Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, 2017 University of Dayton

#### Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, Redha A. Ali, Russell C. Hardie

*Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications*

In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm for video denoising that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy. The proposed method is based on non-local means (NLM). NLM methods have been applied successfully in various image denoising applications. In the single-frame NLM method, each output pixel is formed as a weighted sum of the center pixels of neighboring patches, within a given search window.

The weights are based on the patch intensity vector distances. The process requires computing vector distances for all of the patches in the search window. Direct extension of this method from 2D to 3D, for video ...

Electromagnetic Resonant Scattering In Layered Media With Fabrication Errors, 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Electromagnetic Resonant Scattering In Layered Media With Fabrication Errors, Emily Anne Mchenry

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

In certain layered electromagnetic media, one can construct a waveguide that supports a harmonic electromagnetic field at a frequency that is embedded in the continuous spectrum. When the structure is perturbed, this embedded eigenvalue moves into the complex plane and becomes a “complex resonance” frequency. The real and imaginary parts of this complex frequency have physical meaning. They lie behind anomalous scattering behaviors known collectively as “Fano resonance”, and people are interested in tuning them to specific values in optical devices. The mathematics involves spectral theory and analytic perturbation theory and is well understood [16], at least on a theoretical ...

Nonlinear Optical Studies Of Defects And Domain Structures In Perovskite-Type Dielectric Ceramics, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Nonlinear Optical Studies Of Defects And Domain Structures In Perovskite-Type Dielectric Ceramics, David J. Ascienzo

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In order to improve future generations of dielectric capacitors a deeper understanding of voltage-induced dielectric breakdown and electrical energy storage limitations is required. This dissertation presents the use of far-field optical second harmonic generation (SHG) polarimetry for probing structural defects and polar domains in linear and nonlinear perovskite dielectric ceramics. We investigated the formation of electric field-induced structural distortions at pristine *Fe*-doped *SrTiO _{3} *(Fe:STO) electrode interfaces, structural defect and strain formation due to oxygen vacancy migration in electrodegraded Fe:STO single crystals, and mixed tetragonal and rhombohedral phase domains in ferroelectric

*Zr*-doped

*BaTiO*(BZT) films ...

_{3}Raman Spectroscopy Of Oxygen Evolution Catalysts And Psii Manganese Model Compounds, 2017 Purdue University

#### Raman Spectroscopy Of Oxygen Evolution Catalysts And Psii Manganese Model Compounds, Sergei Shmakov, Daniel A. Hartzler, Alireza Karbakhsh Ravari, Yulia Pushkar

*The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium*

Photosynthesis is the basis of life on earth, and oxygen evolution catalysts are key components of this complicated, yet not fully understood process. Photosystem II, a large membrane bound pigment-protein complex, is the key system that facilitates oxygenic photosynthesis via the oxygen evolving complex (a natural oxygen evolving catalyst). It is a key component in oxygen producing catalysts, which can be used in fields such as energy production and biomimetic catalysts. The oxygen evolution cycle, or Kok cycle going within it is still not studied completely. In this project, we were studying the vibrational (and structural) state of a Manganese ...

Nanoscale Tilt Measurement Using A Cyclic Interferometer With Phase Stepping And Multiple Reflections, 2017 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

#### Nanoscale Tilt Measurement Using A Cyclic Interferometer With Phase Stepping And Multiple Reflections, Tahereh Naderishahab

*Graduate Theses - Physics and Optical Engineering*

High accuracy tilt or roll angle measurement is required for a variety of engineering and scientific applications. Optical interferometry is normally used because it is non-contact and can measure tilt with a very high degree of accuracy. In this thesis, a cyclic interferometer has been developed with four mirrors to measure tilt angles as small as a few nanoradians. To measure the phase, a novel and simple method of phase shift by polarization was developed to enhance measurement sensitivity and accuracy. Since the cyclic interferometer is insensitive to external vibrations and turbulences, polarization phase step was accomplished with relative ease ...

Optimizing An Electron's Path To Ionization Using A Genetic Algorithm, 2017 Ursinus College

#### Optimizing An Electron's Path To Ionization Using A Genetic Algorithm, Jason Bennett, Kevin Choice

*Physics and Astronomy Summer Fellows*

A Rydberg atom is an atom with a highly excited and weakly bound valence electron. A widespread method of studying quantum mechanics with Rydberg atoms is to ionize the electron and measure its arrival time. We use a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to control the electron's path to ionization. The Rydberg electron's energy levels are strongly shifted by the presence of an electric field. The energy levels shift and curve, but never cross. At an avoided crossing the electron can jump from one level to the next. By engineering the electric field's time dependence, we thereby control the ...

