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Time-Resolved Electron (E,2E) Momentum Spectroscopy: Application To Laser-Driven Electron Population Transfer In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Time-Resolved Electron (E,2E) Momentum Spectroscopy: Application To Laser-Driven Electron Population Transfer In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Owing to its ability to provide unique information on electron dynamics, time-resolved electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) is used to study theoretically a laser-driven electronic motion in atoms. Specifically, a chirped laser pulse is used to adiabatically transfer the populations of lithium atoms from the ground state to the first excited state. During this process, impact ionization near the Bethe ridge by time-delayed ultrashort, high-energy electron pulses is used to image the instantaneous momentum density of this electronic population transfer. Simulations with 100 fs and 1 fs pulse durations demonstrate the capability of EMS to image the time-varying momentum density, including ...


Simulation Of Charge Transport In Multi-Island Tunneling Devices: Application To Disordered One-Dimensional Systems At Low And High Biases, Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Douglas R. Banyai, Paul Bergstrom, John A. Jaszczak 2018 Michigan Technological University

Simulation Of Charge Transport In Multi-Island Tunneling Devices: Application To Disordered One-Dimensional Systems At Low And High Biases, Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Douglas R. Banyai, Paul Bergstrom, John A. Jaszczak

John Jaszczak

Although devices have been fabricated displaying interesting single-electron transport characteristics, there has been limited progress in the development of tools that can simulate such devices based on their physical geometry over a range of bias conditions up to a few volts per junction. In this work, we present the development of a multi-island transport simulator, MITS, a simulator of tunneling transport in multi-island devices that takes into account geometrical and material parameters, and can span low and high source-drain biases. First, the capabilities of MITS are demonstrated by modeling experimentaldevices described in the literature, and showing that the simulated device ...


Roughening And Preroughening Of Diamond-Cubic {111} Surfaces, Donald L. Woodraska, John A. Jaszczak 2018 Michigan Technological University

Roughening And Preroughening Of Diamond-Cubic {111} Surfaces, Donald L. Woodraska, John A. Jaszczak

John Jaszczak

A solid-on-solid model for {111} surfaces of diamond-cubic materials that correctly takes into account the diamond-cubic crystal structure has been developed for Monte Carlo simulation. In addition to a roughening transition at temperature TR, a distinct preroughening transition at TPR≈0.43TR is indicated by divergences in the surface specific heat and order-parameter susceptibility. Preroughening appears to arise naturally in our nearest-neighbor bond model from the entropic freedom available in the nontrivial crystal structure. Preroughening is shown to dramatically lower the nucleation barrier for growth and etching at low driving forces.


Mechanism For Spatial Organization In Quantum Dot Self-Assembly, Da Gao, Adam Kaczynski, John A. Jaszczak 2018 Michigan Technological University

Mechanism For Spatial Organization In Quantum Dot Self-Assembly, Da Gao, Adam Kaczynski, John A. Jaszczak

John Jaszczak

Inspired by experimental observations of spatially ordered growth hillocks on the (001) surfaces of natural graphite crystals, a mechanism for spatial organization in quantum dotself-assembly is proposed. The regular arrangement of steps from a screw dislocation-generated growth spiral provides the overall template for such ordering. An ordered array of quantum dots may be formed or nucleated from impurities driven to the step corners by diffusion and by their interactions with the spiral’s steps and kinks. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a solid-on-solid model supports the feasibility of such a mechanism.


Photoelectron Angular Distributions From Rotationally Resolved Autoionizing States Of N2, Alexander M. Chartrand, Elizabeth F. McCormack, Ugo Jacovella, David M P Holland, Berenger Gans, Xiaofeng Tang, Gustavo A. García, Laurent Nahon, Stephen T. Pratt 2017 Bryn Mawr College

Photoelectron Angular Distributions From Rotationally Resolved Autoionizing States Of N2, Alexander M. Chartrand, Elizabeth F. Mccormack, Ugo Jacovella, David M P Holland, Berenger Gans, Xiaofeng Tang, Gustavo A. García, Laurent Nahon, Stephen T. Pratt

Physics Faculty Research and Scholarship

The single-photon, photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum of N2 has been recorded at high (~1.5 cm–1 ) resolution in the region between the N2+ X 2Σg+, v+ = 0 and 1 ionization thresholds by using a double-imaging spectrometer and intense vacuum-ultraviolet light from the Synchrotron SOLEIL. This approach provides the relative photoionization cross section, the photoelectron energy distribution, and the photoelectron angular distribution as a function of photon energy. The region of interest contains autoionizing valence states, vibrationally autoionizing Rydberg states converging to vibrationally excited levels of the N2+ X 2Σg+ ground state, and electronically ...


Angle-Resolved Observation Of X-Ray Second Harmonic Generation In Diamond, Björn Senfftleben 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Angle-Resolved Observation Of X-Ray Second Harmonic Generation In Diamond, Björn Senfftleben

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

This thesis reports angularly-resolved observation of X-ray second harmonic generation (XSHG) in diamond at several phase-matching geometries. The XSHG signal was produced by ultra-short, highly intense X-ray pulses with a photon energy of 9.831 keV generated by a free-electron laser. In some geometries for high pulse energies more than 10 second harmonic photons per pulse were generated.

Different phase-matched geometries were used for XSHG to investigate the angular dependence of the efficiency of the process. Furthermore, for each phase-matching condition, the quadratic dependence for second harmonic generation at each geometry was verified and the crystal rocking curves were measured ...


Design And Construction Of A High-Current Femtosecond Gas-Phase Electron Diffraction Setup, Omid Zandi 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Design And Construction Of A High-Current Femtosecond Gas-Phase Electron Diffraction Setup, Omid Zandi

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

We designed and constructed a state-of-the-art high current ultrafast gas electron diffraction experimental setup, which resolved two main challenges that constraint temporal resolution in previous setups. These aforementioned bottlenecks were: the space charge effect due to the Coulomb expansion, and the velocity mismatch between the sub-relativistic electrons (probe) and the exciting laser pulse (pump). In our setup, the problem of space charge effect was ameliorated by compressing 90 keV photo-emitted electron pulses using a radio-frequency electric field. The compression allowed us to increase the beam current by almost two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported. We developed a laser-activated ...


A Measurement Of The Wγ Cross Section At √S = 8 Tev In Pp Collisions With The Cms Detector, Ekaterina Avdeeva 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Measurement Of The Wγ Cross Section At √S = 8 Tev In Pp Collisions With The Cms Detector, Ekaterina Avdeeva

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

A measurement of cross section of the Wγ → lνγ production in proton-proton collisions using 19.6 fb − 1 of LHC data collected by CMS detector at the center- √ of-mass collision energy of s = 8 TeV is reported. The W bosons are identified in their electron and muon decay modes. The process of Wγ production in the Standard Model (SM) involves a pure gauge boson coupling, a WWγ vertex, which allows one to test the electroweak sector of the SM in a unique way not achievable by studies of other processes. In addition to the total cross section, we measure the ...


Structural And Elastic Properties Of Degenerate Sno Monolayers At Finite Temperature, Afsana Sharmin 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Structural And Elastic Properties Of Degenerate Sno Monolayers At Finite Temperature, Afsana Sharmin

Theses and Dissertations

Chalcogen-based layered superconductors with a litharge structure such as FeS and FeSe mono-layers undergo structural and superconducting phase transitions that are tunable by doping. Representing another material platform with a litharge structure but without valence d-electrons, SnO monolayers also display a structural ground state with a degenerate rectangular unit cell at zero temperature and a charge-tunable energy barrier that leads to a thermally-controllable structural phase change. Doped SnO monolayers with rectangular degenerate unit cells give rise to two-dimensional multiferroicity. Their two-dimensional elastic energy landscape adopts a basic analytic expression that is employed to discuss this structural transition. The results contained ...


Energy From Active Galactic Nuclei And The Effects On Host Spiral Galaxies, Amanda Schilling 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Energy From Active Galactic Nuclei And The Effects On Host Spiral Galaxies, Amanda Schilling

Theses and Dissertations

I have investigated the energy output of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in order to understand how these objects evolve and the impact they may have on host galaxies. First, I looked at a sample of 96 AGN at redshifts $z \sim 2, 3,$ and $4$ which have imaging and thus luminosity measurements in the $griz$ and $JHK$ observed wavebands. For these galaxies, I have co-epochal data across those bands which accounted for variability in AGN luminosity. I used the luminosity measurements in the five bands to construct spectral energy distributions (SED) in the emitted optical-UV bands for each AGN. I ...


A Case Study In The Application Of Model-Based Systems Engineering To Laboratory Research Science, Brad Crochet 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

A Case Study In The Application Of Model-Based Systems Engineering To Laboratory Research Science, Brad Crochet

Dissertations

This dissertation presents an exploration of the application of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tools and methods to the design and execution of sophisticated laboratory experiments. An experiment to measure the first excited state diffusion coefficient, recently attempted by the author, is used as an example. Several MBSE analysis methods are applied, retrospectively, to the process by which the experiment in question was planned and executed. The potential for increased efficiency in managing the diverse types of information associated with such laboratory experiments is demonstrated, as well as possible further avenues for future research.


Mixing Times Of Organic Molecules Within Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles: A Global Planetary Boundary Layer Perspective, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Allan K. Bertram 2017 University of British Columbia

Mixing Times Of Organic Molecules Within Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles: A Global Planetary Boundary Layer Perspective, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Allan K. Bertram

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

When simulating the formation and life cycle of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) with chemical transport models, it is often assumed that organic molecules are well mixed within SOA particles on the timescale of 1 h. While this assumption has been debated vigorously in the literature, the issue remains unresolved in part due to a lack of information on the mixing times within SOA particles as a function of both temperature and relative humidity. Using laboratory data, meteorological fields, and a chemical transport model, we estimated how often mixing times are < 1 h within SOA in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), the region of the atmosphere where SOA concentrations are on average the highest. First, a parameterization for viscosity as a function of temperature and RH was developed for α-pinene SOA using room-temperature and low-temperature viscosity data for α-pinene SOA generated in the laboratory using mass concentrations of ∼ 1000 µg m−3. Based on this parameterization, the mixing times within α-pinene SOA are < 1 h for 98.5 % and 99.9 % of the occurrences in the PBL during January and July, respectively, when concentrations are significant (total organic aerosol concentrations are > 0.5 µg m−3 at the surface). Next, as ...


Doubly-Excited State Effects On Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium By Time-Delayed, Oppositely Circularly-Polarized Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Doubly-Excited State Effects On Two-Photon Double Ionization Of Helium By Time-Delayed, Oppositely Circularly-Polarized Attosecond Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We study two-photon double ionization (TPDI) of helium by a pair of time-delayed (non-overlapping), oppositely circularly-polarized attosecond pulses whose carrier frequencies are resonant with 1Po doubly-excited states. All of our TPDI results are obtained by numerical solution of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the six-dimensional case of circularly-polarized attosecond pulses, and they are analyzed using perturbation theory (PT). As compared with the corresponding nonresonant TPDI process, we find that the doubly-excited states change the character of vortex patterns in the two-electron momentum distributions for the case of back-to-back detection of the two ionized electrons in the polarization ...


Imaging Electronic Motions By Ultrafast Electron Diraction, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Imaging Electronic Motions By Ultrafast Electron Diraction, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Recently ultrafast electron diraction and microscopy have reached unprecedented temporal resolution, and transient structures with atomic precision have been observed in various reactions. It is anticipated that these extraordinary advances will soon allow direct observation of electronic motions during chemical reactions. We therefore performed a series of theoretical investigations and simulations to investigate the imaging of electronic motions in atoms and molecules by ultrafast electron diraction. Three prototypical electronic motions were considered for hydrogen atoms. For the case of a breathing mode, the electron density expands and contracts periodically, and we show that the time-resolved scattering intensities re ect such ...


Energy-Resolved Coherent Diffraction From Laser-Driven Electronic Motion In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-Resolved Coherent Diffraction From Laser-Driven Electronic Motion In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

We investigate theoretically the use of energy-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction to image laser-driven electronic motion in atoms. A chirped laser pulse is used to transfer the valence electron of the lithium atom from the ground state to the first excited state. During this process, the electronic motion is imaged by 100-fs and 1-fs electron pulses in energy-resolved diffraction measurements. Simulations show that the angle-resolved spectra reveal the time evolution of the energy content and symmetry of the electronic state. The time-dependent diffraction patterns are further interpreted in terms of the momentum transfer. For the case of incident 1-fs electron pulses ...


Combined Measurement Of Directional Raman Scattering And Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Cone From Adsorbates On Smooth Planar Gold Surfaces, Charles K.A. Nyamekye, Jonathan M. Bobbitt, Emily A. Smith 2017 Ames Laboratory

Combined Measurement Of Directional Raman Scattering And Surface-Plasmon-Polariton Cone From Adsorbates On Smooth Planar Gold Surfaces, Charles K.A. Nyamekye, Jonathan M. Bobbitt, Emily A. Smith

Emily Smith

Directional-surface-plasmon-coupled Raman scattering (directional RS) has the combined benefits of surface plasmon resonance and Raman spectroscopy, and provides the ability to measure adsorption and monolayer-sensitive chemical information. Directional RS is performed by optically coupling a 50-nm gold film to a Weierstrass prism in the Kretschmann configuration and scanning the angle of the incident laser under total internal reflection. The collected parameters on the prism side of the interface include a full surface-plasmon-polariton cone and the full Raman signal radiating from the cone as a function of incident angle. An instrument for performing directional RS and a quantitative study of the ...


Special Features Of The Air-To-Space Neutron Transport Problem, Whitman T. Dailey 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Special Features Of The Air-To-Space Neutron Transport Problem, Whitman T. Dailey

Theses and Dissertations

Special features of the air-to-space neutron transport problem are identified, characterized, and quantified to provide information on features that should be included in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain accurate predictions. Currently available codes and tools for Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations do not provide an adequate (in accuracy nor precision nor efficiency) framework for practical transport calculations in the context of the air-to-space neutron transport problem. A new Fortran code, High Altitude Transport to Space for Neutrons (HATS-n), is developed and tested to perform high fidelity Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations for this class of problems. Special features of the ...


Luminescence In Lithium Borates, Brant T. Kananen 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Luminescence In Lithium Borates, Brant T. Kananen

Theses and Dissertations

Spectrometry methods are used to identify and characterize point defects in single crystals of lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) and lithium triborate (LiB3O5) doped with silver or copper, and explore the role of these point defects in luminescence. New defects are identified in Ag-doped including: lithium vacancy substitutional-silver-ion defect-pairs (hole trap); isolated lithium vacancies (hole trap); isolated oxygen vacancies (electron trap); interstitial-silver-ion substitutional-silver-ion defect pairs (electron trap); isolated interstitial silver ions (electron trap); and interstitial-silver-ion lithium-vacancy defect pairs (electron trap). Defect models are proposed, and adjustments made to defect models known defects. Defects in ...


Three-Dimensional Imaging Of Cold Atoms In A Magneto-Optical Trap With A Light Field Microscope, Gordon E. Lott 2017 Air Force Institute of Technology

Three-Dimensional Imaging Of Cold Atoms In A Magneto-Optical Trap With A Light Field Microscope, Gordon E. Lott

Theses and Dissertations

Imaging of trapped atoms in three dimensions utilizing a light field microscope is demonstrated in this work. Such a system is of interest in the development of atom interferometer accelerometers in dynamic systems where strictly defined focal planes may be impractical. A light field microscope was constructed utilizing a Lytro® Development Kit micro-lens array and sensor. It was used to image fluorescing rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap. The three-dimensional (3D) volume of the atoms is reconstructed using a modeled point spread function (PSF), taking into consideration the low magnification (1.25) of the system which changed typical assumptions in ...


Modification Of The G-Phonon Mode Of Graphene By Nitrogen Doping, Pavel V. Lukashev, Liuyan Zhao, Tula R. Paudel, Theanne Schiros, Noah Hurley, Evgeny Y. Tsymbal, Aron Pinczuk, Abhay Pasupathy, Rui He 2017 University of Nothern Iowa

Modification Of The G-Phonon Mode Of Graphene By Nitrogen Doping, Pavel V. Lukashev, Liuyan Zhao, Tula R. Paudel, Theanne Schiros, Noah Hurley, Evgeny Y. Tsymbal, Aron Pinczuk, Abhay Pasupathy, Rui He

Pavel Lukashev

The effect of nitrogen doping on the phonon spectra of graphene is analyzed. In particular, we employ first-principles calculations and scanning Raman analysis to investigate the dependence of phonon frequencies in graphene on the concentration of nitrogen dopants. We demonstrate that the G phonon frequency shows oscillatory behavior as a function of nitrogen concentration. We analyze different mechanisms which could potentially be responsible for this behavior, such as Friedel charge oscillations around the localized nitrogen impurity atom, the bond length change between nitrogen impurity and its nearest neighbor carbon atoms, and the long-range interactions of the nitrogen point defects. We ...


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