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Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Thomas Krumpolc, Juan Rodriguez, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Zach Wiese, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Removal Of Carbamazepine From Drinking Water, Thomas Krumpolc, Juan Rodriguez, Jordan Alex Gadberry, Zach Wiese, Paola Marrero-Rivera, Adam Johnson

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Due to the increasing prevalence of prescription medication over the past few decades, pharmaceuticals have accumulated in various water sources. This has become a public health concern because many pharmaceuticals have limited research on the effects of chronic low-level exposure. According to the World’s Health Organization (WHO), traces of pharmaceuticals products have been reported in different water sources such as surface waters, wastewater, groundwater, and drinking water.[1] One pharmaceutical of interest that has been detected in water sources is carbamazepine. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a common pharmaceutical prescribed for the treatment of seizure disorders, neuropathic pain, and various psychological ...


The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni 2018 East Tennessee State University

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater 2018 University of Louisville

Development Of A Pd-L1 Pet Imaging Biomarker, Caleb Jack Bridgwater

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Immunotherapy strategies are very promising treatments for cancer patients. Specifically, Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy focusing on the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows long-lasting positive results in many cancer patients. Unfortunately, not all the patients can benefit from this highly effective treatment. Hence, there is a great need for predictive biomarkers. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining has been used as a way of predicting patient response, yet shows many problems. For example, IHC utilizes an invasive biopsy and sample fixing, which creates an incomplete and delayed picture of the patient’s biochemistry and the tumor microenvironment, consequently ignoring metastases.

The purpose of this study ...


Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, Tye D. Martin 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, Tye D. Martin

Shared Knowledge Conference

Design of small molecules is an ongoing focus for developing agents against pathogenic viruses and bacteria that are threats to worldwide health. Viruses such as Zika feature assemblies of repeat peptide subunits or capsid proteins which are potential targets for antiviral compounds. Other protein assemblies are implicated in pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and additional neurodegenerative diseases characterized by large assemblies of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau. Recent studies on a class of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) with phenylene ethynylene moieties and charged functional groups have shown potential both as bioactive antimicrobials and theragnostic sensing agents for ...


Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Darnell Leon Cuylear, Heather Elizabeth Canavan 2018 University of New Mexico

Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Darnell Leon Cuylear, Heather Elizabeth Canavan

Shared Knowledge Conference

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The most reliable screening method of CRC is a colonoscopy which requires a 4-Liter polymer with electrolytes preparation. Two in five patients are non-compliant to their colonoscopy schedules, with many patients who abstain reporting refusal due to significant discomfort associated with this preparation. Furthermore, there are distinct gender differences in the tolerance of colonoscopy preparations in male and female populations. We hypothesize the differences in clinic are a result of toxic effects of the drug associated with poor mixing by individual patients. PEG, the drug ...


Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Sarah Mounho, Darnell Cuylear, Heather Canavan 2018 University of New Mexico

Improving The Palatability Of Colonoscopy Preparations, Phuong Anh Hoang Nguyen, Sarah Mounho, Darnell Cuylear, Heather Canavan

Shared Knowledge Conference

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The most reliable screening method of CRC is a colonoscopy which requires a 4-Liter polymer with electrolytes preparation. Two in five patients are non-compliant to their colonoscopy schedules, with many patients who abstain reporting refusal due to significant discomfort associated with this preparation. Furthermore, there are distinct gender differences in the tolerance of colonoscopy preparations in male and female populations. We hypothesize the differences in clinic are a result of toxic effects of the drug associated with poor mixing by individual patients. PEG, the drug ...


L-Serine Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species Yield In Cisplatin Treated Zebrafish Utricles, Satya A. Moolani, Elvin Irihamye, Jerry D. Monroe, Michael E. Smith 2018 Western Kentucky University

L-Serine Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species Yield In Cisplatin Treated Zebrafish Utricles, Satya A. Moolani, Elvin Irihamye, Jerry D. Monroe, Michael E. Smith

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Cisplatin is a chemotherapy compound effective against a variety of cancers. However, it can act as an ototoxin and cause hearing loss by promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in auditory tissues. The antioxidant amino acid, L-serine has been hypothesized to lower levels of cisplatin-mediated ROS. In this project, we investigated whether L-serine can reduce cisplatin-mediated ROS production in auditory tissue and potentially act as an otoprotectant during cisplatin chemotherapy. We used a zebrafish utricular tissue culture system and fluorescent ROS indicator dye to spectrophotometrically measure if L-serine could decrease reactive oxygen species levels in cisplatin-treated tissues. We found that ...