R&D Of A High-Performance Dirc Detector For A Future Electron-Ion Collider, 2017 Old Dominion University

#### R&D Of A High-Performance Dirc Detector For A Future Electron-Ion Collider, Stacey Lee Allison

*Physics Theses & Dissertations*

An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is proposed as the next big scientific facility to be built in the United States, costing over $1 billion in design and construction. Each detector concept for the electron/ion beam interaction point is integrated into a large solenoidal magnet. The necessity for excellent hadronic particle identification (pion/kaon/proton) in the barrel region of the solenoid has pushed research and development (R&D) towards a new, high-performance Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) detector design. The passage of a high energy charged particle through a fused silica bar of the DIRC generates optical Cherenkov ...

Comparison Of Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperatures, 2017 Utah State University

#### Comparison Of Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperatures, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Tao Yuan, Neal R. Criddle

*Leda Sox*

No abstract provided.

Growth And Magnetooptical Properties Of Anisotropic Tbf3 Single Crystals, 2017 Wuhan University

#### Growth And Magnetooptical Properties Of Anisotropic Tbf3 Single Crystals, Uygun V. Valiev, Denis N. Karimov, Gary W. Burdick, Rakhim Rakhimov, Vasiliy O. Pelenovich, Dejun Fu

*Faculty Publications*

The present paper investigates the Faraday effect and absorption and luminescence spectra of single-crystal TbF_{3} measured at 90 K and 300 K. The optical-quality single-phase TbF_{3} crystals (structural type *β*-YF3) were grown by the Bridgman technique. Faraday rotation angles were measured at remagnetization along the [100] crystallographic axis. Low temperature optical measurements were carried out along the [100] axis. “Quasi-doublet” sublevels with energy at 0 cm^{-1}, 65 cm^{-1} and 190 cm^{-1}, and also a singlet sublevel with energy at 114 cm^{-1} located in the ground 7F6 multiplet were determined from the low temperature ...

On The Simulation And Mitigation Of Anisoplanatic Optical Turbulence For Long Range Imaging, 2017 University of Dayton

#### On The Simulation And Mitigation Of Anisoplanatic Optical Turbulence For Long Range Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Daniel A. Lemaster

*Russell C. Hardie*

We describe a numerical wave propagation method for simulating long range imaging of an extended scene under anisoplanatic conditions. Our approach computes an array of point spread functions (PSFs) for a 2D grid on the object plane. The PSFs are then used in a spatially varying weighted sum operation, with an ideal image, to produce a simulated image with realistic optical turbulence degradation. To validate the simulation we compare simulated outputs with the theoretical anisoplanatic tilt correlation and differential tilt variance. This is in addition to comparing the long- and short-exposure PSFs, and isoplanatic angle. Our validation analysis shows an ...

Analysis Of Various Classification Techniques For Computer Aided Detection System Of Pulmonary Nodules In Ct, 2017 University of Dayton

#### Analysis Of Various Classification Techniques For Computer Aided Detection System Of Pulmonary Nodules In Ct, Barath Narayanan Narayanan, Russell C. Hardie, Temesguen Messay

*Russell C. Hardie*

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. It usually exhibits its presence with the formation of pulmonary nodules. Nodules are round or oval-shaped growth present in the lung. Computed Tomography (CT) scans are used by radiologists to detect such nodules. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) of such nodules would aid in providing a second opinion to the radiologists and would be of valuable help in lung cancer screening. In this research, we study various feature selection methods for the CAD system framework proposed in FlyerScan. Algorithmic steps of FlyerScan include (i) local contrast enhancement (ii ...

Comparing Multiple Turbulence Restoration Algorithms Performance On Noisy Anisoplanatic Imagery, 2017 Air Force Research Laboratory

#### Comparing Multiple Turbulence Restoration Algorithms Performance On Noisy Anisoplanatic Imagery, Michael Armand Rucci, Russell C. Hardie, Alexander J. Dapore

*Russell C. Hardie*

In this paper, we compare the performance of multiple turbulence mitigation algorithms to restore imagery degraded by atmospheric turbulence and camera noise. In order to quantify and compare algorithm performance, imaging scenes were simulated by applying noise and varying levels of turbulence. For the simulation, a Monte-Carlo wave optics approach is used to simulate the spatially and temporally varying turbulence in an image sequence. A Poisson-Gaussian noise mixture model is then used to add noise to the observed turbulence image set. These degraded image sets are processed with three separate restoration algorithms: Lucky Look imaging, bispectral speckle imaging, and a ...

Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising With Poisson-Gaussian Noise, 2017 University of Dayton

#### Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising With Poisson-Gaussian Noise, Redha A. Almahdi, Russell C. Hardie

*Russell C. Hardie*

In this paper, we describe a new recursive Non-Local means (RNLM) algorithm for video denoising that has been developed by the current authors. Furthermore, we extend this work by incorporating a Poisson-Gaussian noise model. Our new RNLM method provides a computationally efficient means for video denoising, and yields improved performance compared with the single frame NLM and BM3D benchmarks methods. Non-Local means (NLM) based methods of denoising have been applied successfully in various image and video sequence denoising applications. However, direct extension of this method from 2D to 3D for video processing can be computationally demanding. The RNLM approach takes ...

Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, 2017 University of Dayton

#### Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, Redha A. Ali, Russell C. Hardie

*Russell C. Hardie*

In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm for video denoising that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy. The proposed method is based on non-local means (NLM). NLM methods have been applied successfully in various image denoising applications. In the single-frame NLM method, each output pixel is formed as a weighted sum of the center pixels of neighboring patches, within a given search window. The weights are based on the patch intensity vector distances. The process requires computing vector distances for all of the patches in the search window. Direct extension of this method from 2D to 3D, for video ...

Simulation Of Anisoplanatic Imaging Through Optical Turbulence Using Numerical Wave Propagation With New Validation Analysis, 2017 University of Dayton

#### Simulation Of Anisoplanatic Imaging Through Optical Turbulence Using Numerical Wave Propagation With New Validation Analysis, Russell C. Hardie, Jonathan D. Power, Daniel A. Lemaster, Douglas R. Droege, Szymon Gladysz, Santasri Bose-Pillai

*Russell C. Hardie*

We present a numerical wave propagation method for simulating imaging of an extended scene under anisoplanatic conditions. While isoplanatic simulation is relatively common, few tools are specifically designed for simulating the imaging of extended scenes under anisoplanatic conditions. We provide a complete description of the proposed simulation tool, including the wave propagation method used. Our approach computes an array of point spread functions (PSFs) for a two-dimensional grid on the object plane. The PSFs are then used in a spatially varying weighted sum operation, with an ideal image, to produce a simulated image with realistic optical turbulence degradation. The degradation ...

Block Matching And Wiener Filtering Approach To Optical Turbulence Mitigation And Its Application To Simulated And Real Imagery With Quantitative Error Analysis, 2017 University of Dayton

#### Block Matching And Wiener Filtering Approach To Optical Turbulence Mitigation And Its Application To Simulated And Real Imagery With Quantitative Error Analysis, Russell C. Hardie, Michael Armand Rucci, Barry K. Karch, Alexander J. Dapore

*Russell C. Hardie*

We present a block-matching and Wiener filtering approach to atmospheric turbulence mitigation for long-range imaging of extended scenes. We evaluate the proposed method, along with some benchmark methods, using simulated and real-image sequences. The simulated data are generated with a simulation tool developed by one of the authors. These data provide objective truth and allow for quantitative error analysis. The proposed turbulence mitigation method takes a sequence of short-exposure frames of a static scene and outputs a single restored image. A block-matching registration algorithm is used to provide geometric correction for each of the individual input frames. The registered frames ...

Design And Implementation Of A Microscope Based On Magneto-Optic Effects, 2017 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

#### Design And Implementation Of A Microscope Based On Magneto-Optic Effects, Yuxuan Liu

*Graduate Theses - Physics and Optical Engineering*

When light passes through a medium that is subjected to a strong magnetic field, its polarization state may change due to magneto-optic effects such as Faraday rotation. An imaging system based on this polarization change is designed and constructed. The imaging system is built around a magnetic pulse field generator and able to detect polarization change of the incident light due to magneto-optic effects. An automated scheme is implemented using LabView. The program is developed to integrate all hardware and conduct multiple measurements automatically to enhance sensitivity. Basic testing measurements are conducted to evaluate the performance of the system. A ...

Quantum Optical Interferometry And Quantum State Engineering, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Quantum Optical Interferometry And Quantum State Engineering, Richard J. Birrittella Jr

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We highlight some of our research done in the fields of quantum optical interferometry and quantum state engineering. We discuss the body of work for which our research is predicated, as well as discuss some of the fundamental tenants of the theory of phase estimation. We do this in the context of quantum optical interferometry where our primary interest lies in the calculation of the quantum Fisher information as it has been shown that the minimum phase uncertainty obtained, the quantum Cramer-Rao bound, is saturated by parity-based detection methods. We go on to show that the phase uncertainty one obtains ...

Wave Propagation Inside Random Media, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Wave Propagation Inside Random Media, Xiaojun Cheng

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This thesis presents results of studies of wave scattering within and transmission through random and periodic systems. The main focus is on energy profiles inside quasi-1D and 1D random media.

The connection between transport and the states of the medium is manifested in the equivalence of the dimensionless conductance, g, and the Thouless number which is the ratio of the average linewidth and spacing of energy levels. This equivalence and theories regarding the energy profiles inside random media are based on the assumption that LDOS is uniform throughout the samples. We have conducted microwave measurements of the longitudinal energy profiles ...

Optical Physics Of Rifle Scopes, 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

#### Optical Physics Of Rifle Scopes, Ryan Perry

*Physics*

Optical systems are typically consist of multiple lenses and mirrors and are used in a wide variety of fields. While there exist a variety of setups, there are a few key concepts that are at the core of all of them. These could be used from the most advanced scientific research to a simple magnifying glass. They are also used in industry and consumer products such as glasses and cameras. We are going to go over these key concepts and show how they apply to telescopes, or more specifically rifle scopes. First, we will go over Snell's Law of ...