Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Chemicals and Drugs Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,271 Full-Text Articles 9,055 Authors 1,347,336 Downloads 242 Institutions

All Articles in Chemicals and Drugs

Faceted Search

3,271 full-text articles. Page 1 of 139.

The Downward Spiral, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Karen A. Kopecky 2022 University of Pennsylvania

The Downward Spiral, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Karen A. Kopecky

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

There have been more than 500,000 opioid overdose deaths since 2000. To analyze the opioid epidemic, a model is constructed where individuals, with and without pain, choose whether to misuse opioids knowing the probabilities of addiction and dying. These odds are functions of opioid use. Markov chains are estimated from the US data for the college and non-college educated that summarize the transitions into and out of opioid addiction as well as to a deadly overdose. A structural model is constructed that matches the estimated Markov chains. The epidemic's drivers, and the impact of medical interventions, are examined.


Research Progress Of Panax Notoginseng In The Diagnosis Of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shuli Lu, Yan Feng, Jie Gao, Xianggong JIin, Yixin Wang, Keji Chen 2022 1.Department of General Medicine,Beijing Anzhen Hospital,Capital Medical University,Beijing 100029,China 2.Department of Community Health,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Third Affiliated Hospital,Beijing 100029,China

Research Progress Of Panax Notoginseng In The Diagnosis Of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shuli Lu, Yan Feng, Jie Gao, Xianggong Jiin, Yixin Wang, Keji Chen

General Practice in China

As a traditional Chinese medicine,Panax notoginseng has a significant effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases due to its effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.With the improvement of modern extraction technology,Panax notoginseng extract greatly improves its efficacy.In this paper,the mechanism of action,clinical effect and possible adverse reactions of Panax notoginseng extract(the main component of Panax notoginseng saponins,PNS)in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases(coronary heart disease,hypertension,heart failure,arrhythmia)at home and abroad in recent years were sorted out,and the relevant literature was analyzed,summarized and summarized ...


Efficacy Of Chinese Medicine Therapies On Insomnia Associated With Coronary Heart Disease:A Network Meta-Analysis, Yawei Zheng, Lifei Wu, Xingxing Zhang, Dongmei Gu, Siqi Zhang, Ming Liu, Zhuyuan Fang 2022 1.Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China 2.Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China

Efficacy Of Chinese Medicine Therapies On Insomnia Associated With Coronary Heart Disease:A Network Meta-Analysis, Yawei Zheng, Lifei Wu, Xingxing Zhang, Dongmei Gu, Siqi Zhang, Ming Liu, Zhuyuan Fang

General Practice in China

BackgroundCoronary heart disease(CHD) with insomnia can be called a "psycho-cardiological disease", and the persistent existence of insomnia can induce the onset of CHD or aggravate the development of the condition. In recent years, there have been continuous reports on TCM treatment of CHD with insomnia, but the sample size is small and the relevant evidence-based evaluation is insufficient. ObjectiveTo systematically review the efficacy of Chinese medicine therapies and sedative hypnotic drugs on insomnia associated with CHD. MethodsDatabases including CNKI, CBM, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBase and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to ...


Clinical Characteristics And Implications Of Bradycardia In Covid‐19 Patients Treated With Remdesivir: A Single‐Center Retrospective Cohort Study, Ariyon Schreiber, Justin S. Bauzon, Kavita Batra, Salman Mohammed, Kevin Lee, Nazanin Houshmand, Uyen Pham, Celica Cosme, Kim Inciong, Omar Al‑Taweel, Keaton Nasser, Jibran Rana, Chris Sossou, Ariel Go, Dalia Hawwass, Jimmy Diep, Chowdhury H. Ahsan 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Clinical Characteristics And Implications Of Bradycardia In Covid‐19 Patients Treated With Remdesivir: A Single‐Center Retrospective Cohort Study, Ariyon Schreiber, Justin S. Bauzon, Kavita Batra, Salman Mohammed, Kevin Lee, Nazanin Houshmand, Uyen Pham, Celica Cosme, Kim Inciong, Omar Al‑Taweel, Keaton Nasser, Jibran Rana, Chris Sossou, Ariel Go, Dalia Hawwass, Jimmy Diep, Chowdhury H. Ahsan

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background and Objectives: Remdesivir is an antiviral drug used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a relatively obscure cardiac efect profle. Previous studies have reported bradycardia associated with remdesivir, but few have examined its clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate remdesivir associated bradycardia and its associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective study that investigated bradycardia in 600 patients who received remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19. A total of 375 patients were included in the study after screening for other known causes of bradycardia (atrioventricular [AV] nodal blockers). All patients were ...


Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak 2022 Western University

Rna Isolation In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Mice Models, Salem Abu Al-Burak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Fibrosis is a progressive and typically irreversible disease process characterized by the excessive deposition of collagen in organs and in tissues of the musculoskeletal (MSK) system1,2. This process, which causes loss of organ and tissue function, can be initiated by micro-traumas3, an excessive and/or prolonged immune response1, the activation and proliferation of fibrosis-inducing progenitor cells4, and a pro-fibrotic extra-cellular microenvironment5. In parallel with the events that initiate fibrosis, genetic or environmental influences may cause cells and tissues to become predisposed to fibrosis development prior to initiation. This suggests that these cells and tissues ...


Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra 2022 Western University

Assessing The Impact Of Lipopolysaccharide On Learning And Memory In Rats, Anahat Luthra

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) have a bi-direction relationship, modulating one another.4 Proinflammatory cytokines released from CNS immune cells have an impact on cognitive processes such as learning and memory.1 Liposaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, which is used to activate proinflammatory cytokine release has been found to impact learning and memory processes, such as in the anticipatory nausea paradigm (ANP).2 Anticipatory nausea and vomiting is that which may occur before a chemotherapy treatment session begins in a patient who has had chemotherapy before. It is caused by triggers like ...


The Effects Of The Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole, On Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic 2022 Western University

The Effects Of The Aromatase Inhibitor, Letrozole, On Lithium Chloride (Licl)-Induced Conditioned Disgust Behaviour (Anticipatory Nausea) In Male Rats, Vangel Matic

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Anticipatory Nausea (AN) is a form of classical conditioning in which the effects of a nausea-inducing toxin become associated with a specific environmental context. AN is often experienced by individuals receiving chemotherapy treatment, whereby the emetic effects of the chemotherapy agents become associated with the treatment context (i.e. hospital, clinic), such that exposure to the context alone can cause an individual to experience nausea and potentially withdraw from treatment. Chemotherapy-associated AN is suggested to have a higher incidence in females compared to males.

AN can be represented in a rodent model (conditioned disgust) through the occurrence of conditioned gaping ...


Matrix Optimization Of Zno For Mass Spectrometry Imaging Of Small Neurochemicals In Rat And Mouse Brain Tissue, Natalie B. Merola, Juan Pablo Galindo Lazo 2022 Western University

Matrix Optimization Of Zno For Mass Spectrometry Imaging Of Small Neurochemicals In Rat And Mouse Brain Tissue, Natalie B. Merola, Juan Pablo Galindo Lazo

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Testing experimental parameters in order to optimize ZnO nanoparticles as a matrix for low molecular weight neurochemicals in rat and mouse brain tissue.


Psychedelics, Positive Psychology, And Positive Humanities, Hamide Eygoren 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Psychedelics, Positive Psychology, And Positive Humanities, Hamide Eygoren

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Public and scientific interest in the effect of psychedelic drugs on wellbeing has risen significantly. Preliminary data show that psychedelic drugs, specifically classic psychedelics (DMT, psilocybin, mescaline, and LSD), may have the potential to treat mood disorders and increase wellbeing through their acute subjective effects. The acute subjective effects and enduring effects of psychedelics on wellbeing seem to relate to positive psychological frameworks (e.g., resilience factors and PERMA) considerably. Moreover, optimizing acute subjective effects indicates the importance of set (individual’s internal (mental) factors) and setting (individual’s external factors) in psychedelics administration as moderating factors. A new subfield ...


The Kinetics And Cellular Imaging Of Multi-Color Fluorescent And Chemiluminescent Compounds, Bo Li 2022 Southern Methodist University

The Kinetics And Cellular Imaging Of Multi-Color Fluorescent And Chemiluminescent Compounds, Bo Li

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

A three-dimensional display is a useful method which can provide spatially accurate representations of high-resolution images with a 360° view. Therefore, it has potential to be applied widely in the medical area, entertainment industry and for military applications. According to the first-generation 3D digital light photoactivatable dye display (3D Light PAD), N-phenyl spirolactam rhodamine B was used as photoactivatable compound that could be switched from non-fluorescent to fluorescent using ultraviolet light. However, the detailed mechanism, how other rhodamine derivatives would perform in 3D Light PAD, and what other factors in this system could improve the imaging quality remained unclear. In ...


