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The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

Tracy Collins, Ph.D.

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


The Safety And Efficacy Of Ondansetron In The Treatment Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Rebecca Stark 2017 Duquesne University

The Safety And Efficacy Of Ondansetron In The Treatment Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Rebecca Stark

Graduate Student Research Symposium

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts (obsessions) that cause significant anxiety and distress, leading to repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that an individual feels driven to perform. The symptoms of OCD can range from mild to so severe that it can be incapacitating to an individual’s life. Treatment is often prescribed, including both pharmacological and behavioral therapy. Overall, 70% of patients starting treatment experience a significant improvement; however, there is still a portion of patients with severe OCD that do not respond to first and second-line treatment plans. We present the case of a ...


Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski 2017 Brown University

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...


Relationship Between Self-Efficacy And Patient Knowledge On Adherence To Oral Contraceptives Using The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (Mmas-8), Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Benjamin D. Aronson, Margarette Kading, Donald Morisky 2017 Chapman University

Relationship Between Self-Efficacy And Patient Knowledge On Adherence To Oral Contraceptives Using The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (Mmas-8), Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Benjamin D. Aronson, Margarette Kading, Donald Morisky

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Preconception care, including family planning, is a vital component of healthcare for women of reproductive age. An average female spends the majority of her reproductive life trying to prevent a pregnancy. In order to prevent unintended pregnancy, women often rely on the use of hormonal contraceptives. In the United States, the majority of hormonal contraceptive users are prescribed oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Reduced adherence to OCPs decreases their ability to prevent pregnancy. The study aimed to measure OCP adherence among female college students, and explore the relationship between OCP adherence, knowledge, and self-efficacy.

Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a ...


Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella 2017 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to increased intake of sweet solutions by mammals, learning, particularly classically-conditioned “Pavlovian-like” learning, also plays an important role. An orosensory conditioned flavor preference (CFP) can be elicited by pairing one novel flavor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a fructose solution and a second novel flavor (CS-) with a saccharin solution. Rats will prefer the CS+ flavor in a subsequent 2-bottle choice test with both flavors mixed in saccharin. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 as well as NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonists eliminated the acquisition (learning) of fructose-CFP. Further, expression of ...


Aligning Opioid Prescribing Pathways, Andrea Lai, Outpatient Pharmacy, Haley Pelletier, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Ruth Hanselman 2017 Maine Medical Center

Aligning Opioid Prescribing Pathways, Andrea Lai, Outpatient Pharmacy, Haley Pelletier, Suneela Nayak, Stephen Tyzik, Ruth Hanselman

Maine Medical Center

No abstract provided.


Synthesis Of Hydroxybenzylidene-Indolinones, Schiff Bases And N-Substituted Analogs And Their Effects On Bacterial Physiology., Catherine Eliana Cabrera, Neetu Dayal, Moloud Aflaki, Herman Sintim 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

Synthesis Of Hydroxybenzylidene-Indolinones, Schiff Bases And N-Substituted Analogs And Their Effects On Bacterial Physiology., Catherine Eliana Cabrera, Neetu Dayal, Moloud Aflaki, Herman Sintim

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

c-di-AMP is a global stress response regulator involved in some processes of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. It has become a candidate target for the development of new antibacterial treatments. Previous studies have shown that hydroxybenzylidene-indolinones can act as c-di-AMP synthase inhibitors. They also act as antibacterial and anti-biofilm inhibitors and re-sensitize resistant bacteria to methicillin and vancomycin. In this project, potent analogs of these compounds, including Schiff bases and N-substituted compounds, have been synthetized. The objective of this work is to explore the effect of these modifications on their biological activity. Base-catalyzed condensation and acid-catalyzed reactions were performed in ...


Development Of Self-Assembling Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery Applications, Young Chan Kim, Craig Sweet, Helen Margaret Flynn, David H. Thompson 2017 Purdue University

Development Of Self-Assembling Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery Applications, Young Chan Kim, Craig Sweet, Helen Margaret Flynn, David H. Thompson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer in the world, and occurs in nearly four percent of all men. Although many cases are diagnosed as early stage cancer and the tumor can be removed by surgery, reoccurrence rates are high making treatment difficult and thus one of the most expensive cancers. To address this problem, drugs are injected intravesically after tumor removal to kill any residual cancer that may cause reoccurrence. While this was a significant improvement over surgery alone, high toxicity along with short residence times in the bladder limited its effectiveness. To combat these shortcomings, we will ...


