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Targeting Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Content To Inhibit Oncogenic Kras Function, Walaa E. Kattan 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Targeting Plasma Membrane Phosphatidylserine Content To Inhibit Oncogenic Kras Function, Walaa E. Kattan

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The small GTPase KRAS, which is frequently mutated in human cancers, must be localized to the plasma membrane (PM) for biological activity. We recently showed that the KRAS C-terminal membrane anchor exhibits exquisite lipid-binding specificity for select species of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). We therefore investigated whether reducing PM PtdSer content is sufficient to abrogate KRAS oncogenesis. Oxysterol-related binding proteins ORP5 and ORP8 exchange PtdSer synthesized in the ER for phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) synthesized in the PM. We show that depletion of ORP5 or ORP8 reduced PM PtdSer levels, resulting in extensive mislocalization of KRAS from the PM. Concordantly, ORP5 or ORP8 depletion …


Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji 2021 Chapman University

Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: Ocular surface mucins and glycocalyx are critical for providing ocular hydration as well lubrication and repelling pathogens or allergens. Elevated levels of tear proinflammatory cytokines in dry eye may have detrimental effect on mucins and glycocalyx. The present study tested the effect of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ on membrane-tethered mucins expression, glycocalyx, and viability of ocular surface epithelial cells.

Methods: Stratified cultures of human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ for 24 hours. The mucins gene and protein expressions were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction …


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer. As …


Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

The eNOS pathway, found in the endothelium of blood vessels, is a key regulator of nitric oxide levels in the circulatory system. The pathway is controlled through several positive and negative feedback loops [2]. The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major control point in this pathway and under conditions of stress can be reduced into the dihydrobiopterin (BH2) [2,6,7,8,9]. When the reduced form is predominant, the pathway produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than nitric oxide, causing stress and damage to the vessels [6,7,8,9]. In this study, different treatments were studied …


Biotransformation Of Hbe And Other Benzofuran Derivatives, Hannah Trauger 2021 Stephen F Austin State University

Biotransformation Of Hbe And Other Benzofuran Derivatives, Hannah Trauger

Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Toxic Effect Of Crotalus Adamanteus Acidic Phospholipase A2 On Mcf-7 Cell Line, Daniel J. Petra 2021 University of South Dakota

Toxic Effect Of Crotalus Adamanteus Acidic Phospholipase A2 On Mcf-7 Cell Line, Daniel J. Petra

Honors Thesis

We are investigating the effect of Crotalus adamanteus acidic phospholipase A2 on MCF-7 cells using the MTS assay. Understanding these interactions and isolated effects is critical to developing new ways to treat envenomation. By understanding the effects of individual toxins within a whole venom, we are set to better understand the effects of the whole venom and investigate synergistic actions between venom toxins. In this paper, we are quantifying the amount of MCF-7 cell death caused by Crotalus adamanteus phospholipase A2 on MCF-7 using the MTS assay. Analysis of the amount of cells death caused by the phospholipase …


Remotely Controlled Enzyme Behavior Using Localized Thermal Gradients, Sarah Brown 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Remotely Controlled Enzyme Behavior Using Localized Thermal Gradients, Sarah Brown

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

No existing model describes an identified special case of enzyme behavior when directly stimulated with thermal energy via an RF field.

The ability to remotely influence cellular functions and outcomes is a new approach to targeted medicine. Nano-medicine and biotechnology are the future of medical diagnostics and treatment. The ability to remotely influence cellular functions and outcomes is a new approach to targeted medicine. Direct heating of an enzyme vs bulk heating changes the enzyme activity.

I tested how direct transfer of thermal energy changes rates of enzyme reactions. We created samples of enzymes, attached to ferrous (magnetic) nano-particles, and …


Investigation Of The Biosynthesis Of The Nucleoside Antibiotic Sphaerimicin, Jonathan Overbay 2021 University of Kentucky

Investigation Of The Biosynthesis Of The Nucleoside Antibiotic Sphaerimicin, Jonathan Overbay

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Antibiotic-resistance has become a widespread problem in the United States and across the globe. Meanwhile, new antibiotics are entering the clinic at an alarmingly low rate. Highly-modified nucleosides, a class of natural products often produced by actinobacteria, target MraY bacterial translocase I. MraY is a clinically unexploited enzyme target that is ubiquitous and essential to peptidoglycan cell wall biosynthesis. The nucleoside antibiotics known vary in efficacy and the functionalities contributing to improved activity is poorly understood. Sphaerimicin, a newly discovered modified nucleoside, has potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 13.65 nM against MraY. In general, sphaerimicin is primarily effective …