Effect Of Nicotine On Immune Suppression And Prostate Cancer Pathogenesis, Sirin Saranyutanon 2022 University of South Alabama

Effect Of Nicotine On Immune Suppression And Prostate Cancer Pathogenesis, Sirin Saranyutanon

Theses and Dissertations

Tobacco or cigarette smoking is the leading cause of several diseases, including cancer, in the United States and worldwide. Epidemiological data provide strong evidence for an association of nicotine with prostate cancer risk and recurrence, but experimental data is largely lacking. Nicotine is an addictive ingredient of tobacco products and other alternatives, however, its role in prostate tumor biology has not been explored. Further, while a role of smoking in immunosuppression has been demonstrated, the effect of nicotine on immune function is largely unknown. We hypothesized that nicotine suppresses immune function by promoting alternative polarization of macrophages and promotes prostate ...


Radioluminescence Based Biochemical Sensing And Imaging Strategies To Measure Local Drug Release And Ph, Gretchen B. Schober 2022 Clemson University

Radioluminescence Based Biochemical Sensing And Imaging Strategies To Measure Local Drug Release And Ph, Gretchen B. Schober

All Dissertations

In this dissertation we describe methods for measuring infection relevant biochemical analytes using radioluminescent and ultrasound luminescent materials. Films and nanoparticles fabricated with europium doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Eu3+) are used to quantitatively measure radiolabeled pharmaceutical concentration, specifically tritium labeled vancomycin (3H-vancomycin). Europium and dysprosium doped strontium aluminate is used to fabricate an ultrasound modulated, pH sensing film. These methods are indicated for theranostic evaluation of implant associated infection. Bacterial biofilms are inherently resistant to traditional antibiotic treatment and can coat biomedical implants. These biofilm related infections are difficult or impossible to eradicate non-invasively ...


Development Of A Decellularized Hydrogel Composite And Its Application In A Novel Model Of Disc-Associated Low Back Pain In Female Sprague Dawley Rats, David Lillyman 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Development Of A Decellularized Hydrogel Composite And Its Application In A Novel Model Of Disc-Associated Low Back Pain In Female Sprague Dawley Rats, David Lillyman

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Chronic low back pain is a global socioeconomic crisis compounded by an absence of reliable, curative treatments. The predominant pathology associated with chronic low back pain is degeneration of intervertebral discs in the lumbar spine. During degeneration, nerves can sprout into the intervertebral disc tissue and be chronically subjected to inflammatory and mechanical stimuli, resulting in pain. Pain arising from the intervertebral disc, or disc-associated pain, is a complex, multi-faceted disorder which necessitates valid animal models to screen therapeutics and study pathomechanisms of pain.

While many research teams have created animal models of disc degeneration, the translation of these platforms ...


Treatment Of Tardive Dyskinesia With High Dose Vitamin B6 Associated With Depression, Marjorie McCoy, Adam Schindzielorz, Suzanne Holroyd 2022 University of Mississippi Medical Center

Treatment Of Tardive Dyskinesia With High Dose Vitamin B6 Associated With Depression, Marjorie Mccoy, Adam Schindzielorz, Suzanne Holroyd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder associated with dopamine receptor blocking medications. Recommended treatments for TD include discontinuing the causative agent, adding vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors, or adding vitamin B6. We present a 66-year-old Caucasian male with bipolar I disorder who developed TD while on lithium and quetiapine having been euthymic on this regimen for three years. He was initially treated with 1200 mg B6 daily. This failed to improve his TD and was associated with a depressive episode. He switched to valbenazine 40 mg daily which improved his TD and concurrently his mood, but months later ...


Synthesis Of Triaminopyrimidine Derivatives For Inhibition Of Inflammatory Caspases, Marianna C. Haddad, Caitlin Karver 2022 DePaul University

Synthesis Of Triaminopyrimidine Derivatives For Inhibition Of Inflammatory Caspases, Marianna C. Haddad, Caitlin Karver

DePaul Discoveries

Caspases are cysteine-dependent aspartic proteases whose functions are connected to different mechanisms of cell death and inflammation. As caspase-1 plays a significant role in the immune response, its activity has been of interest as a target for inhibitor development as its inhibition will reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory diseases, thus minimizing the symptoms that arise and serving as a possible therapeutic approach. Prior work discovered a family of potent inhibitors of caspase-1 with a common triaminopyrimidine scaffold. To further explore structure-activity relationship profiles of potential inhibitors of caspase-1, two different syntheses were attempted to create two new ...