Computational Drug Design: A Multitargeted Approach In Bladder Cancer, Travis C. Lantz, Joydeb Majumder, Gaurav Chopra 2017 Purdue University

Computational Drug Design: A Multitargeted Approach In Bladder Cancer, Travis C. Lantz, Joydeb Majumder, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Cancer is a complex, robust disease with multiple redundant disease pathways which lead to tumor development, growth, and eventually even death. Despite known redundancies, cancer therapeutics continue to be developed against a single protein target. Initial disease regression occurs followed by relapse in a drug resistant disease state. In response, combinational drug clinical trial targeting multiple pathways began, and have failed due to increased toxicity caused by adverse drug interactions. Development of a single drug that differentially targets multiple disease pathways will result in a more potent therapeutic while inducing minimal toxicity. This was done computationally through in-lab software packages ...


Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. LeRoy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama 2017 Purdue University

Fret Biosensors: Engineering Fluorescent Proteins As Biological Tools For Studying Parkinson’S Disease, Nathan J. Leroy, Jacob R. Norley, Saranya Radhakrishnan, Mathew Tantama

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with over 200,000 new cases each year. In general, the cause of the disease is unknown, but oxidative stress inside of neurons has been associated with the disease’s pathology for some time. Currently, techniques to study the onset of PD inside of neurons are limited. This makes treatments and causes difficult to discover. One solution to this has been fluorescent protein biosensors. In short, these proteins can be engineered to glow when a certain state is achieved inside a cell. The present research discusses the engineering of a genetically-encoded ...


Tumor-Targeted Delivery Of Sirna Using Fatty Acyl-Cgkrk Peptide Conjugates, Meenakshi Sharma, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Hung Do, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi 2017 Chapman University

Tumor-Targeted Delivery Of Sirna Using Fatty Acyl-Cgkrk Peptide Conjugates, Meenakshi Sharma, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Hung Do, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Tumor-targeted carriers provide efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor tissue. CGKRK is one of the well-known tumor targeting peptides with significant specificity for angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. Here, we designed fatty acyl conjugated CGKRK peptides, based on the hypothesis that hydrophobically-modified CGKRK peptide could enhance cellular permeation and delivery of siRNA targeted to tumor cells for effective silencing of selected proteins. We synthesized six fatty acyl-peptide conjugates, using a diverse chain of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids to study the efficiency of this approach. At peptide:siRNA weight/weight ratio of 10:1 (N/P ≈ 13.6 ...


Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury 2017 UAE University

Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions ofmenthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating thatmenthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at ...


Crystal Structure Of Apobec3a Bound To Single-Stranded Dna Reveals Structural Basis For Cytidine Deamination And Specificity, Takahide Kouno, Tania V. Silvas, Brendan J. Hilbert, Shivender Shandilya, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Brian A. Kelch, William E. Royer, Mohan Somasundaran, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hiroshi Matsuo, Celia A. Schiffer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Crystal Structure Of Apobec3a Bound To Single-Stranded Dna Reveals Structural Basis For Cytidine Deamination And Specificity, Takahide Kouno, Tania V. Silvas, Brendan J. Hilbert, Shivender Shandilya, Markus-Frederik Bohn, Brian A. Kelch, William E. Royer, Mohan Somasundaran, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hiroshi Matsuo, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Nucleic acid editing enzymes are essential components of the immune system that lethally mutate viral pathogens and somatically mutate immunoglobulins, and contribute to the diversification and lethality of cancers. Among these enzymes are the seven human APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminases, each with unique target sequence specificity and subcellular localization. While the enzymology and biological consequences have been extensively studied, the mechanism by which APOBEC3s recognize and edit DNA remains elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of a cytidine deaminase with ssDNA bound in the active site at 2.2 A. This structure not only visualizes the active ...


Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dengue Virus Ns2b/Ns3 Protease Inhibitors Exploiting The Prime Side, Kuan-Hung Lin, Akbar Ali, Linah Rusere, Djade I. Soumana, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The mosquito-transmitted dengue virus (DENV) infects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Maturation of DENV particles requires proper cleavage of the viral polyprotein, including processing of 8 of the 13 substrate cleavage sites by dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease. With no available direct-acting antiviral targeting DENV, NS2/NS3 protease is a promising target for inhibitor design. Current design efforts focus on the nonprime side of the DENV protease active site, resulting in highly hydrophilic and nonspecific scaffolds. However, the prime side also significantly modulates DENV protease binding affinity, as revealed by engineering the binding loop of aprotinin, a ...


