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Enabling Autonomous Navigation For Affordable Scooters, Kaikai Liu, Rajathswaroop Mulky 2018 San Jose State University

Enabling Autonomous Navigation For Affordable Scooters, Kaikai Liu, Rajathswaroop Mulky

Faculty Publications

Despite the technical success of existing assistive technologies, for example, electric wheelchairs and scooters, they are still far from effective enough in helping those in need navigate to their destinations in a hassle-free manner. In this paper, we propose to improve the safety and autonomy of navigation by designing a cutting-edge autonomous scooter, thus allowing people with mobility challenges to ambulate independently and safely in possibly unfamiliar surroundings. We focus on indoor navigation scenarios for the autonomous scooter where the current location, maps, and nearby obstacles are unknown. To achieve semi-LiDAR functionality, we leverage the gyros-based pose data to compensate ...


Developing Photoacoustic Tomography Devices For Translational Medicine And Basic Science Research, Tsz Wai Wong 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Developing Photoacoustic Tomography Devices For Translational Medicine And Basic Science Research, Tsz Wai Wong

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) provides volumetric images of biological tissue with scalable spatial resolutions and imaging depths, while preserving the same imaging contrast—optical absorption. Taking the advantage of its 100% sensitivity to optical absorption, PAT has been widely applied in structural, functional, and molecular imaging, with both endogenous and exogenous contrasts, at superior depths than pure optical methods. Intuitively, hemoglobin has been the most commonly studied biomolecule in PAT due to its strong absorption in the visible wavelength regime.

One of the main focuses of this dissertation is to investigate an underexplored wavelength regime—ultraviolet (UV), which allows us ...


Near Bandgap Two-Photon Excited Luminescence Of Inas Quantum Dots, Xian Hu 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Near Bandgap Two-Photon Excited Luminescence Of Inas Quantum Dots, Xian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) confine carriers in three dimensions, resulting in atomic-like energy levels as well as size-dependent electrical and optical properties. Self-assembled III-V QD is one of the most studied semiconductor QDs thanks to their well-established fabrication techniques and versatile optical properties. This dissertation presents the photoluminescence (PL) study of the InAs/GaAs QDs with both above bandgap continuous-wave excitation (one-photon excitation) and below-bandgap pulse excitation (two-photon excitation). Samples of ensemble QDs, single QD (SQD), and QDs in a micro-cavity, all grown by molecular beam epitaxy, are used in this study. Morphology of these samples was examined using atomic ...


Physical Applications Of The Geometric Minimum Action Method, George L. Poppe Jr. 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Physical Applications Of The Geometric Minimum Action Method, George L. Poppe Jr.

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis extends the landscape of rare events problems solved on stochastic systems by means of the \textit{geometric minimum action method} (gMAM). These include partial differential equations (PDEs) such as the real Ginzburg-Landau equation (RGLE), the linear Schroedinger equation, along with various forms of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) including an application towards an ultra-short pulse mode-locked laser system (MLL).

Additionally we develop analytical tools that can be used alongside numerics to validate those solutions. This includes the use of instanton methods in deriving state transitions for the linear Schroedinger equation and the cubic diffusive NLSE.

These analytical solutions ...


A Confocal Fabry Perot Etalon For Laser Frequency Analysis, Theodore Arsenault 2018 College of the Holy Cross

A Confocal Fabry Perot Etalon For Laser Frequency Analysis, Theodore Arsenault

Physics Student Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2018), Philip C. Nelson 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2018), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Characterization Of Magnetic Thin Films Using The Magneto Optic Kerr Effect, Nicholas J. Savino 2018 Lynchburg College

Characterization Of Magnetic Thin Films Using The Magneto Optic Kerr Effect, Nicholas J. Savino

Student Scholar Showcase

Understanding magnetic properties of materials allows for advances in applications such as data storage. The Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE) displays the reflective response a magnetic material has to a magnetic field. When polarized light reflects off of a magnetic material, the polarization orientation can change. The application of an external magnetic field can affect how much this polarization changes in a non-linear manner. Hysteresis loops are created when examining the relationship between intensity of the reflected light to the applied magnetic field provide information about magnetic properties of that material, such as the coercive field and field retention. Preliminary measurements ...


Holographic Beam-Shaping Diffractive Diffusers Fabricated By Using Controlled Laser Speckle, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Holographic Beam-Shaping Diffractive Diffusers Fabricated By Using Controlled Laser Speckle, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin

Articles

A method for fabricating diffractive holographic optical diffusers is reported, allowing a high degree of control of the resulting diffuser characteristics. The method consists of recording a laser speckle pattern using a single carrier beam, with controlled speckle size and shape, in an acrylamide-based volume photopolymer. The multiple interferences that create the speckle pattern form the hologram. Results are presented verifying the diffusers are volume holographic in nature and the speckle pattern is recorded accurately in the photopolymer. Diffusers recorded by this method are analysed to characterise the optical performance of the diffusers and to illustrate their beam-shaping capabilities, particularly ...


High-Sensitivity Optical To Microwave Comparison With Dual-Output Mach-Zehnder Modulators, Mamoru Endo, Tyko Shoji, Thomas R Schibli 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

High-Sensitivity Optical To Microwave Comparison With Dual-Output Mach-Zehnder Modulators, Mamoru Endo, Tyko Shoji, Thomas R Schibli

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

We demonstrate the use of two dual-output Mach-Zehnder modulators (DO-MZMs) in a direct comparison between a femtosecond (fs) pulse train and a microwave signal. Through balanced detection, the amplitude-to-phase modulation (AM-PM) conversion effect is suppressed by more than 40 dB. A cross-spectrum technique enables us to achieve a high-sensitivity phase noise measurement (−186 dBc/Hz above 10-kHz offset), which corresponds to the thermal noise of a +9 dBm carrier. This method is applied to compare a 1-GHz fs monolithic laser to a 1-GHz microwave signal generated from photodetection of a free-running 500 MHz mode-locked laser. The measured phase noise is ...


Superpositioning High Power Lasers For Mid-Air Image Formation, Auston Viotto 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Superpositioning High Power Lasers For Mid-Air Image Formation, Auston Viotto

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Abstract

This research evaluates different methods to create voxels, 3-dimensional pixels, in air without the need for special glasses or reflections off of surfaces. Research on the advantages of superimposing or the culmination, focusing, of laser light will be conducted. The point of superpositioning/culmination will be evaluated by the brightness of the voxel due to the Rayleigh Scatter Effect. The voxel’s brightness is dependent on the laser output strength and inversely proportional to its wavelength. Once a superimposed/culminated voxel has been created in the lab the next step will be to manipulate the location of the voxel ...


Studies Of Geometrical Profiling In Fabricated Tapered Optical Fbers Using Whispering Gallery Modes Spectroscopy, Vishnu Kavungal, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Yuliya Semenova 2018 Dublin Institute of Technology

Studies Of Geometrical Profiling In Fabricated Tapered Optical Fbers Using Whispering Gallery Modes Spectroscopy, Vishnu Kavungal, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Yuliya Semenova

Articles

This paper experimentally demonstrates a method for geometrical profiling of asymmetries in fabricated thin microfiber tapers with waist diameters ranging from ∼10 to ∼50µm with submicron accuracy. The method is based on the analysis of whispering gallery mode resonances excited in cylindrical fiber resonators as a result of evanescent coupling of light propagating through the fiber taper. The submicron accuracy of the proposed method has been verified by SEM studies. The method can be applied as a quality control tool in fabrication of microfiber based devices and sensors or for fine-tuning of microfiber fabrication set-ups.