Electrochemical Deposition Of Calcium Phosphate-Based Coatings Onto Porous Ti Using Organic Phosphorus Sources, Clement Lee 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Electrochemical Deposition Of Calcium Phosphate-Based Coatings Onto Porous Ti Using Organic Phosphorus Sources, Clement Lee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The study and commercialization of calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coatings has occurred for several decades. However, this has typically involved the use of hydroxyapatite. This thesis presents the synthesis of different Ca-P-based coatings that has not been studied. Anodic oxidation was employed to create a porous Ti substrate, while pulsed electrochemical deposition was used to deposit the coating onto the Ti. The first coating synthesized was a calcium phosphoserine (Ca-pSer) complex, which contained two different morphologies: a flower-like structure at low deposition time and a unique cubic morphology at higher deposition times. Next, an amorphous calcium phosphate coating was synthesized and ...


In-Silico Analysis Of Interacting Pathways Through Kim-1 Protein Interaction In Diabetic Nephropathy, Fatima Abid, Z Rubab, Syeda Sadia Fatima, A Qureshi, Arfa Azhar, A Jafri 2022 Jinnah Sindh Medical University, Karachi

In-Silico Analysis Of Interacting Pathways Through Kim-1 Protein Interaction In Diabetic Nephropathy, Fatima Abid, Z Rubab, Syeda Sadia Fatima, A Qureshi, Arfa Azhar, A Jafri

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Human Kidney Injury Molecule-1, also known as HAVCR-1 (Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1), belongs to the cell-surface protein of immunoglobulin superfamily involved in the phagocytosis by acting as scavenger receptor epithelial cells. The study focused on pinpointing the mechanisms and genes that interact with KIM-1.
Methods: This in-silico study was done from March 2019 to December 2019. The Enrichment and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network carefully choose proteins. In addition, the diagramed gene data sets were accomplished using FunRich version 3.1.3. It was done to unveil the proteins that may affect the regulation of HAVCR1 or may ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of Anti-Hiv Activity Of Mono- And Di-Substituted Phosphonamidate Conjugates Of Tenofovir, Aaminat Qureshi, Louise A. Ouattara, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Amita Verma, Gustavo F. Doncel, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Hina Siddiqui, Keykavous Parang 2022 University of Karachi

Synthesis And Evaluation Of Anti-Hiv Activity Of Mono- And Di-Substituted Phosphonamidate Conjugates Of Tenofovir, Aaminat Qureshi, Louise A. Ouattara, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Amita Verma, Gustavo F. Doncel, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Hina Siddiqui, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The activity of nucleoside and nucleotide analogs as antiviral agents requires phosphorylation by endogenous enzymes. Phosphate-substituted analogs have low bioavailability due to the presence of ionizable negatively-charged groups. To circumvent these limitations, several prodrug approaches have been proposed. Herein, we hypothesized that the conjugation or combination of the lipophilic amide bond with nucleotide-based tenofovir (TFV) (1) could improve the anti-HIV activity. During the current study, the hydroxyl group of phosphonates in TFV was conjugated with the amino group of L-alanine, L-leucine, L-valine, and glycine amino acids and other long fatty ester hydrocarbon chains to synthesize 43 derivatives. Several classes of ...


Integrating Conformational Dynamics And Perturbation-Based Network Modeling For Mutational Profiling Of Binding And Allostery In The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Variant Complexes With Antibodies: Balancing Local And Global Determinants Of Mutational Escape Mechanisms, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Ryan Kassab, Keerthi Krishnan 2022 Chapman University

Integrating Conformational Dynamics And Perturbation-Based Network Modeling For Mutational Profiling Of Binding And Allostery In The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Variant Complexes With Antibodies: Balancing Local And Global Determinants Of Mutational Escape Mechanisms, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Ryan Kassab, Keerthi Krishnan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

n this study, we combined all-atom MD simulations, the ensemble-based mutational scanning of protein stability and binding, and perturbation-based network profiling of allosteric interactions in the SARS-CoV-2 spike complexes with a panel of cross-reactive and ultra-potent single antibodies (B1-182.1 and A23-58.1) as well as antibody combinations (A19-61.1/B1-182.1 and A19-46.1/B1-182.1). Using this approach, we quantify the local and global effects of mutations in the complexes, identify protein stability centers, characterize binding energy hotspots, and predict the allosteric control points of long-range interactions and communications. Conformational dynamics and distance fluctuation analysis revealed the antibody-specific ...


A Changing Epidemic And The Rise Of Opioid-Stimulant Co-Use, Saeed Ahmed, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz 2022 Rutland Regional Medical Center, Rutland

A Changing Epidemic And The Rise Of Opioid-Stimulant Co-Use, Saeed Ahmed, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress