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Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Commons

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All Articles in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics

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Optimizing An Electron's Path To Ionization Using A Genetic Algorithm, Jason Bennett, Kevin Choice 2017 Ursinus College

Optimizing An Electron's Path To Ionization Using A Genetic Algorithm, Jason Bennett, Kevin Choice

Physics and Astronomy Summer Fellows

A Rydberg atom is an atom with a highly excited and weakly bound valence electron. A widespread method of studying quantum mechanics with Rydberg atoms is to ionize the electron and measure its arrival time. We use a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to control the electron's path to ionization. The Rydberg electron's energy levels are strongly shifted by the presence of an electric field. The energy levels shift and curve, but never cross. At an avoided crossing the electron can jump from one level to the next. By engineering the electric field's time dependence, we thereby control the ...


Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Kinematical Vortices In Double Photoionization Of Helium By Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, A. V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Two-armed helical vortex structures are predicted in the two-electron momentum distributions produced in double photoionization (DPI) of the He atom by a pair of time-delayed elliptically polarized attosecond pulses with opposite helicities. These predictions are based upon both a first-order perturbation theory analysis and numerical solutions of the two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation in six spatial dimensions. The helical vortex structures originate from Ramsey interference of a pair of ionized two-electron wave packets, each having a total angular momentum of unity, and appear in the sixfold differential DPI probability distribution for any energy partitioning between the two electrons. The vortex structures ...


Elastic Properties Of Superconductors And Materials With Weakly Correlated Spins, Christian Binek 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Elastic Properties Of Superconductors And Materials With Weakly Correlated Spins, Christian Binek

Christian Binek Publications

It is shown that in the ergodic regime, the temperature dependence of Young’s modulus is solely determined by the magnetic properties of a material. For the large class of materials with paramagnetic or diamagnetic response, simple functional forms of the temperature derivative of Young’s modulus are derived and compared with experimental data and empirical results. Superconducting materials in the Meissner phase are ideal diamagnets. As such, they display remarkable elastic properties. Constant diamagnetic susceptibility gives rise to a temperature independent elastic modulus for ceramic and single crystalline superconductors alike. The thermodynamic approach established in this report, paves the ...


Quasi-Optical Measurement For Low Loss Material Characterization In Submillimeter Wave Range, Ha Khiem Tran, Thanh Ngoc Dan Le, Branimir Pejcinovic 2017 Portland State University

Quasi-Optical Measurement For Low Loss Material Characterization In Submillimeter Wave Range, Ha Khiem Tran, Thanh Ngoc Dan Le, Branimir Pejcinovic

Branimir Pejcinovic

An accurate knowledge of dielectric constant of materials is required in many sub-millimeter wave applications. Free-space measurement of materials has always been one of the first choices due to their non-destructive nature and relatively simple sample preparation. However, free-space measurement systems at sub-millimeter frequency range suffer from two main problems: high loss because of divergent beam pattern and diffraction when the beam waist of the radiated beam is relatively large compared to the size of the sample under tests. In order to mitigate these issues, we set up a quasi-optical system using off-axis parabolic mirrors, which enhance the dynamic range ...


Highly Directional Receiver And Source Antennas Using Photonic Band Gap Crystals, Rana Biswas, Gary L. Tuttle, Ekmel Ozbay, Burak Temelkuran, Mihail Sigalas, Kai-Ming Ho 2017 Iowa State University

Highly Directional Receiver And Source Antennas Using Photonic Band Gap Crystals, Rana Biswas, Gary L. Tuttle, Ekmel Ozbay, Burak Temelkuran, Mihail Sigalas, Kai-Ming Ho

Gary Tuttle

A directional antenna made with photonic band gap structures has been presented. The directional antenna is formed with two photonic band gap structures oriented back to back and separated from each other by a distance to form a resonant cavity between the photonic band gap structures. An antenna element is placed in the resonant cavity. The resonant frequency of the cavity is tuned by adjusting the distance between the photonic band gap structures. The resonant cavity can be asymmetrical or symmetrical.