Optically Controlled Laser-Plasma Electron Acceleration For Compact Gamma-Ray Sources, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Isaac Ghebregziabher, Bradley A. Shadwick 2018 CEA, DAM DIF

Optically Controlled Laser-Plasma Electron Acceleration For Compact Gamma-Ray Sources, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Isaac Ghebregziabher, Bradley A. Shadwick

Serge Youri Kalmykov

Thomson scattering (TS) from electron beams produced in laser-plasma accelerators may generate femtosecond pulses of quasi-monochromatic, multi-MeV photons. Scaling laws suggest that reaching the necessary GeVelectron energy, with a percent-scale energy spread and five-dimensional brightness over 10^16 A/m^2, requires acceleration in centimeter-length, tenuous plasmas (n ~ 10^17 cm^-#3;3), with petawatt-class lasers. Ultrahigh per-pulse power mandates single-shot operation, frustrating applications dependent on dosage. To generate high-quality near-GeV beams at a manageable average power (thus affording kHz repetition rate), we propose acceleration in a cavity of electron density, driven with an incoherent stack of sub-Joule laser pulses ...


Time-Resolved Electron (E,2E) Momentum Spectroscopy: Application To Laser-Driven Electron Population Transfer In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Time-Resolved Electron (E,2E) Momentum Spectroscopy: Application To Laser-Driven Electron Population Transfer In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Owing to its ability to provide unique information on electron dynamics, time-resolved electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) is used to study theoretically a laser-driven electronic motion in atoms. Specifically, a chirped laser pulse is used to adiabatically transfer the populations of lithium atoms from the ground state to the first excited state. During this process, impact ionization near the Bethe ridge by time-delayed ultrashort, high-energy electron pulses is used to image the instantaneous momentum density of this electronic population transfer. Simulations with 100 fs and 1 fs pulse durations demonstrate the capability of EMS to image the time-varying momentum density, including ...


Optically Controlled Laser-Plasma Electron Accelerator For Compact Gamma-Ray Sources, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Isaac Ghebregziabher, Bradley A. Shadwick 2018 CEA, DAM DIF

Optically Controlled Laser-Plasma Electron Accelerator For Compact Gamma-Ray Sources, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Isaac Ghebregziabher, Bradley A. Shadwick

Serge Youri Kalmykov

Generating quasi-monochromatic, femtosecond gamma-ray pulses via Thomson scattering (TS) demands exceptional electron beam (e-beam) quality, such as percent scale energy spread and five-dimensional brightness over 10^16 A/m^2. We show that near-GeV e-beams with these metrics can be accelerated in a cavity of electron density, driven with an incoherent stack of Joule-scale laser pulses through a mm-size, dense plasma (n ~ 10^19 cm^-􀀀3). Changing the time delay, frequency difference, and energy ratio of the stack components controls the e-beam phase space on the femtosecond scale, while the modest energy of the optical driver helps afford kHz-scale repetition ...


Multi-Color, Femtosecond Gamma-Ray Pulse Trains Driven By Comb-Like Electron Beams, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Isaac Ghebregziabher, Bradley A. Shadwick 2018 CEA, DAM DIF

Multi-Color, Femtosecond Gamma-Ray Pulse Trains Driven By Comb-Like Electron Beams, Serge Y. Kalmykov, X. Davoine, Isaac Ghebregziabher, Bradley A. Shadwick

Serge Youri Kalmykov

Photon engineering can be exploited to control the nonlinear evolution of the drive pulse in a laser–plasma accelerator (LPA), offering new avenues to tailor electron beam phase space on a femtosecond time scale. One promising option is to drive an LPA with an incoherent stack of two sub-Joule, multi-TW pulses of different colors. Slow self-compression of the bi-color optical driver delays electron dephasing, boosting electron beam energy without accumulation of a massive low-energy tail. The modest energy of the stack affords kHz-scale repetition rate at manageable laser average power. Propagating the stack in a pre-formed plasma channel induces periodic ...