Carbon Dots As Artificial Peroxidases For Analytical Applications, Shih-Chun Wei, Yang-Wei Lin, Huan-Tsung Chang 2020 National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Carbon Dots As Artificial Peroxidases For Analytical Applications, Shih-Chun Wei, Yang-Wei Lin, Huan-Tsung Chang

Journal of Food and Drug Analysis

Nanozymes have become attractive in analytical and biomedical fields, mainly because of their low cost, long shelf life, and less environmental sensitivity. Particularly, nanozymes formed from nanomaterials having high surface area and rich active sites are interesting since their activities can be tuned through carefully controlling their size, morphology, and surface properties. This review article focuses on preparation of carbon dots (C dots) possessing peroxidase-like activity and their analytical applications. We highlight the important roles of the oxidation states and surface residues of C dots and their nanocomposites with metal, metal oxides, or metal sulfides playing on determining their specificity …


Coevolution, Dynamics And Allostery Conspire In Shaping Cooperative Binding And Signal Transmission Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein With Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2020 Chapman University

Coevolution, Dynamics And Allostery Conspire In Shaping Cooperative Binding And Signal Transmission Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein With Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Binding to the host receptor is a critical initial step for the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to enter into target cells and trigger virus transmission. A detailed dynamic and energetic view of the binding mechanisms underlying virus entry is not fully understood and the consensus around the molecular origins behind binding preferences of SARS-CoV-2 for binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor is yet to be established. In this work, we performed a comprehensive computational investigation in which sequence analysis and modeling of coevolutionary networks are combined with atomistic molecular simulations and comparative binding free energy analysis of …


Variability In Naltrexone Biotransformation, Stephani L. Stancil 2020 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Variability In Naltrexone Biotransformation, Stephani L. Stancil

Research Days

No abstract provided.


How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current 2020 St. John Fisher University

How Can We Stop Cancer?, Joseph R. Current

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Cancer is a disease that humans have been struggling to combat for centuries. It originates from the accumulation of several mutations over the life of a cell that causes it to evade cell death and multiply rapidly. It can affect any tissue in the body and can spread to other parts of the body through metastasis. Cancer comes in numerous shapes and sizes with different levels of aggression, growth speeds, and health risks. Many treatments for cancer exist today, three of the most popular being surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, which can be used in combinations with other treatments to …


Prostate Field Cancerization And Exosomes: Association Between Cd9, Early Growth Response 1 And Fatty Acid Synthase, Farideh Amirrad, Philip A. Pytak, Neda Sadeghiani-Pelar, Julie P. T. Nguyen, Emily L. Cauble, Anna C. Jones 2020 Chapman University

Prostate Field Cancerization And Exosomes: Association Between Cd9, Early Growth Response 1 And Fatty Acid Synthase, Farideh Amirrad, Philip A. Pytak, Neda Sadeghiani-Pelar, Julie P. T. Nguyen, Emily L. Cauble, Anna C. Jones

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Intracapsular and well‑defined adenocarcinomas of the prostate are often surrounded by tissue areas that harbor molecular aberrations, including those of genetic, epigenetic and biochemical nature. This is known as field cancerization, or a field effect and denotes a state of pre‑malignancy. Such alterations in histologically normal tumor‑adjacent prostatic tissues have been recognized as clinically important and are potentially exploitable as biomarkers of disease and/or targets for preventative/therapeutic intervention. The authors have previously identified and validated two protein markers of field cancerization: The expressional upregulation of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR‑1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase …


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey …


Determining The Antibacterial Activity And Mode Of Action Of Tirandamycin, Hailey Bouchard 2020 Claremont Colleges

Determining The Antibacterial Activity And Mode Of Action Of Tirandamycin, Hailey Bouchard

CMC Senior Theses

Tirandamycin is a small molecule natural product that has been isolated from various species of marine and terrestrial Streptomyces. The natural product has shown antibacterial activity against an array of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, showing promise as a pharmaceutical drug. Tirandamycin has 14 known derivatives, many of which have been created synthetically. Some of its derivatives are particularly potent against the high-risk bacteria vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. However, the antibacterial potency of these derivatives has not been tested systematically leading to the possibility of discovering more potent …


‘Am I Turning Into A Man?’ Experiences Of Pakistani Women With Pcos, Rida e Zehra Zaidi 2019 Institute of Business Administration

