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Infrared Skin Damage Thresholds From 1319-Nm Continous-Wave Laser Exposures, Gavin D. Buffington, Clifton D. Clark 2016 Fort Hays State University

Infrared Skin Damage Thresholds From 1319-Nm Continous-Wave Laser Exposures, Gavin D. Buffington, Clifton D. Clark

Gavin Buffington

A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ∼0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a ...


Infrared Skin Damage Thresholds From 1319-Nm Continous-Wave Laser Exposures, Gavin D. Buffington, Clifton D. Clark 2016 Fort Hays State University

Infrared Skin Damage Thresholds From 1319-Nm Continous-Wave Laser Exposures, Gavin D. Buffington, Clifton D. Clark

Clifton D. Clark

A series of experiments were conducted in vivo using Yucatan miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) to determine thermal damage thresholds to the skin from 1319-nm continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Experiments employed exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5, and 10 s and beam diameters of ∼0.6 and 1 cm. Thermal imagery data provided a time-dependent surface temperature response from the laser. A damage endpoint of fifty percent probability of a minimally visible effect was used to determine threshold for damage at 1 and 24 h postexposure. Predicted thermal response and damage thresholds are compared with a ...


Fractional Charge Methods For Correcting Approximate Kohn-Sham Potentials, Darya N. Komsa 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Fractional Charge Methods For Correcting Approximate Kohn-Sham Potentials, Darya N. Komsa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The Kohn-Sham density functional theory relies on approximating the exchange-correlation energy functional or the corresponding potential. The behavior of the exchange-correlation potential as a function of position in a system can be used to detect and correct deficiencies of the parent functional. The too-fast decay of the potentials derived from common density functionals is a major problem, because it causes inaccurate Rydberg excitation energies and erroneous fractional charges in dissociating molecules. An efficient method to correct the shape of the exchange-correlation potential was proposed by Gaiduk et al. [A. P. Gaiduk, D. S. Firaha, and V. N. Staroverov, Phys. Rev ...


Multistart Spiral Electron Vortices In Ionization By Circularly Polarized Uv Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Alexei V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multistart Spiral Electron Vortices In Ionization By Circularly Polarized Uv Pulses, Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap, Alexei V. Meremianin, N. L. Manakov, S. X. Hu, L. B. Madsen, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Multistart spiral vortex patterns are predicted for the electron momentum distributions in the polarization plane following ionization of the helium atom by two time-delayed circularly polarized ultrashort laser pulses. For two ultraviolet (UV) pulses having the same frequency (such that two photons are required for ionization), single-color two-photon interferometry with corotating or counter-rotating time-delayed pulses is found to lead respectively to zero-start or four-start spiral vortex patterns in the ionized electron momentum distributions in the polarization plane. In contrast, two-color one-photon plus two-photon interferometry with time-delayed corotating or counter-rotating UV pulses is found to lead respectively to one ...


Observations Of High Vibrational Levels Of The 4fσ 41Σ+ U State Of H2, Alexander M. Chartrand, Robert C. Ekey Jr., Elizabeth F. McCormack 2016 Bryn Mawr College

Observations Of High Vibrational Levels Of The 4fσ 41Σ+ U State Of H2, Alexander M. Chartrand, Robert C. Ekey Jr., Elizabeth F. Mccormack

Physics Faculty Research and Scholarship

Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization via the EF 1Σg+, v′ = 6 double-well state has been used to probe the energy region below the third dissociation limit of H2 where several high vibrational levels of the 41Σu+ state are expected. Theoretical ab initio potential energy curves for this state predict a deep inner well and shallow outer well where vibrational levels above v = 8 are expected to exhibit the double-well character of the state. Since the 41Σu+ state has f-state character, transitions to it from the ground state are nominally forbidden. However ...


Theoretical Analysis Of Single Molecule Spectroscopy Lineshapes Of Conjugated Polymers, Murali Devi 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Theoretical Analysis Of Single Molecule Spectroscopy Lineshapes Of Conjugated Polymers, Murali Devi

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Conjugated Polymers(CPs) exhibit a wide range of highly tunable optical properties. Quantitative and detailed understanding of the nature of excitons responsible for such a rich optical behavior has significant implications for better utilization of CPs for more efficient plastic solar cells and other novel optoelectronic devices. In general, samples of CPs are plagued with substantial inhomogeneous broadening due to various sources of disorder. Single molecule emission spectroscopy (SMES) offers a unique opportunity to investigate the energetics and dynamics of excitons and their interactions with phonon modes. The major subject of the present thesis is to analyze and understand room ...


Model For The Electrolysis Of Water And Its Use For Optimization, Roger Lascorz, Javier E. Hasbun Dr 2016 Georgia Institute of Technology

Model For The Electrolysis Of Water And Its Use For Optimization, Roger Lascorz, Javier E. Hasbun Dr

Georgia Journal of Science

The goal of this research was to study the optimization of the electrolysis of water both theoretically and experimentally. For accuracy, 3 hr experiments were made with measurements recorded every 15 min. The results show that a better model than the classical one is needed for water electrolysis. A new model that fits experimental data better is proposed. The results of this new model not only predict hydrogen production in electrolysis of water better, but show a way to predict gas production of any liquid as well as what voltage to use to optimize it.


Dissociative Excitation Of H2 In An Rf Plasma, John Carlson 2016 Macalester College

Dissociative Excitation Of H2 In An Rf Plasma, John Carlson

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a widely used method for depositing thin films. In order to optimize the properties of the films, it is important to understand the plasma processes that occur during film growth. In this research we use optical emission spectroscopy in order to measure the spectral emission lines of a plasma produced with hydrogen gas. In conjunction with other measurements and modeling, these measurements can provide insight to the electron energy distribution of the plasma.


Numerical Simulations Of High-Dimensional Mode-Coupling Models In Molecular Dynamics, Kyle Lewis Liss 2016 Dickinson College

Numerical Simulations Of High-Dimensional Mode-Coupling Models In Molecular Dynamics, Kyle Lewis Liss

Honors Theses By Year

A fundamental question in molecular dynamics is the following: Given some bond-localized excitation of a molecule, what will be the pathway and rate of energy ow throughout the molecule's various degrees of freedom? This notion of vibrational energy transfer throughout a molecule is referred to as intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) and has been a long-standing subject of interest in physical chemistry. Historically, IVR has been studied on a case-by-case basis. However, the essence of IVR for any molecular system is an anharmonic potential energy surface that causes dynamics in which the system's many degrees of freedom are coupled ...


A Cylindrically Symmetric “Micro-Mott” Electron Polarimeter, Nathan B. Clayburn, Evan M. Brunkow, S. J. Burtwistle, George H. Rutherford, Timothy J. Gay 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Cylindrically Symmetric “Micro-Mott” Electron Polarimeter, Nathan B. Clayburn, Evan M. Brunkow, S. J. Burtwistle, George H. Rutherford, Timothy J. Gay

Timothy J. Gay Publications

A small, novel, cylindrically symmetric Mott electron polarimeter is described. The effective Sherman function, Seff , or analyzing power, for 20 kV Au target bias with a 1.3 keV energy loss window is 0.16 ± 0.01, where uncertainty in the measurement is due primarily to uncertainty in the incident electron polarization. For an energy loss window of 0.5 keV, Seff reaches its maximum value of 0.24 ± 0.02. The device’s maximum efficiency, I/Io, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle rate, is 3.7 ± 0.2 ...


Development Of A Digital Offset Laser Lock, Ian W. Hage 2016 College of William and Mary

Development Of A Digital Offset Laser Lock, Ian W. Hage

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

An offset laser lock is an optoelectronic system capable of stabilizing a laser's optical frequency to a variable offset from another stable laser's frequency. The lock system described in this report relies on a digital frequency comparison of the beat note of two lasers to determine and fix the frequency difference, or offset, between them. This thesis describes the construction of a configurable proportional-integral (PI) control circuit to regulate a laser's frequency based on the error signal generated by a digital comparison of the beat note frequency, as well as the integration of formerly unconnected circuit elements ...


Increasing Quantum Limited Sensitivity Of Interferometers Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, Hunter Blake Rew 2016 College of William and Mary

Increasing Quantum Limited Sensitivity Of Interferometers Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, Hunter Blake Rew

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

We explore the properties of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and its applications as a frequency filter in the field of gravitational wave interferometry. Through modeling and simulation, we determine parameters for atom-light configurations of multi- state atoms which will theoretically allow for transmission frequencies and intensities of squeezed light in a range suitable for increasing sensitiviy levels in gravitational wave interferometers. This corresponds to contrasts greater than 50% and linewidths of 100 Hz or less. We produce EIT experimentally and characterize the distributions by fitting them to a generalized Lorentzian. The largest contrast observed is 3.9% with a linewidth ...


Improving Optical Gyroscope Sensitivity Using A Fast Light Regime, Owen R. Wolfe 2016 College of William and Mary

Improving Optical Gyroscope Sensitivity Using A Fast Light Regime, Owen R. Wolfe

College of William & Mary Undergraduate Honors Theses

Optical gyroscopes use Sagnac interferometry to make precise measurements of angular velocity. In- creased gyroscope sensitivity will allow for more accurate control of aerospace systems and allow for more precise measurements of the Earth's rotation. Severalfold improvements to optical gyroscope sensitivity were predicted for fast light regimes (ng < 1). We evaluated the feasibility of these improvements in the N-bar dual pump scheme in 87Rb vapor. We were able to modify the stimulated gyroscope response via tuning the experimental parameters. Gyroscope sensitivity was shown to be dependent on several parameters including pump power, pump detuning, and vapor density.


Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, Luke Horowitz 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion Of Photons Through Β-Barium Borate, Luke Horowitz

Physics

An apparatus for detecting pairs of entangled 405nm photons that have undergone Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion through β-Barium Borate is described. By using avalanche photo-diodes to detect the low-intensity converted beam and a coincidence module to register coincident photons, it is possible to create an apparatus than can be used to perform quantum information experiments under a budget appropriate for an undergraduate physics lab.


Ultracold Trimer Ion Formation Of Rb And K, Michael Cantara 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Ultracold Trimer Ion Formation Of Rb And K, Michael Cantara

University Scholar Projects

The cooling of molecules into the ultracold regime allows for high resolution laser spectroscopy that reveals their complex rotational and vibrational structure. As the temperature is lowered towards absolute zero, the kinetic energy of the particles approaches zero, and therefore the Doppler shift approaches zero. With the Doppler shift negligibly small, spectral resolution is now primarily limited by the natural linewidth of the molecular peaks. Further, ultracold temperatures make possible the production of atoms or molecules that will reside in the lowest few states of the system. The high population in a few select states provides stronger and less congested ...


Quantum Mechanical Interference In The Field Ionization Of Rydberg Atoms, Jacob A. Hollingsworth 2016 Ursinus College

Quantum Mechanical Interference In The Field Ionization Of Rydberg Atoms, Jacob A. Hollingsworth

Physics and Astronomy Honors Papers

Rydberg atoms are traditionally alkali metal atoms with their valence electron excited to a state of very large principle quantum number. They possess exaggerated properties, and are consequently an attractive area of study for physicists. An example of their exaggerated properties is seen in their response to the presence of an applied electric field. In this work, we study the energy distribution of Rydberg atoms when subjected to a dynamic electric field intended to ionize them.

We excite 85Rb atoms to a superposition of the 46D5/2 |mj| = 1/2 and |mj| = 3/2 states in ...


Diffractive Imaging Of A Rotational Wavepacket In Nitrogen Molecules With Femtosecond Megaelectronvolt Electron Pulses, Jie Yang, Markus Guehr, Theodore Vecchione, Matthew S. Robinson, Renkai Li, Nick Hartmann, Xiaozhe Shen, Ryan Coffee, Jeff Corbett, Alan Fry, Kelly Gaffney, Tais Gorkhover, Carsten Hast, Keith Jobe, Igor Makasyuk, Alexander Reid, Joseph Robinson, Sharon Vetter, Fenglin Wang, Stephen Weathersby, Charles Yoneda, Martin Centurion, Xijie Wang 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Diffractive Imaging Of A Rotational Wavepacket In Nitrogen Molecules With Femtosecond Megaelectronvolt Electron Pulses, Jie Yang, Markus Guehr, Theodore Vecchione, Matthew S. Robinson, Renkai Li, Nick Hartmann, Xiaozhe Shen, Ryan Coffee, Jeff Corbett, Alan Fry, Kelly Gaffney, Tais Gorkhover, Carsten Hast, Keith Jobe, Igor Makasyuk, Alexander Reid, Joseph Robinson, Sharon Vetter, Fenglin Wang, Stephen Weathersby, Charles Yoneda, Martin Centurion, Xijie Wang

Martin Centurion Publications

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Fabrication And Characterization Of Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides, Peter Kosch, Zhiyong Xiao, Xia Hong 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fabrication And Characterization Of Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides, Peter Kosch, Zhiyong Xiao, Xia Hong

UCARE Research Products

The goal of my research was to mechanically exfoliate single to few atomic layer samples of Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2 ), Tungsten Diselenide (WSe2 ), and Tungsten Disulfide (WS2 ) and characterize these 2D materials by multiple methods. I used Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Optical Microscopy to accomplish this. In addition, I measured the electrical properties of the exfoliated materials by fabricating a device and taking basic measurements.


Manipulation Of Beams Of Ultra-Relativistic Electrons To Create Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses, Jordan T. O'Neal, Austin Schulte, Rafal Rakowski, Matthias Fuchs 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Manipulation Of Beams Of Ultra-Relativistic Electrons To Create Femtosecond X-Ray Pulses, Jordan T. O'Neal, Austin Schulte, Rafal Rakowski, Matthias Fuchs

UCARE Research Products

The research proposed here is expected to result in a crucial component used in a next-generation X-ray source. Typical conventional high-brightness X-ray sources (so-called synchrotron lightsources) are up to 30 football fields in size. Our group uses a novel technique based on ultrahigh-power lasers to develop a similar source that can readily fit into a single, university-scale laboratory. More specifically, the research conducted within this proposal will be concerned with the manipulation of beams of ultra-relativistic electrons, (electrons that move with almost the speed of light) with the goal to focus the particles into an area that is smaller than ...


Cebaf Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements, Mahmoud Mohamad Ali Ahmad 2016 Old Dominion University

Cebaf Upgrade Bunch Length Measurements, Mahmoud Mohamad Ali Ahmad

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Many accelerators use short electron bunches and measuring the bunch length is important for efficient operations. CEBAF needs a suitable bunch length because bunches that are too long will result in beam interruption to the halls due to excessive energy spread and beam loss. In this work, bunch length is measured by invasive and non-invasive techniques at different beam energies. Two new measurement techniques have been commissioned; a harmonic cavity showed good results compared to expectations from simulation, and a real time interferometer is commissioned and first checkouts were performed. Three other techniques were used for measurements and comparison purposes ...


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