Quantum Optical Interferometry And Quantum State Engineering, Richard J. Birrittella Jr 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Quantum Optical Interferometry And Quantum State Engineering, Richard J. Birrittella Jr

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We highlight some of our research done in the fields of quantum optical interferometry and quantum state engineering. We discuss the body of work for which our research is predicated, as well as discuss some of the fundamental tenants of the theory of phase estimation. We do this in the context of quantum optical interferometry where our primary interest lies in the calculation of the quantum Fisher information as it has been shown that the minimum phase uncertainty obtained, the quantum Cramer-Rao bound, is saturated by parity-based detection methods. We go on to show that the phase uncertainty one obtains ...


Ferroelectric-Domain-Patterning-Controlled Schottky Junction State In Monolayer Mos2, Zhiyong Xiao, Jingfeng Song, David K. Ferry, Stephen Ducharme, Xia Hong 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Ferroelectric-Domain-Patterning-Controlled Schottky Junction State In Monolayer Mos2, Zhiyong Xiao, Jingfeng Song, David K. Ferry, Stephen Ducharme, Xia Hong

Stephen Ducharme Publications

We exploit scanning-probe-controlled domain patterning in a ferroelectric top layer to induce nonvolatile modulation of the conduction characteristic of monolayer MoS2 between a transistor and a junction state. In the presence of a domain wall, MoS2 exhibits rectified I-V characteristics that are well described by the thermionic emission model. The induced Schottky barrier height ΦeffB varies from 0.38 to 0.57 eV and is tunable by a SiO2 global back gate, while the tuning range of ΦeffB depends sensitively on the conduction-band-tail trapping states. Our work points to a new route to ...


Improvements For The T0c+ Geometry Of The Fast Interaction Trigger (Fit) Upgrade To Alice At The Cern Lhc, Noah Miller 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Improvements For The T0c+ Geometry Of The Fast Interaction Trigger (Fit) Upgrade To Alice At The Cern Lhc, Noah Miller

Physics

The purpose of the ALICE experiment at CERN is to investigate the properties of the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma formed in the high-energy collisions of lead nuclei in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. ALICE has been collecting data since 2009. The upcoming upgrade of the CERN LHC injectors during 2019-20 will boost the luminosity and the collision rate beyond the design parameters for several of the key ALICE detectors including the forward trigger detectors. The new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will enable ALICE to discriminate beam-beam interactions with a 99% efficiency for the collisions generated by the LHC at a ...


My Contributions To The Cryogenic Underground Observatory For Rare Events Experiment And The Utilization Of Geant4 In Their Analysis, Kevin Armenta 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

My Contributions To The Cryogenic Underground Observatory For Rare Events Experiment And The Utilization Of Geant4 In Their Analysis, Kevin Armenta

Physics

First, a brief introduction and background of the basics of particle physics and the Standard Model is discussed in order to give context to nature of the neutrinoless double beta decay ($2\nu\beta\beta$) and why it is so interesting to particle physicists. Next, the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) experiment is discussed in detail, explaining the rational behind the experimental setup and detection process. Finally, I conclude by discussing Geant4, an important software toolkit used in particle physics, and how it is utilized in the CUORE experiment.


Building And Validating A Model For Investigating The Dynamics Of Isolated Water Molecules, Grant Cates 2017 Linfield College

Building And Validating A Model For Investigating The Dynamics Of Isolated Water Molecules, Grant Cates

Senior Theses

Understanding how water molecules behave in isolation is vital to understand many fundamental processes in nature. To that end, scientists have begun studying crystals in which single water molecules become trapped in regularly occurring cavities in the crystal structure. As part of that investigation, numerical models used to investigate the dynamics of isolated water molecules are sought to help bolster our fundamental understanding of how these systems behave. To that end, the efficacy of three computational methods—the Euler Method, the Euler-Aspel Method and the Beeman Method—is compared using a newly defined parameter, called the predictive stability coefficient ρ ...