Simulation Of Charge Transport In Multi-Island Tunneling Devices: Application To Disordered One-Dimensional Systems At Low And High Biases, Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Douglas R. Banyai, Paul Bergstrom, John A. Jaszczak 2018 Michigan Technological University

Simulation Of Charge Transport In Multi-Island Tunneling Devices: Application To Disordered One-Dimensional Systems At Low And High Biases, Madhusudan A. Savaikar, Douglas R. Banyai, Paul Bergstrom, John A. Jaszczak

John Jaszczak

Although devices have been fabricated displaying interesting single-electron transport characteristics, there has been limited progress in the development of tools that can simulate such devices based on their physical geometry over a range of bias conditions up to a few volts per junction. In this work, we present the development of a multi-island transport simulator, MITS, a simulator of tunneling transport in multi-island devices that takes into account geometrical and material parameters, and can span low and high source-drain biases. First, the capabilities of MITS are demonstrated by modeling experimentaldevices described in the literature, and showing that the simulated device ...


Roughening And Preroughening Of Diamond-Cubic {111} Surfaces, Donald L. Woodraska, John A. Jaszczak 2018 Michigan Technological University

Roughening And Preroughening Of Diamond-Cubic {111} Surfaces, Donald L. Woodraska, John A. Jaszczak

John Jaszczak

A solid-on-solid model for {111} surfaces of diamond-cubic materials that correctly takes into account the diamond-cubic crystal structure has been developed for Monte Carlo simulation. In addition to a roughening transition at temperature TR, a distinct preroughening transition at TPR≈0.43TR is indicated by divergences in the surface specific heat and order-parameter susceptibility. Preroughening appears to arise naturally in our nearest-neighbor bond model from the entropic freedom available in the nontrivial crystal structure. Preroughening is shown to dramatically lower the nucleation barrier for growth and etching at low driving forces.


Mechanism For Spatial Organization In Quantum Dot Self-Assembly, Da Gao, Adam Kaczynski, John A. Jaszczak 2018 Michigan Technological University

Mechanism For Spatial Organization In Quantum Dot Self-Assembly, Da Gao, Adam Kaczynski, John A. Jaszczak

John Jaszczak

Inspired by experimental observations of spatially ordered growth hillocks on the (001) surfaces of natural graphite crystals, a mechanism for spatial organization in quantum dotself-assembly is proposed. The regular arrangement of steps from a screw dislocation-generated growth spiral provides the overall template for such ordering. An ordered array of quantum dots may be formed or nucleated from impurities driven to the step corners by diffusion and by their interactions with the spiral’s steps and kinks. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of a solid-on-solid model supports the feasibility of such a mechanism.


Thin-Film Lithium Niobate Photonics For Electro-Optics, Nonlinear Optics, And Quantum Optics On Silicon, Ashutosh Rao 2018 University of Central Florida

Thin-Film Lithium Niobate Photonics For Electro-Optics, Nonlinear Optics, And Quantum Optics On Silicon, Ashutosh Rao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ion-sliced thin-film lithium niobate (LN) compact waveguide technology has facilitated the resurgence of integrated photonics based on lithium niobate. These thin-film LN waveguides offer over an order of magnitude improvement in optical confinement, and about two orders of magnitude reduction in waveguide bending radius, compared to conventional LN waveguides. Harnessing the improved confinement, a variety of miniaturized and efficient photonic devices are demonstrated in this work. First, two types of compact electrooptic modulators are presented – microring modulators, and Mach-Zehnder modulators. Next, two distinct approaches to nonlinear optical frequency converters are implemented – periodically poled lithium niobate, and mode shape modulation (grating ...


Generation And Characterization Of Isolated Attosecond Pulse In The Soft X-Ray Regime, Jie Li 2018 University of Central Florida

Generation And Characterization Of Isolated Attosecond Pulse In The Soft X-Ray Regime, Jie Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The observation of any atomic and molecular dynamics requires a probe that has a timescale comparable to the dynamics itself. Ever since the invention of laser, the temporal duration of the laser pulse has been incrementally reduced from several nanoseconds to just attoseconds. Picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses have been widely used to study molecular rotation and vibration. In 2001, the first single isolated attosecond pulse (1 attosecond = 10^-18 seconds.) was demonstrated. Since this breakthrough, "attoscience" has become a hot topic in ultrafast physics. Attosecond pulses typically have span between EUV to X-ray photon energies and sub-femtosecond pulse duration ...


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