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The Coca Plant And Bolivian Identity, Matthew G. Russo 2015 Bowling Green State University

The Coca Plant And Bolivian Identity, Matthew G. Russo

International ResearchScape Journal

ABSTRACT

The political battle rages between the U.S. government, the U.N. and the Bolivian President, Evo Morales, about his efforts to protect, legalize and preserve the symbol of the Andean indigenous identity: the coca plant. The human rights of indigenous populations are being violated by culturally insensitive governments in compliance with U.S. and U.N. law. The questions posed are: Is coca cocaine? What are the economic benefits of the production of coca and who benefits? What is the relationship between coca and Bolivian identity? What would be the impact in the global community if coca is ...


Pharmaceutical Stability Of Promethazine In Iv Infusion Fluids, Josh Knoebel, Ruth Choi, Michael Kapraly, Brandon Kime, Kaysie J. Brittenham, Denise S. Simpson, Rebecca J. Gryka, Samson Amos 2014 Cedarville University

Pharmaceutical Stability Of Promethazine In Iv Infusion Fluids, Josh Knoebel, Ruth Choi, Michael Kapraly, Brandon Kime, Kaysie J. Brittenham, Denise S. Simpson, Rebecca J. Gryka, Samson Amos

Pharmacy and Nursing Student Research and Evidence-Based Medicine Poster Session

BACKGROUND: Promethazine is an antiemetic often administered intravenously in healthcare facilities for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Due to potential adverse events that may result with intravenous push administration, some safety-minded healthcare facilities have elected to use alternative methods of administration. One such method is the intravenous piggyback (IVPB). However, limited stability data exist for promethazine in intravenous solutions.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the stability over time of promethazine dissolved in commonly used intravenous infusion fluids when exposed to various light and temperature conditions.

PROPOSED METHODS: Promethazine will be formulated into IVPB bags of normal saline, dextrose 5% in water and Lactated ...


A Measure Of The Amount Of Vitamin K Leached Out From Cooked Greens In Potlicker, Douglas Anderson, Kara Bobka, Matthew Johnson, Chelsea Manion, Samuel Tesfaye, Rebecca Widder, Joshua Willoughby 2014 Cedarville University

A Measure Of The Amount Of Vitamin K Leached Out From Cooked Greens In Potlicker, Douglas Anderson, Kara Bobka, Matthew Johnson, Chelsea Manion, Samuel Tesfaye, Rebecca Widder, Joshua Willoughby

Pharmacy and Nursing Student Research and Evidence-Based Medicine Poster Session

Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin synthesized by plants, is found in large quantities within green leafy vegetables, such as collard, mustard, turnip and spinach. These greens are commonly cooked with fat to enhance flavor. The vitamin K in these greens can leach out during cooking into the liquid portion of the pot, which is referred to as potlicker. Vitamin K activates clotting factors (II, VII, IX, and X,), which can lead to the formation of a thromboembolism (blood clot). People at a higher risk of forming blood clots are often prescribed warfarin, an anti-coagulant that acts as a competitive inhibitor ...


Low Molecular Weight Glucosamine/L-Lactide Copolymers As Potential Carriers For The Development Of A Sustained Rifampicin Release System: Mycobacterium Smegmatis As A Tuberculosis Model, Jorge Ragusa 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Low Molecular Weight Glucosamine/L-Lactide Copolymers As Potential Carriers For The Development Of A Sustained Rifampicin Release System: Mycobacterium Smegmatis As A Tuberculosis Model, Jorge Ragusa

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Tuberculosis, a highly contagious disease, ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease, and remains a major global health problem. In 2013, 9 million new cases were diagnosed and 1.5 million people died worldwide from tuberculosis. This dissertation aims at developing a new, ultrafine particle-based efficient antibiotic delivery system for the treatment of tuberculosis. The carrier material to make the rifampicin (RIF)-loaded particles is a low molecular weight star-shaped polymer produced from glucosamine (molecular core building unit) and L-lactide (GluN-LLA). Stable particles with a very high 50% drug loading capacity were made via electrohydrodynamic ...


