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A Potential Klebsiella Bacteriocin With Efficacy Toward The Enterbacteriaceae Family, Kasey Barber 2024 East Tennessee State University

A Potential Klebsiella Bacteriocin With Efficacy Toward The Enterbacteriaceae Family, Kasey Barber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drug resistance is unfortunately becoming a prevalent issue in the course of patient treatment, ranging from chemotherapy resistance to antimicrobial resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated in 2016 that at least 23,000 people die every year in the United States from an infection with an antibiotic-resistant organism (Munita, et al, 2016). Carl Friedlander was the first scientist to describe Klebsiella pneumoniae in 1882 as an encapsulated bacillus after isolating the bacterium from the lungs of patients who had died from pneumonia (Ashurst and Dawson, 2022). Klebsiella pneumoniae is the type species for the Klebsiella genus and …


Beyond Mitragynine: Composition Survey And Stability Assessment Of Kratom Tea Ordered Via Food Delivery Platforms In Bangkok, Thailand, Yuta Tokuda, Apinya Tubtimrattana, Nat Tansrisawad, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Parath Thirati 2024 Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University

Beyond Mitragynine: Composition Survey And Stability Assessment Of Kratom Tea Ordered Via Food Delivery Platforms In Bangkok, Thailand, Yuta Tokuda, Apinya Tubtimrattana, Nat Tansrisawad, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Parath Thirati

Chulalongkorn Medical Journal

Background: Kratom is a native tree to Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have long been used medicinally and recreationally due to their stimulative and opioid-like effects attributed to high endogenous levels of mitragynine and related alkaloids. Kratom is widely consumed as tea and is now publicly sold, including on food delivery platforms, after recent decriminalization despite selling of kratom products being still considered illegal by other acts.

Objectives: To assess the formulas of kratom teas sold on Thai food delivery platform together with their consistency and the stability of refrigerated teas.

Methods: Kratom alkaloids, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, and additive contents of …


Ensemble-Based Mutational Profiling And Network Analysis Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Omicron Xbb Lineages For Interactions With The Ace2 Receptor And Antibodies: Cooperation Of Binding Hotspots In Mediating Epistatic Couplings Underlies Binding Mechanism And Immune Escape, Nishank Raisinghani, Mohammed Alshahrani, Grace Gupta, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2024 Chapman University

Ensemble-Based Mutational Profiling And Network Analysis Of The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Omicron Xbb Lineages For Interactions With The Ace2 Receptor And Antibodies: Cooperation Of Binding Hotspots In Mediating Epistatic Couplings Underlies Binding Mechanism And Immune Escape, Nishank Raisinghani, Mohammed Alshahrani, Grace Gupta, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this study, we performed a computational study of binding mechanisms for the SARS-CoV-2 spike Omicron XBB lineages with the host cell receptor ACE2 and a panel of diverse class one antibodies. The central objective of this investigation was to examine the molecular factors underlying epistatic couplings among convergent evolution hotspots that enable optimal balancing of ACE2 binding and antibody evasion for Omicron variants BA.1, BA2, BA.3, BA.4/BA.5, BQ.1.1, XBB.1, XBB.1.5, and XBB.1.5 + L455F/F456L. By combining evolutionary analysis, molecular dynamics simulations, and ensemble-based mutational scanning of spike protein residues in complexes with ACE2, we identified structural stability and binding …


The Fight For Fluoridation In Stl, Noor Yousaf 2024 University of Missouri-St. Louis

The Fight For Fluoridation In Stl, Noor Yousaf

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Fluoridation is the addition of fluoride to a source of drinking water. In St. Louis’s public water supply, the amount of fluoride remains the same since 1953 at 5ppm. Dr. Ralph Rosen and his team of dentists and researchers advocated for the fluoridation of the water because it reduced the frequency of dental caries occurring in children and adults alike, but the public had opinions on the sudden addition of chemicals to their water. This includes how the public’s health will be affected, how consumer products would change, and also how effective this addition of fluoride would be. This debate …


The Feigned Annoyance And Frustration Test To Activate The Sympathoadrenal Medullary System, Ted W. Gehrig III, Lee S. Berk, Robert I. Dudley, Jo A. Smith, Lida Gharibvand, Everett B. Lohman III 2024 Loma Linda University

