C^+ Using Belle Ii Monte Carlo, Paul Gebeline 2022 University of Mississippi

Lifetime Measurement Of The Xi_C^+ Using Belle Ii Monte Carlo, Paul Gebeline

Honors Theses

This analysis uses simulated data from the Belle II experiment to measure the lifetime of the Xi_c^+ baryon. Three different decay modes are investigated to explore the feasibility and accuracy of such measurements at Belle II. The Xi_c^+ lifetime is measured using one of these modes after reducing backgrounds from sources other than the decay of interest. The final result is 464 +/- 15 fs, which is consistent with the expected result of 442 fs within uncertainty. This result shows that Belle II can make competitive measurements of particle properties and decays.


Monte Carlo Study Of Lepton Flavor Universality Violation In B Decays With Belle Ii Simulation, Sakul Mahat 2022 University of Mississippi

Monte Carlo Study Of Lepton Flavor Universality Violation In B Decays With Belle Ii Simulation, Sakul Mahat

Honors Theses

Belle II, the first super B-Factory experiment, is designed to make precise measurements of weak interaction parameters and search for New Physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory that classifies all known elementary particles and describes three of the four known fundamental forces in the universe. Physics beyond the Standard Model that addresses the theoretical developments needed to explain the deficiencies in the Standard Model is often referred to as New Physics. One of the assumptions of the Standard Model is that the couplings of particles that mediate the weak …


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