43 - Library Synthesis Of Antimicrobial Peptide Targeting Staphylococcus Aureus, Jonathan Bridges 2018 University of North Georgia

43 - Library Synthesis Of Antimicrobial Peptide Targeting Staphylococcus Aureus, Jonathan Bridges

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Library Synthesis of antimicrobial peptide targeting Staphylococcus aureus

Due to the overprescribing of antibiotics bacteria have adapted and developed mechanisms to combat the antimicrobial agents. One example is Staphylococcus aureus, which causes common skin infections, and can be easily treated. But amidst the abuse of antibiotics, S. aureus has become resistant to most known antibiotics; resistant strains are termed Methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This is a major concern in hospitals where the bacteria evolve under constant pressure developing multi-drug resistance. Thus significant efforts have been made to develop either stronger antibiotics or investigating alternate pathways to target the resistant strains ...


31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar 2018 Augusta University

31 - The Critical Role Of Atad3a In The Estrogen Signaling Pathway In Breast Cancer Cells, Parth Thakkar

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Abstract

Breast cancer is the leading malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related death in women globally. The greatest barrier to a treatment is the incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying molecular regulators whose function is cellular adaptation to estrogen. One such enzyme, ATAD3A, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme, has been brought under this lab’s scrutiny. The role of ATAD3A in breast cancer progression is largely unknown but it has been shown to be a crucial mediator in promoting cell cycle progression. The two objectives of this project were: to determine whether the ATAd3A is an Estrogen Receptor-α target (ERα) and to ...


35 - Synthesis Of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrates (Tacs) Using Lewis Acid Catalysts, Rania Saleb 2018 University of North Georgia

35 - Synthesis Of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrates (Tacs) Using Lewis Acid Catalysts, Rania Saleb

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Cancer is a collection of diseases that result from uncontrolled cell division. The tumors are broadly classified as benign or malignant. Benign tumors are localized to a specific tissue, and thus, can be removed surgically with a limited chance for reoccurrence. On the other hand, malignant tumors undergo a process called metastasis to migrate to neighboring or distant tissues from the original site of occurrence. Since malignant tumors invade other tissues they are hard to detect and difficult to treat. According to the National Cancer Institute, 1.7 million cases of cancer were reported in 2014. Unfortunately, these numbers are ...


38 - Stereochemical Synthesis Of Lugdunin – An Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptide, Shivam Patel 2018 University of North Georgia

38 - Stereochemical Synthesis Of Lugdunin – An Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptide, Shivam Patel

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Stereochemical synthesis of Lugdunin – An antimicrobial cyclic peptide

The consequence of overuse of antibiotics is that the bacteria have developed a various mechanism to overcome the effect of these molecules, which we now address as antibiotic resistance. In fact, antibiotic resistance has become a serious issue in hospitals where the local microbial flora has evolved under constant selection pressure from the various antibiotics in use. The Center for Disease Control has developed an extensive list of many multi-drug resistant bacteria. This includes many bacteria, which otherwise would be simple to treat, but because of acquired resistance have become a serious ...


Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder

Radiology Publications and Presentations

When untransformed human cells spend >1.5 hr. in prometaphase under standard culture conditions, all daughters arrest in G1 despite normal division of their mothers. We investigate what happens during prolonged prometaphase that leads to daughter cell arrest in the absence of DNA damage. We find that progressive loss of anti-apoptotic MCL-1 activity and oxidative stress act in concert to partially activate the apoptosis pathway resulting in the delayed death of some daughters and senescence for the rest. At physiological oxygen levels, longer prometaphase durations are needed for all daughters to arrest. Partial activation of apoptosis during prolonged prometaphase leads ...


Ethical Implications Of Treatment For Gender Dysphoria In Youth, Kelsey Hayes 2018 College of Our Lady of the Elms

Ethical Implications Of Treatment For Gender Dysphoria In Youth, Kelsey Hayes

Online Journal of Health Ethics

This manuscript explores ethical implications on treatment for youth with diagnosed gender dysphoria. The ethical considerations outlined and analyzed in this essay involve illuminating an understanding of whether the administration of pubertal suppression with GnRH agonists, and cross-sex hormones to children with gender dysphoria is morally justified as treatment to manage their psychological distress, or if safer more understood alternatives exist. This essay emphasizes that as health care professionals we must ensure youth with gender dysphoria receive adequate medical treatment and care however, this essay concludes through extensive literature review, that the use of inconclusive and under researched methods to ...