The Feigned Annoyance And Frustration Test To Activate The Sympathoadrenal Medullary System, Ted W. Gehrig Iii, Lee S. Berk, Robert I. Dudley, Jo A. Smith, Lida Gharibvand, Everett B. Lohman Iii

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

When perceived as threatening, social interactions have been shown to trigger the sympathoadrenal medullary system as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in a physiologic stress response. The allostatic load placed on human health and physiology in the context of acute and chronic stress can have profound health consequences. The purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for a lab-based stress stimulus using social-evaluative threat. While several valid, stress-stimulating protocols exist, we sought to develop one that triggered a physiologic response, did not require significant lab resources, and could be completed in around 10 min. We included 53 …


Impact Of Fads Genotype On Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content In Human Milk Extracellular Vesicles: A Genetic Association Study, John J. Miklavcic, Natalie Paterson, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Laura M. Glynn 2024 Chapman University

Impact Of Fads Genotype On Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content In Human Milk Extracellular Vesicles: A Genetic Association Study, John J. Miklavcic, Natalie Paterson, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Laura M. Glynn

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Extracellular vesicles in human milk are critical in supporting newborn growth and development. Bioavailability of dietary extracellular vesicles may depend on the composition of membrane lipids. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster impact the content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk phospholipids. This study investigated the relation between variation in FADS1 and FADS2 with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in extracellular vesicles from human milk.

Methods

Milk was obtained from a cohort of mothers (N = 70) at 2–4 weeks of lactation. SNPs in the FADS gene locus were determined using …


In Silico Identification Of Small Molecule Agonist Binding Sites On Kcc2, Kenyon Mitchell, Alfred Amendolara, Ruth Hunter, Jaden Miner, Andrew Payne 2024 Noorda College of Osteopathic Medicine

In Silico Identification Of Small Molecule Agonist Binding Sites On Kcc2, Kenyon Mitchell, Alfred Amendolara, Ruth Hunter, Jaden Miner, Andrew Payne

Annual Research Symposium

Purpose: Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter 2 (KCC2) is a neuronal membrane protein specific to the central nervous system. It is responsible for removing Cl- ions from the intracellular space, maintaining a normal Cl- gradient essential for proper function at inhibitory synapses. Dysregulation causes an upward shift in the Cl- reversal potential resulting in a hyperexcitable state of the postsynaptic neuron. Existing literature indicates that KCC2 may be involved in the addiction pathway of a variety of drugs of abuse, including opioids and alcohol. This makes KCC2 an attractive potential drug target when treating substance use disorders. A novel direct KCC2 agonist, VU0500469, …


Accurate Characterization Of Binding Kinetics And Allosteric Mechanisms For The Hsp90 Chaperone Inhibitors Using Ai-Augmented Integrative Biophysical Studies, Chao Xu, Xianglei Zhang, Lianghao Zhao, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Fang Bai 2024 ShanghaiTech University

Accurate Characterization Of Binding Kinetics And Allosteric Mechanisms For The Hsp90 Chaperone Inhibitors Using Ai-Augmented Integrative Biophysical Studies, Chao Xu, Xianglei Zhang, Lianghao Zhao, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Fang Bai

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The binding kinetics of drugs to their targets are gradually being recognized as a crucial indicator of the efficacy of drugs in vivo, leading to the development of various computational methods for predicting the binding kinetics in recent years. However, compared with the prediction of binding affinity, the underlying structure and dynamic determinants of binding kinetics are more complicated. Efficient and accurate methods for predicting binding kinetics are still lacking. In this study, quantitative structure–kinetics relationship (QSKR) models were developed using 132 inhibitors targeting the ATP binding domain of heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α) to predict the dissociation rate …


From Cough To Crip: The Development Of Codeine From A Purely Medical Substance Into A Popular Recreational Drug, Rhett C. Vaughn 2024 University of South Carolina

From Cough To Crip: The Development Of Codeine From A Purely Medical Substance Into A Popular Recreational Drug, Rhett C. Vaughn

