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A Characterization Of The Dynamic Interaction Between The Pro-Apoptotic Protein Bid And The Mitochondrial Outer Membrane, Aisha Shamas-Din Ms. 2014 McMaster University

A Characterization Of The Dynamic Interaction Between The Pro-Apoptotic Protein Bid And The Mitochondrial Outer Membrane, Aisha Shamas-Din Ms.

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) through both protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions. While the role of the membrane as the “locus of action” has been recognized, the detailed molecular mechanisms and the consequences of the interactions of Bcl-2 family members with the membrane are yet to be fully understood. The findings presented here focus on the dynamic interactions of Bcl-2 proteins, most notably tBid with the MOM, and their functional significance on mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. We show that the activation of tBid is a multi-step process that is regulated by ...


Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman 2014 Chapman University

Treating Cocaine Dependency With Psychopharmacotherapy And Behavioral Therapy, Robyn Liebman

e-Research: A Journal of Undergraduate Work

Cocaine is an addictive drug that affects more than 14 million people globally, according to the United Nations. This paper is a conceptual meta-analysis of numerous studies that tested the effects of psychopharmacological therapy along with behavioral therapy in the treatment of cocaine addiction. It is hypothesized that cocaine dependent individuals treated with a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will be less likely to use cocaine. Measurements of cocaine use throughout the experiments were generally assessed by urine screenings. Results indicate that there is more evidence that a combination of psychopharmacological and behavioral therapies will reduce cocaine use. There ...


Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain 2014 Western University

Synthesis Of Carbohydrate Functionalized Dendrons For Use As Multivalent Scaffold And In Self-Assembled Structures, Namrata Jain

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Carbohydrates are implicated in a large number of biological processes ranging from cell-cell interactions to bacterial and viral infection. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are generally specific for certain sugars. However, typical carbohydrate–lectin interactions tend to have very low monomeric binding affinities. In many cases, the binding of saccharide ligands by protein receptors can be improved significantly through the attachment of multiple saccharide residues to a common support. Dendronized polymers constitute a class of macromolecules whose nanoscale size, rigidity, and functionality can be controlled with precision by tuning their molecular architecture. It is hypothesized that due to their large ...


Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian 2014 Seton Hall University

Submonomer Synthesis And Structure-Activity Relationship Studies Of Azapeptide Inhibitors Of The Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, Lathamol A. Kurian

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Azapeptides are a class of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics), which have served as valuable tools for the development of peptide based therapeutic agents. The therapeutic promise of azapeptides has been correlated to its primary sequence modification which translates into bio-active secondary structures that improves the pharmacological properties of the native peptide sequence. More specifically, azapeptides contain a semicarbazide within the peptide backbone which restricts the peptide bond torsion angles (φ, ψ) into pre-organized b-turn secondary structures. Thus, azapeptides have been shown to stabilize bio-active b-turn secondary structures responsible for high affinity and selective binding to a target receptor or ...


Functional Assessment And Potential Therapeutic Role Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-­‐3 In A Rodent Model Of Compartment Syndrome, Al Walid Hamam 2014 Western University

Functional Assessment And Potential Therapeutic Role Of Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-­‐3 In A Rodent Model Of Compartment Syndrome, Al Walid Hamam

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Compartment syndrome (CS) is a life and limb threatening condition resulting in long term morbidity. Gold standard treatment of CS is surgical fasciotomy. Long-term morbidity is common post fasciotomy. We tested a gait analysis system (CatWalk™) to see if we could detect functional effects of CS in our rodent model. We also investigated the effects of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) on the function of gait in rodents post CS.

The CatWalkTM system was able to detect abnormalities in a rodent’s gait post CS. CORM-3 was also found to alleviate the functional deficits following CS. Multiple dose but not ...


Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effect Of Sweeteners On The Renin-Angiotensin System In Rats, Jacob Ball

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Normal abundant dietary sugars such as fructose and sucrose can contribute to hypertension and other health issues. To avoid these health complications, many individuals use artificial sweeteners. An equivalent intake of some artificial sweeteners also can lead to hypertension. However, Stevia, a sweetener that is isolated from a Paraguayan plant, was shown in relevant literature to decrease blood pressure in both rat specimens and humans. The general purpose of this research project was to study the effect of Stevia, saccharin, and sucrose on the expression of two key components of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system (RAAS): prorenin receptor (PRR) and angiotensin ...


Cardiovascular Toxicity Of Common Chemotherapy Drugs Used To Treat Breast Cancer: An Overview, Charles A. Bomzer 2014 Aurora Health Care

Cardiovascular Toxicity Of Common Chemotherapy Drugs Used To Treat Breast Cancer: An Overview, Charles A. Bomzer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Treatment of breast cancer often exposes patients to many different drugs. Some of these drugs have toxic effects involving the cardiovascular system. This review provides an overview of the drugs most commonly used to treat breast cancer and their potential adverse impact on the cardiovascular system.


Production Of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor Ix By Transgenic Pig, Weijie Xu 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Production Of Recombinant Human Coagulation Factor Ix By Transgenic Pig, Weijie Xu

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

Hemophilia B is the congenital bleeding disorder caused by deficiency in functional coagulation factor IX (FIX) and about 28,000 patients worldwide in 2012. And current treatment is restricted to protein-replacement therapy, which required FIX concentrates for patients’ life-time. Approximately 1 billion units FIX were consumed in 2012. However, still about 70-80% patients, mostly in developing countries, received inadequate or no treatment because of the unavailable and/or unaffordable FIX concentrates. Considering safety reasons, e.g. transmission of blood-borne diseases, the recombinant human FIX (rFIX) is recommended other than the plasma-derived FIX. However, only one rFIX is currently available on ...


Unique Diagnostic Challenges Of Cushings From Large Bilateral Adrenal Adenoma And Mifepristone Utilization For Hypercortisolism Prior To Surgery, Vasudev G. Magaji MD, MS, Sarah Park DO, Maura Bucciarelli DO, Katie Mastoris DO, Scott Beman MD 2014 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Unique Diagnostic Challenges Of Cushings From Large Bilateral Adrenal Adenoma And Mifepristone Utilization For Hypercortisolism Prior To Surgery, Vasudev G. Magaji Md, Ms, Sarah Park Do, Maura Bucciarelli Do, Katie Mastoris Do, Scott Beman Md

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova 2014 University of Connecticut

Chemical Profiling And Biological Activity Of Two Tunicate-Associated Marine Bacteria, Lyubina Yankova

Honors Scholar Theses

Marine natural products have recently been an increasingly abundant source of novel antibiotics. Given that there is an increasing resistance to current drug therapies, finding new sources such as marine natural products is essential. Tunicate-associated marine bacteria can be a significant source of antibacterial compounds. Two tunicates of the species Eudistoma were collected from Portobelo National Park on the Salmedina Reef of Panama in the Caribbean Sea. Bacteria associated with the tunicate were isolated, cultured, extracted, and fractionated. Fractions were tested against an array of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens in the BioMAP assay. Two fractions MB0086E and MB0088E demonstrated activity ...


Functionalization And Modification Of Naphthaquinone Analogs As Her2 Kinase Inhibitors, Divya Jyothi Lella 2014 Western Kentucky University

Functionalization And Modification Of Naphthaquinone Analogs As Her2 Kinase Inhibitors, Divya Jyothi Lella

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

HER2 overexpression in breast cancer tumors predicts lower overall survival. Because of the aggressive nature of HER2 tumors and the association with metastatic disease, the HER2 receptor holds great promise as a therapeutic target in metastatic breast cancer. We are developing small molecule inhibitors that bind to the ATP binding site of the tyrosine kinase domain in order to inhibit tyrosine auto-phosphorylation. This process controls biological pathways that mediate the cell growth. In normal cells this process is highly controlled. We are targeting the modification of the side chain of the hydroxy methyl group of 2-Hydroxy methyl-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthaquinone. These ...


Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Syntheses Of Precursors To Fluorine-18 Labeled Pet Imaging Agents, Lindsay B. Boling

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


The Reversal Effects Of Curcumin, An Herbal Remedy, On The Impairments Induced By Vmat-2 Inhibitor Tetrabenazine, Emily Qian, Samantha E. Yohn 2014 University of Connecticut

The Reversal Effects Of Curcumin, An Herbal Remedy, On The Impairments Induced By Vmat-2 Inhibitor Tetrabenazine, Emily Qian, Samantha E. Yohn

Honors Scholar Theses

Substantial evidence has shown that dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes, such as overcoming work related response costs. Interference with accumbens DA transmission through administration of the vesicular monoamine transportor-2 (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine (TBZ) produces an alteration of response allocation in the concurrent FR5/chow choice procedure, biasing animals toward the lower effort alternative. It has been suggested that these drug-induced shifts in effort-related choice behavior seen in rodents are analogous to symptoms such as psychomotor retardation, anergia, and fatigue, which can be observed in people with depression and other ...


Nicotine And What Else?: Hplc Elution Optimization For The Analysis Of Alkaloids Found In Electronic Cigarettes, Jessica L. Murray 2014 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Nicotine And What Else?: Hplc Elution Optimization For The Analysis Of Alkaloids Found In Electronic Cigarettes, Jessica L. Murray

Honors Theses

Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been scrutinized by the Food and Drug Administration and other public health organizations for issues related to quality control and efficacy. Erratic nicotine delivery and numerous toxic compounds in refill solutions have been reported. The ultimate goal of this research is to add to the growing amount of knowledge regarding e-cigarette ingredient content, safety, and quality. Standards of the tobacco alkaloids nicotine, anabasine, cotinine, and myosmine were prepared and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Various elution schemes were tested and adjusted for optimal analyte resolution, and a final elution scheme was developed to ...


Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: Regulation Of Pyrimidine Enzymes, Ashley N. Broadway 2014 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: Regulation Of Pyrimidine Enzymes, Ashley N. Broadway

Honors Theses

Purple Urine Bag Syndrome, PUBS, is a unique condition that shows an interesting discoloration of the urine from women who have a chronic catheter. This study focused on the regulation of enzyme activities to determine the effects that may create an environment where PUBS is seen in patients with catheters. In this study, the reductive pyrimidine pathway was used to read out the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692. This microorganism expresses a pathway that synthesizes indoxyl from tryptophan. The bacteria strains were grown using various carbon and nitrogen sources. Concentrations of acetonitrile at 2 mM and 10 mM, concentrations of ...


Molecular Chaperone Tools For Use Against Neurodegenerative Diseases, Matthew Tinkham 2014 University of Rhode Island

Molecular Chaperone Tools For Use Against Neurodegenerative Diseases, Matthew Tinkham

Senior Honors Projects

A noted characteristic found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the brain. Amyloid plaques contain deposits of fibrillar aggregates of misfolded proteins that disrupt normal functionality in neurons. Certain variants of these misfolded proteins are self-replicating; these self-replicating amyloids are termed prions (for infectious protein). We are interested in how protein misfolding contributes to amyloid formation and how molecular chaperone proteins can change the formation of amyloid deposits. Chaperone proteins function by catalyzing the proper folding of other proteins, the refolding ...


A Systematic Column Performance Comparison For The Confirmation Of Opioids Used In Pain Management By Lc-Ms, Derek Stallard 2014 East Tennessee State University

A Systematic Column Performance Comparison For The Confirmation Of Opioids Used In Pain Management By Lc-Ms, Derek Stallard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, three different chromatographic column chemistries (C18, Pentafluorophenyl (PFP), Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC)) were compared under optimal conditions to determine which stationary performed best in the separation and detection of a mixture of opioids using LC-MS. Furthermore, these stationary phases were examined in three different column technologies – traditional silica, porous shell, and porous polymer (PRP). The PRP column had the best peak shape for all 13 opioids and dominated for later-eluting compounds. In terms of column reproducibility, the Hamilton C18 column had the lowest %RSD values. The Kinetex HILIC produced the most theoretical plates and best resolution for ...


Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Antioxidants From Blue Green Algae (Spirulina) Using Response Surface Approaches, Ahmad Salamatullah 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of Extraction Methods To Recover Phenolic-Rich Antioxidants From Blue Green Algae (Spirulina) Using Response Surface Approaches, Ahmad Salamatullah

Dissertations & Theses in Food Science and Technology

Blue green algae (spirulina) is a dietary system that is widely consumed as a whole food or as a supplement in many Asian countries where populations are mostly unaffected by many of the diseases currently afflicting western societies, such as cancer, heart disease and arthiritis. Indeed, spirulina is a rich source of antioxidants with the phenolic compounds playing a significant role. As components of a complex dietary system, phenolic compounds can act alone or through synergistic mechanisms to impart a greater biologic effect than can be elicited by a sum of the individual parts. Therefore, an understanding of the antioxidative ...


Childhood Obesity And Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Genetic Diseases That Contribute To Cardiovascular Disease, Alyssa Caudle 2014 Liberty University

Childhood Obesity And Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Genetic Diseases That Contribute To Cardiovascular Disease, Alyssa Caudle

Senior Honors Theses

Childhood obesity occurs as the result of an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. Genetic risk factors for obesity have become an area of research due to its permanency. Mutated genes such as Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO), Leptin (LEP), Leptin Receptor (LEPR), Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R), Adiponectin C1Q and Collagen Domain Containing (ADIPOQ), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 1 (PCSK1), and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) all contribute to the development of childhood obesity. In the presence of high cholesterol caused by obesity, the genetic condition known as familial hypercholesterolemia is exacerbated. Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by ...


The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson 2014 Western University

The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic forcing, such as ocean acidification caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions, and eutrophication due to increased nutrient loadings in run-off, are causing major changes to the biogeochemistry of the oceans. As a consequence, coastal phytoplankton are susceptible to altered biogeochemical environments. This study examined the effect of a lower pH and increased levels of nutrients on the common coastal harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Growth rates, maximal cell yields, neutral lipid accumulation and toxicity of cells grown under various pH and nutrients regimes were measured. H. akashiwo growth was near maximal when grown at lower pH levels. There was a ...


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