Time-Resolved Thz Conductivity Of An Intermediate Band Semiconductor, Elliot Weiss 2017 Macalester College

Time-Resolved Thz Conductivity Of An Intermediate Band Semiconductor, Elliot Weiss

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Intermediate band materials have promising applications as affordable, highly efficient solar materials. However, intermediate band solar cells exhibit low efficiency to date. Carrier recombination is a critical process that limits efficiency. If electrons relax to the valence band before they can be collected, their energy is lost. To help understand the recombination dynamics and physical properties of intermediate band semiconductors, we obtain time-resolved THz conductivity measurements of the intermediate band semiconductor, GaPAsN, at various temperatures. From our results, we build a model that provides insight to the recombination dynamics of GaPAsN.


Intervalley Scattering Rates In Tellurium Observed Via Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy, Joshua R. Rollag 2017 Macalester College

Intervalley Scattering Rates In Tellurium Observed Via Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy, Joshua R. Rollag

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

We conducted time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy measurements on the elemental semiconductor tellurium. Pump-probe measurements were used to find the conductivity as a function of time in single crystalline tellurium samples. It was found that the excitation dynamics in tellurium changes for photon energies of 1.03 eV and 1.55 eV. The change in these excitation dynamics was attributed to intervalley scattering effects. A model using intervalley scattering and Auger recombination was fit to the data, giving a value of 2.28 ps for the intervalley scattering time constant in tellurium.


Conductivity Measurements Of A Thermoelectric Nanomaterial Through Thz Spectroscopy, Michaela S. Koller, James Heyman, Gunnar Footh 2017 Macalester College

Conductivity Measurements Of A Thermoelectric Nanomaterial Through Thz Spectroscopy, Michaela S. Koller, James Heyman, Gunnar Footh

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

In today’s society there is a great demand on energy output—in the United States alone we rely heavily on non-renewable energy sources. Thermoelectric materials may be able to be used to create more efficient energy systems or recover wasted heat from inefficient technologies. This paper focuses on the conductivity of a new thermoelectric material that incorporates copper into a tellurium nanowire PEDOT:PSS material. The addition of copper seems to increase the conductivity of the material, although the exact relationship between the percentage of copper to tellurium and its affect on the conductivity is uncertain from the results.


Quasi-Optical Measurement For Low Loss Material Characterization In Submillimeter Wave Range, Ha Khiem Tran, Thanh Ngoc Dan Le, Branimir Pejcinovic 2017 Portland State University

Quasi-Optical Measurement For Low Loss Material Characterization In Submillimeter Wave Range, Ha Khiem Tran, Thanh Ngoc Dan Le, Branimir Pejcinovic

Student Research Symposium

An accurate knowledge of dielectric constant of materials is required in many sub-millimeter wave applications. Free-space measurement of materials has always been one of the first choices due to their non-destructive nature and relatively simple sample preparation. However, free-space measurement systems at sub-millimeter frequency range suffer from two main problems: high loss because of divergent beam pattern and diffraction when the beam waist of the radiated beam is relatively large compared to the size of the sample under tests. In order to mitigate these issues, we set up a quasi-optical system using off-axis parabolic mirrors, which enhance the dynamic range ...


Discontinuities In The Electromagnetic Fields Of Vortex Beams In The Complex Source-Sink Model, Andrew Vikartofsky, Liang-Wen Pi, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Discontinuities In The Electromagnetic Fields Of Vortex Beams In The Complex Source-Sink Model, Andrew Vikartofsky, Liang-Wen Pi, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

An analytical discontinuity is reported in what was thought to be the discontinuity-free exact nonparaxial vortex beam phasor obtained within the complex source-sink model. This discontinuity appears for all odd values of the orbital angular momentum mode. Such discontinuities in the phasor lead to nonphysical discontinuities in the real electromagnetic field components. We identify the source of the discontinuities, and provide graphical evidence of the discontinuous real electric fields for the first and third orbital angular momentum modes. A simple means of avoiding these discontinuities is presented.


Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding 2017 Illinois Wesleyan University

Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding

Honors Projects

This thesis begins with a foundational section on quantum optics. The single-photon detectors used in the first chapter were obtained through the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA), which brokered reduced cost for educational use, and the aim of the single-photon work presented in Chapter 1 is to develop modules for use in Illinois Wesleyan's instructional labs beyond the first year of university. Along with the American Association of Physics Teachers, ALPhA encourages capstone-level work, such as Chapter 1 of this honors thesis, which is explicitly designed to play the role of passing on, to a next generation of physics ...


High Current Table-Top Setup For Femtosecond Gas Electron Diffraction, Omid Zandi, Kyle J. Wilkin, Martin Centurion 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

High Current Table-Top Setup For Femtosecond Gas Electron Diffraction, Omid Zandi, Kyle J. Wilkin, Martin Centurion

Martin Centurion Publications

We have constructed an experimental setup for gas phase electron diffraction with femtosecond resolution and a high average beam current. While gas electron diffraction has been successful at determining molecular structures, it has been a challenge to reach femtosecond resolution while maintaining sufficient beam current to retrieve structures with high spatial resolution. The main challenges are the Coulomb force that leads to broadening of the electron pulses and the temporal blurring that results from the velocity mismatch between the laser and electron pulses as they traverse the sample. We present here a device that uses pulse compression to overcome the ...


Microwave Assisted Dipole-Dipole Transitions, Jacob T. Paul 2017 Ursinus College

Microwave Assisted Dipole-Dipole Transitions, Jacob T. Paul

Physics and Astronomy Honors Papers

We explore this two photon assisted transition through computational and numerical analysis of possible energy levels. We calculate the matrix elements of the energy transition in detail discussing constants and the quantum mechanical possibilities of energy exchanges in these systems.

The goal is to better understand the energy exchange, so that moving forward we can control it. This paper covers the theoretical ends to controlling the energy transition by the way of two photon assisted transitions. The energy transitions take place between a dipole-dipole interaction, and a microwave photon.


Using An Atomic Molecular Optics Laboratory For Undergraduate Research And Mentoring Of Physics Students In Georgia, Matthew P. Dallas 2017 Georgia College and State University

Using An Atomic Molecular Optics Laboratory For Undergraduate Research And Mentoring Of Physics Students In Georgia, Matthew P. Dallas

Georgia College Student Research Events

Using an Atomic Molecular Optics Laboratory for Undergraduate Research and Mentoring of Physics Students in Georgia

An Atomic and Molecular Optical (AMO) Physics research lab is an excellent tool to train and mentor undergraduate students in advanced laboratory techniques. Students gain valuable basic experience in experimental designs, data acquisition techniques, working with high precision optical equipment, building electronics, and working in the machine shop. The current project is building and testing an enclosure for the diode laser to reduce sound and vibrational interference. In addition, we are developing and evaluating a new, more compact laser cavity which is 3d printed ...


Determination Of The Zinc Concentration In Human Fingernails By Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Steven J. Rehse, Vlora A. Riberdy, Christopher J. Frederickson 2017 University of Windsor

Determination Of The Zinc Concentration In Human Fingernails By Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Steven J. Rehse, Vlora A. Riberdy, Christopher J. Frederickson

Physics Publications

The absolute concentration of zinc in human fingernail clippings tested ex vivo was determined by 1064 nm laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and confirmed by speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry. A nail testing protocol that sampled across the nail (perpendicular to the direction of growth) was developed and validated by scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Using this protocol, a partial least squares regression model predicted the zinc concentration in five subjects’ fingernails to within 7 ppm on average. The variation of the zinc concentration with depth into the nail as determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was studied and found to ...


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