Senior Theses

The research that was conducted aimed to elicit the influence that pop culture has on recreational drug consumption. Specifically, the usage of the drug codeine has become very popular in social media among many influencers. The research focuses on the prevalence of this drug across several media platforms, alongside the growing rate of consumption globally. Research was conducted primarily through combining various databases at various organizations and this study aims to compile the data into one coherent paper regarding codeine in pop culture. While, it cannot be solely attributed to one specific outlet or influence, this study found that alongside …


An Injectable In Situ Forming Collagen/Alginate/Caso4 Composite Hydrogel For Tissue Engineering Applications: Optimization, Characterization And In Vitro Assessments, samar A. salim, samar A. salim 2024 The British University in Egypt

An Injectable In Situ Forming Collagen/Alginate/Caso4 Composite Hydrogel For Tissue Engineering Applications: Optimization, Characterization And In Vitro Assessments, Samar A. Salim, Samar A. Salim

Nanotechnology Research Centre

In situ injectable hydrogels are effectively employed to fill irregular cavitary bone defects with initiating bone growth in targeted areas. Herein, an injectable composited hydrogel composed of collagen and alginate cross-linked in situ using different concentrations of calcium sulfate (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6%, wt./v) was synthesized. Recently, CaSO4 is frequently supported as a bone graft material for bone regeneration, owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. Moreover, hydroxyapatite (Hap) after salinization-step by (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) was incorporated for further enhancing the osteoconductive property of injected hydrogels. All fabricated hydrogels were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. While physiochemical characteristics …


Eco-Friendly Hptlc Determination Of Paracetamol, Caffeine, Drotaverine Hcl And Two Of Their Official Impurities; Application To Assay And Content Uniformity Testing Of Tablet Dosage Form, Samia A. Tawfik, Nariman A. El-Ragehy, Maha A. Hegazy, Ghada A. Sedik 2024 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini St., Cairo, Egypt - 11562

Eco-Friendly Hptlc Determination Of Paracetamol, Caffeine, Drotaverine Hcl And Two Of Their Official Impurities; Application To Assay And Content Uniformity Testing Of Tablet Dosage Form, Samia A. Tawfik, Nariman A. El-Ragehy, Maha A. Hegazy, Ghada A. Sedik

Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy Cairo University

The present work is focused on developing and validating an eco-friendly, sustainable and sensitive HPTLC method for the purpose of simultaneous determination of a five component mixture. This mixture includes paracetamol, caffeine, drotaverine HCl and the official impurities of the first two aforementioned drugs, namely; p-aminophenol and theophylline, in order. The developed method is based on application of planar chromatography using a developing system of ethyl acetate: methanol: acetic acid (8:1:2, by volume). Quantitative determination of the mentioned components was performed using UV detection. The parameters impacting chromatographic separation have been optimized. The cited compounds were effectively separated with retardation …


“The Role Of Artificial Intelligence In The Pharmaceutical Field: Enhancing Therapeutic Outcomes And Repurposing Through The Acceleration Of Drug Discovery”, Tonivie Valeriano 2024 Belmont University

“The Role Of Artificial Intelligence In The Pharmaceutical Field: Enhancing Therapeutic Outcomes And Repurposing Through The Acceleration Of Drug Discovery”, Tonivie Valeriano

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

The development of new drugs and their repurposing have considerably benefited the field of pharmacy. It will not only affect the pharmaceutical sector but also its diverse facets of health will be significantly influenced. Yet, the development of innovative medical treatments necessitated a lengthy period of expectancy for human survival. Individual survival rates were decreasing over time before the development of the treatment. Humanity has a limited lifespan. Moreover, investments in new drugs often go unnoticed because of the prolonged and complex process of drug research and development (R&D). In the future of pharmacy, artificial intelligence will continue to have …


Nebulization Based Inhalation Nanomedicine For Lung Cancer Treatments, Rahul Tiwari, Meghana Kolli, Neeraj Chauhan, Eswara Naga Hanuma, Vivek Kashyap, Subhash Chauhan, Murali Yallapu 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Nebulization Based Inhalation Nanomedicine For Lung Cancer Treatments, Rahul Tiwari, Meghana Kolli, Neeraj Chauhan, Eswara Naga Hanuma, Vivek Kashyap, Subhash Chauhan, Murali Yallapu

Research Symposium

Background: Lung cancer is reported to have a high incidence rate and first leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality across the world including in the United States. Noninvasive nebulized inhalation is a promising delivery strategy for lung, which can enhance the targeting efficiency and detention time interval of nanoparticles in the lung tissue, thus elevating the therapeutic index of therapeutic agent(s) at lower dosages. The aim of this study is to develop inhalable nanoparticles (INPs) for effective delivery of therapeutic agents in lung cancer cell lines and ex vivo models.

Methods: The inhalation nanoparticles (INPs) were prepared by solvent …


Mechanistic Investigation Of C—C Bond Activation Of Phosphaalkynes With Pt(0) Complexes, Roberto M. Escobar, Abdurrahman C. Ateşin, Christian Müller, William D. Jones, Tülay Ateşin 2024 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Mechanistic Investigation Of C—C Bond Activation Of Phosphaalkynes With Pt(0) Complexes, Roberto M. Escobar, Abdurrahman C. Ateşin, Christian Müller, William D. Jones, Tülay Ateşin

Research Symposium

Carbon–carbon (C–C) bond activation has gained increased attention as a direct method for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. Due to the thermodynamic stability and kinetic inaccessibility of the C–C bonds, however, activation of C–C bonds by homogeneous transition-metal catalysts under mild homogeneous conditions is still a challenge. Most of the systems in which the activation occurs either have aromatization or relief of ring strain as the primary driving force. The activation of unstrained C–C bonds of phosphaalkynes does not have this advantage. This study employs Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations to elucidate Pt(0)-mediated C–CP bond activation mechanisms in phosphaalkynes. Investigating the …


Differential Effects Of Fucus Vesiculosus Fucoidan On Fibroblast And Macrophage Cell Lines Inflammatory Activation, Aleksandra Augustyniak, Joanna Przyborska, Helena McMahon 2024 Circular Bioeconomy Research Group, Shannon Applied Biotechnology Centre, Munster Technological University-Kerry, Clash, V92CX88 Tralee, Co. Kerry, Ireland

Differential Effects Of Fucus Vesiculosus Fucoidan On Fibroblast And Macrophage Cell Lines Inflammatory Activation, Aleksandra Augustyniak, Joanna Przyborska, Helena Mcmahon

Publications

It is estimated that more than one-third of people aged over 16 reported living with inflammation-related chronic illness. Fucoidan, sulfated polysaccharide, has been proven to modulate immune response and inhibit inflammation in both in vitro and in vivo research. In the present study the effect of commercially available fucoidan from Fucus vesiculosus (with purity 97%) on immune response was investigated. Two cell lines, human fibroblasts (HDFa) and mouse macrophages (J774A.1) were used in the study. Cells were activated with pro-inflammatory stimulus (LPS/IFN-γ or PMA) and treated with fucoidan. Results of NO inhibition assay revealed that fucoidan has anti-inflammatory activity and …


The Effect Of Ethanol Treatment On The Protein Content Of Difi Exosomes, Kenzie Rushing 2024 Belmont University

The Effect Of Ethanol Treatment On The Protein Content Of Difi Exosomes, Kenzie Rushing

Belmont University Research Symposium (BURS)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States in both men and women combined, second only to lung cancer.1 CRC metastasis is the primary cause of mortality largely due to therapy resistant cancer cells.2 Therefore, detection before metastasis is of great importance and could potentially lead to earlier detection and decreased mortality. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, are lipid bound vesicles secreted by cells3 that are involved in cell-cell communication and have been found to promote CRC progression and metastasis.4 The proteome of exosomes is thought to reflect that of the originating …


Β-Sheets Mediate The Conformational Change And Allosteric Signal Transmission Between The Aslov2 Termini, Sian Xiao, Mayar Terek Ibrahim, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao 2024 Southern Methodist University

Β-Sheets Mediate The Conformational Change And Allosteric Signal Transmission Between The Aslov2 Termini, Sian Xiao, Mayar Terek Ibrahim, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Avena sativa phototropin 1 light-oxygen-voltage 2 domain (AsLOV2) is a model protein of Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) superfamily, characterized by conformational changes in response to external environmental stimuli. This conformational change begins with the unfolding of the N-terminal A'α helix in the dark state followed by the unfolding of the C-terminal Jα helix. The light state is characterized by the unfolded termini and the subsequent modifications in hydrogen bond patterns. In this photoreceptor, β-sheets are identified as crucial components for mediating allosteric signal transmission between the two termini. Through combined experimental and computational investigations, the Hβ …


Measurement And Imaging Of Intra Matrix Igg Diffusion, Riya Debbarma, Antonio C. F. dos Santos, Diana Milena Ramiez Gutierrez, Fernanda M. da Cunha, Michael Ladisch 2024 Purdue University

Measurement And Imaging Of Intra Matrix Igg Diffusion, Riya Debbarma, Antonio C. F. Dos Santos, Diana Milena Ramiez Gutierrez, Fernanda M. Da Cunha, Michael Ladisch

Graduate Industrial Research Symposium

Bovine IgG diffusion measurement by tracking the movement of the protein over time in an in-vitro matrix is motivated by the large number of protein/peptide therapeutics currently under various stages of development in the pharmaceutical industry. Many of these therapeutics are monoclonal antibodies (IgG type proteins) that are candidates for subcutaneous, intra-vitreous and intra-articular administration depending on the target of the therapeutic. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major constituent and determines the key attributes of the subcutaneous environment, vitreous humor of the eye and synovial fluid of the knee joint. HA exhibits varying molecular weight at these anatomic locations thereby …


Circular Gene Mapping Of Identified Amr Genes In Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia Coli Isolated From Potable Water, Shikha Sharma, Abhishek Chauhan, Tanu Jindal, Vivek Narayan Singh, Anuj Ranjan 2024 Amity University Noida

Circular Gene Mapping Of Identified Amr Genes In Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia Coli Isolated From Potable Water, Shikha Sharma, Abhishek Chauhan, Tanu Jindal, Vivek Narayan Singh, Anuj Ranjan

Research Symposium

Background: Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative & facultative anaerobe bacterium ubiquitously found in all environments. It is a waterborne and foodborne pathogen associated with many diarrhoea and GI tract diseases inclusive of UTIs in humans. The rise in the number of bacteria resistant to antimicrobial drugs has a major impact on disease control efforts. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can be found in a variety of water sources. As a result, the objective of the current study is to construct a circular AMR gene map based on the assessment of the antibiotic susceptibility profiling of E. coli isolated from twenty various potable water …


A Novel Micropeptide, Slitharin, Exerts Cardioprotective Effects In Myocardial Infarction, Ahmed G. E. Ibrahim, Alessandra Ciullo, Shukuro Yamaguchi, Chang Li, Travis Antes, Xaviar Jones, Liang Li, Ramachandran Murali, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Niveda Sundararaman, Daniel Soetkamp, Eugenio Cingolani, Jennifer Van Eyk, Eduardo Marbán 2024 Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

A Novel Micropeptide, Slitharin, Exerts Cardioprotective Effects In Myocardial Infarction, Ahmed G. E. Ibrahim, Alessandra Ciullo, Shukuro Yamaguchi, Chang Li, Travis Antes, Xaviar Jones, Liang Li, Ramachandran Murali, Innokentiy Maslennikov, Niveda Sundararaman, Daniel Soetkamp, Eugenio Cingolani, Jennifer Van Eyk, Eduardo Marbán

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: Micropeptides are an emerging class of proteins that play critical roles in cell signaling. Here, we describe the discovery of a novel micropeptide, dubbed slitharin (Slt), in conditioned media from Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs), a therapeutic cardiac stromal cell type.

Experimental design: We performed mass spectrometry of peptide-enriched fractions from the conditioned media of CDCs and a therapeutically inert cell type (human dermal fibrobasts). We then evaluated the therapeutic capacity of the candidate peptide using an in vitro model of cardiomyocyte injury and a rat model of myocardial infarction.

Results: We identified a novel 24-amino acid micropeptide …


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