Analysis Of The Proposed Tpp-Related Patent Linkage System In Taiwan, Ping-Hsun Chen 2017 National Chengchi University

Analysis Of The Proposed Tpp-Related Patent Linkage System In Taiwan, Ping-Hsun Chen

Journal of Law and Health

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement mandates member states to implement a patent linkage system vested in Article 18.53. To successfully join the TPP Agreement, Taiwan has begun the legislation of a patent linkage system by proposing an amendment for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. Article 18.53 requires a member either to adopt a notification mechanism under Paragraph 1 or to stay the issuance of marketing approval under Paragraph 2. But, Taiwan’s proposal includes both measures. Taiwan’ patent linkage system allows a pioneer drug company to register patents claiming (a) a material; (b) a combination or formula; or (c ...


Abnormal Dendritic Maturation Of Developing Cortical Neurons Exposed To Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (Crh): Insights Into Effects Of Prenatal Adversity?, Megan M. Curran, Curt A. Sandman, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Laura M. Glynn, Tallie Z. Baram 2017 University of California, Irvine

Abnormal Dendritic Maturation Of Developing Cortical Neurons Exposed To Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (Crh): Insights Into Effects Of Prenatal Adversity?, Megan M. Curran, Curt A. Sandman, Elyssia Poggi Davis, Laura M. Glynn, Tallie Z. Baram

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown. In this study, we ...


Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Brent A. Thornhill, Clayton M. Crabtree, Aaron M. Dom, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Christopher A. McNees, Cody A. Stover, A. Betts Carpenter, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, Brandon S. Shiflett, Piyali Dasgupta 2017 Marshall University

Inhibition Of Cholinergic Signaling Causes Apoptosis In Human Bronchioalveolar Carcinoma, Jamie K. Lau, Kathleen C. Brown, Brent A. Thornhill, Clayton M. Crabtree, Aaron M. Dom, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Christopher A. Mcnees, Cody A. Stover, A. Betts Carpenter, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, Brandon S. Shiflett, Piyali Dasgupta

Kathleen C. Brown

Recent case-controlled clinical studies show that bronchioalveolar carcinomas (BAC) are correlated with smoking. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, accelerates cell proliferation through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In this study, we show that human BACs produce acetylcholine (ACh) and contain several cholinergic factors including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), choline transporter 1 (CHT1, SLC5A7), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, SLC18A3), and nACh receptors (AChRs, CHRNAs). Nicotine increased the production of ACh in human BACs, and ACh acts as a growth factor for these cells. Nicotine-induced ACh production was mediated by α7-, α3β2-, and β3-nAChRs, ChAT and VAChT pathways. We observed that ...


Interdependence Of Inhibitor Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease, Janet L. Paulsen, Florian Leidner, Debra A. Ragland, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Interdependence Of Inhibitor Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease, Janet L. Paulsen, Florian Leidner, Debra A. Ragland, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Molecular recognition is a highly interdependent process. Subsite couplings within the active site of proteases are most often revealed through conditional amino acid preferences in substrate recognition. However, the potential effect of these couplings on inhibition and thus inhibitor design is largely unexplored. The present study examines the interdependency of subsites in HIV-1 protease using a focused library of protease inhibitors, to aid in future inhibitor design. Previously a series of darunavir (DRV) analogs was designed to systematically probe the S1' and S2' subsites. Co-crystal structures of these analogs with HIV-1 protease provide the ideal opportunity to probe subsite interdependency ...


Chemical Modulation Of Cancer Cells To Enhance Tumor Immunity, Florisela Herrejon Chavez 2017 Portland State University

Chemical Modulation Of Cancer Cells To Enhance Tumor Immunity, Florisela Herrejon Chavez

PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal

Breakthroughs in immunotherapy have led to cancer therapeutics that activate the immune system by blocking inhibitory mechanisms. This class of therapeutics has resulted in longer survival rates for cancer patients, some living over 10 years after being diagnosed as terminally ill. However, only a small fraction of patients who receive immunotherapy drugs respond favorably.Recent studies suggest that certain anticancer agents (both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs) stimulate immune recognition of cancers. Identification of such immunomodulatory anticancer agents would make ideal partners for current immunotherapy treatments, thus increasing the proportion of the treated patients who benefit from immunotherapy. This study ...


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