‘Am I Turning Into A Man?’ Experiences Of Pakistani Women With Pcos, Rida E Zehra Zaidi

MSJ Capstone Projects

According to the National Institutes of Health, 20 – 25% of all regularly ovulating women have PCOS. This disorder has a range of visible symptoms including excessive weight gain, hirsutism, acne, and hair loss among others. These symptoms make it difficult for women with the syndrome to fit the femininity ideals of the society, as it demands female bodies to be slim, smart, hair less, and to have porcelain skin and regular menstrual cycles. Women with PCOS and other health problems in Pakistan spend all their lives fighting unnecessary battles. This struggle has severe impacts on their physical and mental …


Probing The Mobile Loop Region Of Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh) For Potential Pathogenic Allosteric Inhibitor Drug Target, Sharon Shania 2019 University of San Diego

Probing The Mobile Loop Region Of Malate Dehydrogenase (Mdh) For Potential Pathogenic Allosteric Inhibitor Drug Target, Sharon Shania

Copley Library Undergraduate Research Awards

In a year, Tuberculosis (TB) caused approximately a million deaths in addition to 10 million infection cases; thus, it has been subjected to intensive study with the goal of creating a novel therapeutic drug – specifically allosteric inhibitors. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a pathogenic bacteria that causes TB, has an enzyme found in all organisms and is involved in essential metabolic reactions within the cell, known as Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH). Understanding the structure and function relationships in MDH as well as the specific steps of catalysis can assist in biotech purposes by designing a drug that can specifically bind to a region …


Towards Stable Electrochemical Sensing For Wearable Wound Monitoring, Sohini RoyChoudhury 2019 Florida International University

Towards Stable Electrochemical Sensing For Wearable Wound Monitoring, Sohini Roychoudhury

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Wearable biosensing has the tremendous advantage of providing point-of-care diagnosis and convenient therapy. In this research, methods to stabilize the electrochemical sensing response from detection of target biomolecules, Uric Acid (UA) and Xanthine, closely linked to wound healing, have been investigated. Different kinds of materials have been explored to address such detection from a wearable, healing platform. Electrochemical sensing modalities have been implemented in the detection of purine metabolites, UA and Xanthine, in the physiologically relevant ranges of the respective biomarkers. A correlation can be drawn between the concentrations of these bio-analytes and wound severity, thus offering probable quantitative insights …


Topoisomerase And Tyrosyl-Dna-Phosphodiesterase Ratio As An Indicator For The Response Of Glioblastoma Cancer To Topoisomerase Targeting Anticancer Drugs, Wenjie Wang 2019 Florida International University

Topoisomerase And Tyrosyl-Dna-Phosphodiesterase Ratio As An Indicator For The Response Of Glioblastoma Cancer To Topoisomerase Targeting Anticancer Drugs, Wenjie Wang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) patients have an estimated survival of ~15 months, with the standard of care (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) that has only modestly enhanced patient survival. Identifying biomarkers representing vulnerabilities in GBM biology may allow for the selection of effective and safe chemotherapy options. Irinotecan (IRT), a genotoxic compound currently in clinical trials for GBM, targets topoisomerase I (TOP1) by forming an irreversible ternary DNA-TOP1 cleavage complex (TOP1cc) and leads to apoptosis. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is a crucial repair enzyme that rescues TOP1cc and reduces the effectiveness of IRT. In the current study, we evaluate the value of the …


Implications Of Genetic Variation Of Common Drug Metabolizing Enzymes And Abc Transporters Among The Pakistani Population, Nasir Ali Afsar, Henrike Bruckmueller, Anneke Nina Werk, Muhammad Kashif Nisa, H R. Ahmad, Ingolf Cascorbi 2019 Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Sohail University, Karachi, Pakistan

Implications Of Genetic Variation Of Common Drug Metabolizing Enzymes And Abc Transporters Among The Pakistani Population, Nasir Ali Afsar, Henrike Bruckmueller, Anneke Nina Werk, Muhammad Kashif Nisa, H R. Ahmad, Ingolf Cascorbi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Genetic polymorphism of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters may influence drug response. The frequency varies substantially between ethnicities thus having implications on appropriate selection and dosage of various drugs in different populations. The distribution of genetic polymorphisms in healthy Pakistanis has so far not been described. In this study, 155 healthy adults (98 females) were included from all districts of Karachi. DNA was extracted from saliva and genotyped for relevant SNVs in CYP1A1, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 as well as ALDH3A1, GSTA1, ABCB1 and ABCC2. About 64% of the participants were born to parents who were unrelated …


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