Comparison Of Prescribing Practices For Older Adults Treated By Female Versus Male Physicians: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Paula A. Rochon, Jerry H. Gurwitz 2018 University of Toronto

Comparison Of Prescribing Practices For Older Adults Treated By Female Versus Male Physicians: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Paula A. Rochon, Jerry H. Gurwitz

Open Access Articles

IMPORTANCE: Subtle but important differences have been described in the way that male and female physicians care for their patients, with some evidence suggesting women are more likely to adhere to best practice recommendations.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if male and female physicians differ in their prescribing practices as measured by the initiation of lower-than-recommended dose cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) drug therapy for dementia management.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: All community-dwelling Ontario residents aged 66 years and older with dementia and newly dispensed an oral ChEI drug (donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine) between April 1, 2010 and June 30, 2016 were included.

MAIN ...


Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Amphiphilic Cyclic And Linear Peptides Composed Of Hydrophobic And Positively-Charged Amino Acids As Antibacterial Agents, Neda Riahifard, Saghar Mozaffari, Taibah Aldakhil, Francisco Nunez, Qamar Alshammari, Saud Alshammari, Jason Yamaki, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari 2018 Chapman University

Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Amphiphilic Cyclic And Linear Peptides Composed Of Hydrophobic And Positively-Charged Amino Acids As Antibacterial Agents, Neda Riahifard, Saghar Mozaffari, Taibah Aldakhil, Francisco Nunez, Qamar Alshammari, Saud Alshammari, Jason Yamaki, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) contain amphipathic structures and are derived from natural resources. AMPs have been found to be effective in treating the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and thus, are potential lead compounds against ARB. AMPs’ physicochemical properties, such as cationic nature, amphiphilicity, and their size, will provide the opportunity to interact with membrane bilayers leading to damage and death of microorganisms. Herein, AMP analogs of [R4W4] were designed and synthesized by changing the hydrophobicity and cationic nature of the lead compound with other amino acids to provide insights into a structure-activity relationship against selected model ...


Generation And Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize Human And Murine Supervillin Protein Isoforms, Tara C. Smith, Richard G. Saul, Elisabeth R. Barton, Elizabeth J. Luna 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Generation And Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize Human And Murine Supervillin Protein Isoforms, Tara C. Smith, Richard G. Saul, Elisabeth R. Barton, Elizabeth J. Luna

Open Access Articles

Supervillin isoforms have been implicated in cell proliferation, actin filament-based motile processes, vesicle trafficking, and signal transduction. However, an understanding of the roles of these proteins in cancer metastasis and physiological processes has been limited by the difficulty of obtaining specific antibodies against these highly conserved membrane-associated proteins. To facilitate research into the biological functions of supervillin, monoclonal antibodies were generated against the bacterially expressed human supervillin N-terminus. Two chimeric monoclonal antibodies with rabbit Fc domains (clones 1E2/CPTC-SVIL-1; 4A8/CPTC-SVIL-2) and two mouse monoclonal antibodies (clones 5A8/CPTC-SVIL-3; 5G3/CPTC-SVIL-4) were characterized with respect to their binding sites, affinities ...


The Smarxt Media Literacy Program: Improving Evidence-Based Prescribing Among Medical Students, Bethany D. Corbin, Jason B. Colditz, Galen E. Switzer, Jaime E. Sidani, Patricia M. Klatt, Ted Schaffer, Brian A. Primack 2018 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

The Smarxt Media Literacy Program: Improving Evidence-Based Prescribing Among Medical Students, Bethany D. Corbin, Jason B. Colditz, Galen E. Switzer, Jaime E. Sidani, Patricia M. Klatt, Ted Schaffer, Brian A. Primack

Journal of Media Literacy Education

Many prescriptions written are not evidence-based, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Media literacy may help medical trainees optimize evidence-based decision-making. In this study, we aimed to assess feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a media literacy prescribing program. We recruited 30 medical students, who completed animated video modules about pharmaceutical marketing and prescribing. We used a process evaluation and open-ended items to assess feasibility and acceptability, and knowledge tests before and after the intervention to assess efficacy. The program was feasible to implement and well-accepted. Knowledge and attitude targets around evidence-based prescribing and drug marketing improved after the intervention.