Hepatic Carboxylesterase 1 Is Induced By Glucose And Regulates Postprandial Glucose Levels, Jiesi Xu, Liya Yin, Yang Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Munaf Zalzala, Gang Cheng, Yanqiao Zhang 2014 University of Akron Main Campus

Hepatic Carboxylesterase 1 Is Induced By Glucose And Regulates Postprandial Glucose Levels, Jiesi Xu, Liya Yin, Yang Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Munaf Zalzala, Gang Cheng, Yanqiao Zhang

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

Metabolic syndrome, characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, increases the risks for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and is important for lipid metabolism. Our previous data show that over-expression of mouse hepatic CES1 lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic ob/ob mice. In the present study, we determined the physiological role of hepatic CES1 in glucose homeostasis. Hepatic CES1 expression was reduced by fasting but increased in diabetic mice. Treatment of mice with glucose induced hepatic CES1 expression. Consistent with the in vivo ...


B-Type Natriuretic Peptide And C-Reactive Protein In The Prediction Of Atrial Fibrillation Risk: The Charge-Af Consortium Of Community-Based Cohort Studies, Moritz F. Sinner, Emelia J. Benjamin, Alvaro Alonso, David D. McManus 2014 Ludwig-MaximiliansUniversity

B-Type Natriuretic Peptide And C-Reactive Protein In The Prediction Of Atrial Fibrillation Risk: The Charge-Af Consortium Of Community-Based Cohort Studies, Moritz F. Sinner, Emelia J. Benjamin, Alvaro Alonso, David D. Mcmanus

Meyers Primary Care Institute Publications and Presentations

AIMS: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) predict atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. However, their risk stratification abilities in the broad community remain uncertain. We sought to improve risk stratification for AF using biomarker information.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We ascertained AF incidence in 18 556 Whites and African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC, n=10 675), Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS, n = 5043), and Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n = 2838), followed for 5 years (prediction horizon). We added BNP (ARIC/CHS: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; FHS: BNP), CRP, or both to a previously reported AF risk ...


Quantifying The Effect Of A Novel Topical Hyaluronic-Acid Phosphatidylethanolamine Cream On The Epidermis, Caitlin J. Symonette 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Quantifying The Effect Of A Novel Topical Hyaluronic-Acid Phosphatidylethanolamine Cream On The Epidermis, Caitlin J. Symonette

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With aging, keratinocytes have diminished proliferative capacity resulting in atrophic skin with reduced barrier function. This investigation evaluates the effect of daily topical applications of a novel high-molecular weight hyaluronan cream (HA-PE) on keratinocyte renewal and epidermal thickness. Unmodified hyaluronan and HA-PE were mixed separately into a vehicle cream. Each topical formulation was applied daily onto the shaved backs of aged female C57BL6 mice. Full-thickness biopsies of treated skin were obtained for analysis of keratinocyte proliferation, keratinocyte differentiation, and local inflammation at days 1, 5, and 10 of cream application. In addition, a cardiac puncture was performed for serum C-reactive ...


Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman 2014 Chapman University

Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

Cocaine is an addictive drug that affects more than 14 million people globally, according to the United Nations. This paper is a conceptual meta-analysis of numerous studies that tested the effects of psychopharmacological therapy along with behavioral therapy in the treatment of cocaine addiction. It is hypothesized that cocaine dependent individuals treated with a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will be less likely to use cocaine. Measurements of cocaine use throughout the experiments were generally assessed by urine screenings. Results indicate that there is more evidence that a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will reduce cocaine use. There ...


Pharmacological And Pre-Clinical Testing Of 5-Nidr As A New Therapeutic Agent Against Brain Cancer, Seol Casey Kim, Anthony Berdis, Jung-Suk Choi 2014 Cleveland State University

Pharmacological And Pre-Clinical Testing Of 5-Nidr As A New Therapeutic Agent Against Brain Cancer, Seol Casey Kim, Anthony Berdis, Jung-Suk Choi

Undergraduate Research Posters 2014

Approximately 4,000 children in the United States are diagnosed annually with a brain tumor. Brain cancers are the deadliest of all pediatric cancers as they have survival rates of less than 20%. Although surgery and radiation therapy are widely used to treat adult patients, chemotherapy is the primary therapeutic option for children. One important chemotherapeutic agent is temozolomide, an alkylating agent that causes cell death by damaging DNA. In this project, we tested the ability of a specific non-natural nucleoside developed in our lab, designated 5-NIdR, to increase the efficacy of temozolomide against brain cancer. Cell-based studies demonstrate that ...


