Locality And Nonlocality In The Interaction-Free Measurement, 2018 Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

#### Locality And Nonlocality In The Interaction-Free Measurement, Daniel Rohrlich, Yakir Aharonov, Tomer Landsberger

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

We present a paradox involving a particle and a mirror. They exchange a nonlocal quantity, modular angular momentum L_{z} mod 2ћ, but there seems to be no local interaction between them that allows such an exchange. We demonstrate that the particle and mirror do interact locally via a weak local current 〈L_{z} mod 2ћ〉_{w}. In this sense, we transform the “interaction-free measurement” of Elitzur and Vaidman, in which two local quantities (the positions of a photon and a bomb in the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) interact nonlocally, into a thought experiment in which two nonlocal ...

Scattering Of Few Photon Fields By Two Level Systems In A One Dimensional Geometry, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Scattering Of Few Photon Fields By Two Level Systems In A One Dimensional Geometry, William Konyk

*Theses and Dissertations*

Recent experimental progress has realized strong, efficient coupling of effective two level systems to waveguides. We study the scattering of multimode photons from such emitters coupled losslessly to the confined geometry of a one dimensional waveguide. We develop novel techniques for describing the scattered state of both single and multi-photon wavepackets and explore how such wavepackets interact with arrays of emitters coupled to a one dimensional waveguide. Finally, we apply these techniques and analyze the capability of two particular systems to act as a quantum conditional logic gate.

The Relationship Between Electrical Conductivity And Magnetically Damped Motion, 2018 Queensland Academy SMT

#### The Relationship Between Electrical Conductivity And Magnetically Damped Motion, Kalem Akhtar

*The International Student Science Fair 2018*

Varying electrical conductivities of different, non-magnetic metals appears to affect the magnitude of magnetically damped motion. To determine the relationship between magnetic damping and conductivity an experiment was designed using different length tubes of aluminium, copper and brass. The tubes had the same diameter and similar wall thickness. A short, cylindrical neodymium magnet was dropped through the tubes of and the time for the magnet to traverse the tube was recorded using a smartphone camera. These times allowed for the terminal velocity to be calculated for each metal length and the average terminal velocity for each metal was determined. This ...

Electricity, Light And Semiconductors, 2018 Fort Richmond Collegiate

#### Electricity, Light And Semiconductors, Josephine Zhao

*The International Student Science Fair 2018*

As technology advanced these days, computers are playing a more and more important role in our daily life; especially in those areas that requires higher technology, for example, aerospace. And as computers keep developing, they tend to be smaller and lighter but much more sufficient. It is the base stone of modern information era. A CPU is the brain of a computer, and as the computers get smaller and smaller, the CPUs are getting smaller and smaller, using semiconductors. Semiconductors have many properties that is extremely useful to human, their conductivity are controlled by their environment, and therefore are adaptable ...

The Relationship Between Electrical Conductivity And Magnetically Damped Motion, 2018 Queensland Academy SMT

#### The Relationship Between Electrical Conductivity And Magnetically Damped Motion, Kalem Akhtar

*The International Student Science Fair 2018*

Varying electrical conductivities of different, non-magnetic metals appears to affect the magnitude of magnetically damped motion. To determine the relationship between magnetic damping and conductivity an experiment was designed using different length tubes of aluminium, copper and brass. The tubes had the same diameter and similar wall thickness. A short, cylindrical neodymium magnet was dropped through the tubes of and the time for the magnet to traverse the tube was recorded using a smartphone camera. These times allowed for the terminal velocity to be calculated for each metal length and the average terminal velocity for each metal was determined. This ...

Light, Electricity And Semiconductors, 2018 Fort Richmond Collegiate

#### Light, Electricity And Semiconductors, Josephine Zhao

*The International Student Science Fair 2018*

No abstract provided.

Lattice Scales From Gradient Flow And Chiral Analysis On The Milc Collaboration's Hisq Ensembles, 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

#### Lattice Scales From Gradient Flow And Chiral Analysis On The Milc Collaboration's Hisq Ensembles, Nathan Joseph Brown

*Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

The interactions of quarks and gluons form most of the visible matter around us. Yet, extracting precise predictions from the field theory describing them, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is notoriously difficult. By simulating the QCD interaction on a Euclidean space time lattice, the field theory can be regularized non-perturbatively and familiar statistical techniques from classical statistical mechanics can be applied. Then, by systematically improving each component of the process, high precision results can be obtained. Some of the possible components to be improved include the discretization of the continuum action, the determination of the lattice scale(s), the generation of gauge ...

Endorectal Digital Prostate Tomosynthesis, 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Endorectal Digital Prostate Tomosynthesis, Joseph Robert Steiner

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

Several areas of prostate cancer (PCa) management, such as imaging permanent brachytherapy implants or small, aggressive lesions, benefit from high image resolution. Current PCa imaging methods can have inadequate resolution for imaging these areas. Endorectal digital prostate tomosynthesis (endoDPT), an imaging method that combines an external x-ray source and an endorectal x-ray sensor, can produce three-dimensional images of the prostate region that have high image resolution compared to typical methods. This high resolution may improve PCa management and increase positive outcomes in affected men.

This dissertation presents the initial development of endoDPT, including system design, image quality assessment, and examples ...

Investigating Student Understanding Of Vector Calculus In Upper-Division Electricity And Magnetism: Construction And Determination Of Differential Element In Non-Cartesian Coordinate Systems, 2018 University of Maine

#### Investigating Student Understanding Of Vector Calculus In Upper-Division Electricity And Magnetism: Construction And Determination Of Differential Element In Non-Cartesian Coordinate Systems, Benjamin Schermerhorn

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Differential length, area, and volume elements appear ubiquitously over the course of upper-division electricity and magnetism (E&M), used to sum the effects of or determine expressions for electric or magnetic fields. Given the plethora of tasks with spherical and cylindrical symmetry, non-Cartesian coordinates are commonly used, which include scaling factors as coefficients for the differential terms to account for the curvature of space. Furthermore, the application to vector fields means differential lengths and areas are vector quantities. So far, little of the education research in E&M has explored student understanding and construction of the non-Cartesian differential elements used in applications of vector calculus. This study contributes to the research base on the learning and teaching of these quantities.

Following course observations of junior-level E&M, targeted investigations were conducted to categorize student understanding of the properties of these differentials as they are constructed in a coordinate system without a physics context and as they are determined within common physics tasks. In general, students did not have a strong understanding of the geometry of non-Cartesian coordinate systems. However, students who were able to construct differential area and volume elements as a product of differential lengths within a given coordinate system were more successful when applying vector calculus. The results of this study were used to develop preliminary instructional resources to aid in the teaching of this material.

Lastly, this dissertation presents a theoretical model developed within the context of this study to describe students’ construction and interpretation of equations. The model joins existing theoretical frameworks: symbolic forms, used to describe students’ representational understanding of the structure of the constructed equation; and conceptual blending, which has been used to describe the ways in which students combine mathematics and physics knowledge when problem solving. In addition to providing a coherent picture for how the students in this study connect contextual information to symbolic representations, this model is broadly applicable as an analytical lens and allows for a detailed reinterpretation of similar analyses using these frameworks.

Vibrational Relaxation Theory For Systems Embedded In Microscopically Specified Reservoirs, 2018 University of New Mexico

#### Vibrational Relaxation Theory For Systems Embedded In Microscopically Specified Reservoirs, Anastasia Aemilia Ierides

*Physics & Astronomy ETDs*

This dissertation is a study of the theoretical framework of the practical as well as fundamental problem of the process of relaxation to equilibrium of quantum mechanical systems. The fundamental aspect is concerned with the simultaneous occurrence of decoherence and population equilibration. The practical aspect deals with experimental observations of vibrational relaxation of molecules embedded in liquids or solids. The systems include, but are not limited to, the nondegenerate dimer and harmonic oscillator, in one case weak and in the other strong, interaction with a thermal bath. The time dependence of the energy and the temperature dependence of the relaxation ...

Atmospheric Radiation And Tgfs: Unexplained Radiation In Our Skies, 2018 Harding University

#### Atmospheric Radiation And Tgfs: Unexplained Radiation In Our Skies, Adrian Gallegos

*Honors College Research*

There is a significant correlation between atmospheric electrification via thunderstorms and the occurrence of large emissions of x-ray and gamma ray radiation known as Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes (TGFs). Some physical phenomenon may be explained by either the RREA or Thermal Runaway models, but the scientific community as a whole is still largely at work on the theoretical frameworks.

Quasiprobability Behind The Out-Of-Time-Ordered Correlator, 2018 California Institute of Technology

#### Quasiprobability Behind The Out-Of-Time-Ordered Correlator, Nicole Yunger Halpern, Brian Swingle, Justin Dressel

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

Two topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: the out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC was shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability [Yunger Halpern, Phys. Rev. A 95, 012120 (2017)]. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze Yunger Halpern's weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of ...

Hyperpolarization Of Silicon Nanoparticles With Tempo Radicals, 2018 University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

#### Hyperpolarization Of Silicon Nanoparticles With Tempo Radicals, Jingzhe Hu, Nicholas Whiting, Pratip Bhattacharya

*Nicholas Whiting*

Rental Property Energy Efficiency In San Luis Obispo, 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

#### Rental Property Energy Efficiency In San Luis Obispo, Zachary Earl Shockley

*Physics*

In the modern era, many people choose to rent homes instead of purchasing a home. College towns have an even more disproportionate number of renters when compared to other cities. The majority of rental properties are much less energy efficient than their owner-occupied counterparts. This project analyzes the energy efficiency issues of rental properties in San Luis Obispo and examines potential ways to remedy these issues. In order to analyze these issues, the guiding principles of building science are first discussed, followed by case studies of rental properties in San Luis Obispo. These case studies examine multiple rental properties and ...

Physical Models Of The Toroidal Dipole, 2018 California Institute of Technology

#### Physical Models Of The Toroidal Dipole, Armian Hanelli, Amanuel Eshete, Jorge Del Carpio, Walerian Majewski

*Exigence*

We have investigated two models of the third elementary electromagnetic dipole, known as the toroidal dipole. Its magnetic realization is a circumferentially magnetized ring constructed of neodymium. The electric model of the dipole is a toroidal coil connected to a DC voltage. The electric and magnetic toroids produce only an inner magnetic field, inside the torus, and interact only on contact with the electric current density or when immersed in a time-dependent electric field. We studied the characteristics of a permanent-magnet toroid, and observed the influence of electric and magnetic fields on it. A static toroidal dipole moment of this ...

Optimization Of Design Procedures For Delta Relaxation Enhanced Magnetic Resonance, 2018 The University of Western Ontario

#### Optimization Of Design Procedures For Delta Relaxation Enhanced Magnetic Resonance, Daniel J. Martire

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Delta relaxation enhanced magnetic resonance (dreMR) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that produces contrast based on longitudinal relaxation dispersion. Through modulation of the magnetic field using an actively-shielded, field-cycling insert coil, this technique increases probe specificity and suppresses remaining signal. However, significant improvements are needed. This thesis addresses two advancements in dreMR with a focus on optimizing design procedures. A general procedure was developed to design split power solenoid magnets. The procedure was then applied to the design of a switched-field exposure system. A coil was constructed and the method was validated. This procedure can be used for ...

Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, 2018 Louisiana State University

#### Benefit Of Intensity Modulated Bolus Electron Conformal Therapy For Post Mastectomy Chest Wall Irradiation, John Doiron

*LSU Master's Theses*

**Purpose:** The delivery of post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) with bolus electron conformal therapy (BECT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer can reduce second cancer complication probability (SCCP) compared to modern rotational intensity modulated x-ray (IMXT) techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or Tomotherapy. However, rotational IMXT yields superior levels of dose homogeneity compared to BECT. This study investigates the use of intensity modulated (IM) BECT (IM-BECT) to improve dose homogeneity in the chest wall (CW) region of the PMRT planning target volume (PTV) abutted to parallel opposed IMXT tangents for the remaining PTV for a clinically-representative set of patients ...

Geodesic Structure In Schwarzschild Geometry With Extensions In Higher Dimensional Spacetimes, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Geodesic Structure In Schwarzschild Geometry With Extensions In Higher Dimensional Spacetimes, Ian M. Newsome

*Theses and Dissertations*

From Birkoff's theorem, the geometry in four spacetime dimensions outside a spherically symmetric and static, gravitating source must be given by the Schwarzschild metric. This metric therefore satisfies the Einstein vacuum equations. If the mass which gives rise to the Schwarzschild spacetime geometry is concentrated within a radius of *r=2M*, a black hole will form. Non-accelerating particles (freely falling) traveling through this geometry will do so along parametrized curves called geodesics, which are curved space generalizations of straight paths. These geodesics can be found by solving the geodesic equation. In this thesis, the geodesic structure in the Schwarzschild ...

Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, 2018 Claremont McKenna College

#### Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett

*CMC Senior Theses*

Fossils belonging to the genus *Homo*, dating as far back as two million years ago, exhibit uniquely efficient features suggesting that early humans had evolved to become exceptional endurance runners. Although they did not have the cushion or stability-control features provided in our modern day running shoes, our early human ancestors experienced far less of the running-related injuries we experience today. The injury rate has been estimated as high as 90% annually for Americans training for a marathon and as high as 79% annually for all American endurance runners. There is an injury epidemic in conventionally shod populations that does ...

Emergent Phenomena In Quantum Critical Systems, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### Emergent Phenomena In Quantum Critical Systems, Kun Chen

*Doctoral Dissertations*

A quantum critical point (QCP) is a point in the phase diagram of quantum matter where a continuous phase transition takes place at zero temperature. Low-dimensional quantum critical systems are strongly correlated, therefore hosting nontrivial emergent phenomena. In this thesis, we first address two decades-old problems on quantum critical dynamics. We then reveal two novel emergent phenomena of quantum critical impurity problems. In the first part of the thesis, we address the linear response dynamics of the $(2+1)$-dimensional $O(2)$ quantum critical universality class, which can be realized in the ultracold bosonic system near the superfluid (SF) to ...