Substantial Increase In Compliance With Saturated Fatty Acid Intake Recommendations After One Year Following The American Heart Association Diet, Miaomiao Zhao, David E. Chiriboga, Barbara C. Olendzki, Bin Xie, Yawen Li, Lisa Jo McGonigal, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Yunsheng Ma 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Substantial Increase In Compliance With Saturated Fatty Acid Intake Recommendations After One Year Following The American Heart Association Diet, Miaomiao Zhao, David E. Chiriboga, Barbara C. Olendzki, Bin Xie, Yawen Li, Lisa Jo Mcgonigal, Ana Maldonado-Contreras, Yunsheng Ma

Open Access Articles

The American Heart Association (AHA) dietary guidelines recommend 30(-)35% of energy intake (%E) be from total fat, < 7%E from saturated fatty acids (SFA), and < 1%E from trans fatty acid (TFA). This study evaluates the effect of AHA dietary counselling on fat intake. Between 2009 and 2014, 119 obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS), (71% women, average 52.5 years of age, and 34.9 kg/m(2) of body mass index), received individual and group counselling on the AHA diet, over a one-year study period. Each participant attended 2 individual sessions (months 1 and 12) and 12 group sessions, at one-month intervals. At baseline and one-year, we collected three random 24-h diet recalls (two weekdays and one weekend day). Fat intake patterns over time were analyzed using paired-t test and linear mixed-effect models. There was significant variation on SFA and TFA intake per meal, being highest at dinner, in restaurants, and on weekends. Over the one-year study period, daily intake of total fat, SFA, and TFA decreased by 27%, 37% and 41%, respectively (p-value < 0.01, each). Correspondingly, the percentage of participants complying with AHA's recommendations, increased from 25.2% to 40.2% for total fat (p-value = 0.02); from 2.5% to 20.7% for SFA (p-value < 0.01); and from 45.4% to 62% for TFA (p-value = 0.02). Additionally, SFA intake for all meal types at home decreased significantly (p-value < 0.05, each). AHA dietary counselling significantly increased the compliance with AHA dietary guidelines, with an eightfold increase in compliance in SFA intake. Nonetheless, ~80% of our participants still exceeded the recommended SFA intake. Substantial efforts are needed to encourage low-SFA and low-TFA food preparation at home, with strong public health policies to decrease SFA and TFA in restaurants and prepared foods.


Tip55, A Splice Isoform Of The Kat5 Acetyltransferase, Is Essential For Developmental Gene Regulation And Organogenesis, Diwash Acharya, Bernadette Nera, Zachary J. Milstone, Lauren Bourke, Yeonsoo Yoon, Jaime A. Rivera-Pérez, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Thomas G. Fazzio 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tip55, A Splice Isoform Of The Kat5 Acetyltransferase, Is Essential For Developmental Gene Regulation And Organogenesis, Diwash Acharya, Bernadette Nera, Zachary J. Milstone, Lauren Bourke, Yeonsoo Yoon, Jaime A. Rivera-Pérez, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Thomas G. Fazzio

Open Access Articles

Regulation of chromatin structure is critical for cell type-specific gene expression. Many chromatin regulatory complexes exist in several different forms, due to alternative splicing and differential incorporation of accessory subunits. However, in vivo studies often utilize mutations that eliminate multiple forms of complexes, preventing assessment of the specific roles of each. Here we examined the developmental roles of the TIP55 isoform of the KAT5 histone acetyltransferase. In contrast to the pre-implantation lethal phenotype of mice lacking all four Kat5 transcripts, mice specifically deficient for Tip55 die around embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5). Prior to developmental arrest, defects in heart ...


In Vitro And Ex-Vivo Evaluation Of Topical Formulations Designed To Minimize Transdermal Absorption Of Vitamin K1, Ramina Nabiee, Barent Dubois, Laura Green, Ajay Sharma, Siu Fun Wong, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2018 Chapman University

In Vitro And Ex-Vivo Evaluation Of Topical Formulations Designed To Minimize Transdermal Absorption Of Vitamin K1, Ramina Nabiee, Barent Dubois, Laura Green, Ajay Sharma, Siu Fun Wong, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Topical application of Vitamin K1 has been demonstrated to effectively treat papulopustular skin rash, a serious and frequently encountered side effect of Epidermal Growth Factor Inhibitors (EGFRIs). Systemic absorption of vitamin K1 from skin and the resultant consequence of antagonizing EGFRIs anticancer effects jeopardizes the clinical acceptability of this rather effective treatment. The purpose of the present study was to rationally formulate and evaluate the release rate and transdermal absorption of a wide range of Vitamin K1 dermal preparations with a variety of physiochemical properties. A library of 33 formulations with were compounded and tested for Vitamin K1 permeation using ...


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