A Feedback Loop Couples Musashi-1 Activity To Omega-9 Fatty Acid Biosynthesis: A Phd Dissertation, Carina C. Clingman 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Feedback Loop Couples Musashi-1 Activity To Omega-9 Fatty Acid Biosynthesis: A Phd Dissertation, Carina C. Clingman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

All living creatures change their gene expression program in response to nutrient availability and metabolic demands. Nutrients and metabolites can directly control transcription and activate second-­‐messenger systems. In bacteria, metabolites also affect post-­‐transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, but there are only a few isolated examples of this regulation in eukaryotes. Here, I present evidence that RNA-­‐binding by the stem cell translation regulator Musashi-­‐1 (MSI1) is allosterically inhibited by 18-­‐22 carbon ω-­‐9 monounsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid binds to the N-­‐terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and induces a conformational change that prevents RNA association. Musashi ...


Investigating Propargyl-Linked Antifolates In Inhibiting Bacterial And Fungal Dihydrofolate Reductase, Joshua Andrade 2014 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Investigating Propargyl-Linked Antifolates In Inhibiting Bacterial And Fungal Dihydrofolate Reductase, Joshua Andrade

Honors Scholar Theses

Antimicrobial agents have been invaluable in reducing illness and death associated with bacterial infection. However, over time, bacteria have evolved resistance to all major drug classes as a result of selective pressure. The advancement of new drug compounds is therefore vital. The Anderson-Wright Lab has focused on developing potent and selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme key in cell proliferation and survival, in several pathogenic species. The lab has found that a set of compounds, known as propargyl-linked antifolates, are DHFR inhibitors that are both biologically effective and have strong pharmacokinetic properties.

The efficacy of novel propargyl-linked antifolates ...


Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbohydrates are implicated in a large number of biological processes ranging from cell-cell interactions to bacterial and viral infection. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are generally specific for certain sugars. However, typical carbohydrate–lectin interactions tend to have very low monomeric binding affinities. In many cases, the binding of saccharide ligands by protein receptors can be improved significantly through the attachment of multiple saccharide residues to a common support. Dendronized polymers constitute a class of macromolecules whose nanoscale size, rigidity, and functionality can be controlled with precision by tuning their molecular architecture. It is hypothesized that due to their large ...


Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian 2014 Seton Hall University

Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Azapeptides are a class of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics), which have served as valuable tools for the development of peptide based therapeutic agents. The therapeutic promise of azapeptides has been correlated to its primary sequence modification which translates into bio-active secondary structures that improves the pharmacological properties of the native peptide sequence. More specifically, azapeptides contain a semicarbazide within the peptide backbone which restricts the peptide bond torsion angles (φ, ψ) into pre-organized b-turn secondary structures. Thus, azapeptides have been shown to stabilize bio-active b-turn secondary structures responsible for high affinity and selective binding to a target receptor or ...


Functional Assessment And Potential Therapeutic Role Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-­‐3 In A Rodent Model Of Compartment Syndrome, Al Walid Hamam 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Functional Assessment And Potential Therapeutic Role Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-­‐3 In A Rodent Model Of Compartment Syndrome, Al Walid Hamam

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Compartment syndrome (CS) is a life and limb threatening condition resulting in long term morbidity. Gold standard treatment of CS is surgical fasciotomy. Long-term morbidity is common post fasciotomy. We tested a gait analysis system (CatWalk™) to see if we could detect functional effects of CS in our rodent model. We also investigated the effects of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) on the function of gait in rodents post CS.

The CatWalkTM system was able to detect abnormalities in a rodent’s gait post CS. CORM-3 was also found to alleviate the functional deficits following CS. Multiple dose but not ...


Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Normal abundant dietary sugars such as fructose and sucrose can contribute to hypertension and other health issues. To avoid these health complications, many individuals use artificial sweeteners. An equivalent intake of some artificial sweeteners also can lead to hypertension. However, Stevia, a sweetener that is isolated from a Paraguayan plant, was shown in relevant literature to decrease blood pressure in both rat specimens and humans. The general purpose of this research project was to study the effect of Stevia, saccharin, and sucrose on the expression of two key components of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS): prorenin receptor (PRR) and angiotensin ...


Cardiovascular Toxicity Of Common Chemotherapy Drugs Used To Treat Breast Cancer: An Overview, Charles A. Bomzer 2014 Aurora Cancer Care, Aurora Health Care

Cardiovascular Toxicity Of Common Chemotherapy Drugs Used To Treat Breast Cancer: An Overview, Charles A. Bomzer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Treatment of breast cancer often exposes patients to many different drugs. Some of these drugs have toxic effects involving the cardiovascular system. This review provides an overview of the drugs most commonly used to treat breast cancer and their potential adverse impact on the cardiovascular system.


Synthesis And Biological Study Of Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors, Siyuan Sun, Zhishi Ye, Mingji Dai 2014 Purdue University

Synthesis And Biological Study Of Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors, Siyuan Sun, Zhishi Ye, Mingji Dai

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Adenylyl cyclases (AC) is a critical family of enzymes which modulates the dynamic cellular level of cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The study of cAMP showed that it is indispensable for the signal transduction cascades during many physiological processes, such as immune responses and metabolism which highly relate to cancers. Previous studies of AC inhibitors have been limited due to a lack of isoform-selective small molecule modulators. Selectivity of the molecules is imperative to the activation of only the desired AC inhibitor. The design of the described project was to test the structure activity relationship (SAR) by synthesizing a class of ...


Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin 2014 Purdue University

Tissue Engineering: Applications In Developmental Toxicology, Stephanie N. Thiede, Nimisha Bajaj, Kevin Buno, Sherry L. Voytik-Harbin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In vivo toxicology assays are expensive, low-throughput, and often not predictive of a human response. Three-dimensional in vitro human cell-based tissue systems incorporating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions have promise to provide high-throughput, physiologically-relevant information on the mechanism of the toxin and a more accurate assessment of the toxicity of a chemical before progression to human trials. Quantification of the disruption of vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels from endothelial progenitor cells, can serve as an appropriate indicator of developmental toxicity since vasculogenesis is critical to the early development of the circulatory system. The current routinely used in vitro ...


Production Of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor Ix By Transgenic Pig, Weijie Xu 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Production Of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor Ix By Transgenic Pig, Weijie Xu

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Hemophilia B is the congenital bleeding disorder caused by deficiency in functional coagulation factor IX (FIX) and about 28,000 patients worldwide in 2012. And current treatment is restricted to protein-replacement therapy, which required FIX concentrates for patients’ life-time. Approximately 1 billion units FIX were consumed in 2012. However, still about 70-80% patients, mostly in developing countries, received inadequate or no treatment because of the unavailable and/or unaffordable FIX concentrates. Considering safety reasons, e.g. transmission of blood-borne diseases, the recombinant human FIX (rFIX) is recommended other than the plasma-derived FIX. However, only one rFIX is currently available on ...


Endothelial And Smooth Muscle-Dependent Vascular Reactivity In Immature Arterialized Collateral Capillaries, Caitlin Koeroghlian 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Endothelial And Smooth Muscle-Dependent Vascular Reactivity In Immature Arterialized Collateral Capillaries, Caitlin Koeroghlian

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) occurs due to the build up of atherosclerotic plaque and reduces blood flow to cause chronic ischemia. Patients with PAOD may experience intermittent claudication, or the pain in limb skeletal muscles due to a decease in blood flow. Collateral arteries can act as a natural bypass and improve blood flow to hypoxic tissue by creating an alternate route for blood to flow, but not all patients with PAOD have pre-existing collateral networks. Animal studies indicate that tissues without pre-existing collateral networks can form de novo collaterals from capillaries following occlusion of a feed artery. Unfortunately ...


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