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Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Carbohydrate Template And Analogs Thereof For Potential Cns-Active Drugs, Emi Hanawa-Romero 2017 Seton Hall University

Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Carbohydrate Template And Analogs Thereof For Potential Cns-Active Drugs, Emi Hanawa-Romero

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Central nervous system (CNS) disorders are becoming a major societal problem. Examples of well-known CNS disorders are: neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer’s diseases, epilepsy/seizures, addiction, bipolar disorder, catalepsy, meningitis, migraines, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and multiple sclerosis. CNS disorders can be caused by various factors and therefore can affect ages, genders and races of all.

The population of patients with CNS disorders is increasing and a significant percentage of patients have symptoms that are not controlled by existing treatments. In addition, since CNS disorders are chronic disorder, there is no cure and ...


Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana 2017 Seton Hall University

Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The killer peptide sequence D-(KLAKLAK)2 has been originally designed and developed as an antibacterial agent. Despite having excellent cytotoxicity towards bacteria, this sequence maintains low cell cytotoxity in malignant mammalian cell types such as cancer. The chemical basis for its selectivity has been attributed to its poly(cationic) amphiphilic nature, which facilitates cell permeability across the negatively charged bacterial membrane, but with limited permeability across the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. The positively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence has been found to accumulate on the surface of the mitochondria causing dissipation of the negatively charged mitochondrial membrane potential ...


B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips 2017 Seton Hall University

B7h6: A Cancer Biomarker For The Development Of Novel Immunotherapy Approaches, Mariana Phillips

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer-based immunotherapy has led the evolution of biologics that can stimulate immune responses towards tumor eradication. The synthesis of small to intermediate size molecules with the targeting and effector functions of mAb may represent a novel class of immunotherapeutics that may overcome the limitations of their biological counterparts.Towards this objective, B7H6 has been identified as a protein ligand localized on the cell surface of transformed tumor cells. B7H6 binds specifically to the activating receptor NKp30, constitutively expressed on all resting and active NK cells. Upon ligand:receptor binding, B7H6 triggers NK cell activation and release of chemokines and pro-inflammatory ...


An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings 2017 University of Maine

An Analysis Of Neurogenesis In A Mouse Model Of Chemotherapy Related Cognitive Impairment, Maxwell A. Hennings

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy often experience cognitive decline following treatment. This phenomenon, often dubbed “chemo brain” or “chemo fog” is usually temporary, but for a subset of survivors, these cognitive impairments can be long-lasting (>10 years) and negatively affect patients’ quality of life, career performance, and social fulfillment. While it is unclear what neurobiological mechanisms underlie chemotherapy related cognitive impairment, the majority of the animal literature has focused on adult neurogenesis. One process important for neurogenesis is the proliferation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. It is evident that many chemotherapy agents can negatively ...


Injury-Induced Microvesicle Particle Release In Human Skin Explant Tissue, Katherine E. Fahy, Langni Liu, Christine M. Rapp, Eric J. Romer, Christina E. Borchers, Richard Simman, Ji C. Bihl, Jeffrey B. Travers 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Injury-Induced Microvesicle Particle Release In Human Skin Explant Tissue, Katherine E. Fahy, Langni Liu, Christine M. Rapp, Eric J. Romer, Christina E. Borchers, Richard Simman, Ji C. Bihl, Jeffrey B. Travers

Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty Publications

Microvesicle particles (MVP) are 100-1000 nm vesicles that bud from the cell membrane and transmit intercellular signals locally and systemically via their bioactive cargo (e.g. cytokines).


Injury-Induced Microvesicle Particle Release In Human Skin Explant Tissue, Katherine E. Fahy, Langni Liu, Christina E. Borchers, Richard Simman, Ji C. Bihl, Jeffrey B. Travers 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Injury-Induced Microvesicle Particle Release In Human Skin Explant Tissue, Katherine E. Fahy, Langni Liu, Christina E. Borchers, Richard Simman, Ji C. Bihl, Jeffrey B. Travers

Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty Publications

Microvesicle particles (MVP) are 100-1000 nm vesicles that bud from the cell membrane and transmit intercellular signals locally and systemically via their bioactive cargo (e.g. cytokines). We have previously shown that thermal burn injury or UVB radiation result in the formation Platelet Activating Factor (PAF), and UVB or a PAF agonist (CPAF) can promote MVP formation in keratinocytes. Thermal burn and UVB radiation can result in systemic effects, even though their injury is localized to the skin. We therefore propose that PAF-producing injuries, UVB irradiation or thermal burn injury, result in the formation of MVPs that can potentially transport ...


Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi 2017 Chapman University

Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The development of prostate cancer (PCa) relies strongly on the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway by its natural ligand dihydrotestosterone. Furthermore, PCa progression to metastatic disease represents oncogene addiction to AR activity. Androgen ablation therapy is thus a mainstay therapy against this disease, but the development of ligand-independent AR activation and persisting AR expression eventually leads to castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Therefore, down-regulation of AR expression in PCa cells may be an effective therapeutic modality. The diarylpentanoid ca27 has previously been shown to down-regulate AR expression by an unknown mechanism of action. The present work represents a ...


Do Desperate Times Really Call For Desperate Measures? The Ethical Dilemma Behind The Regulation And Use Of Experimental Drugs, Lauren Kuehn 2017 Notre Dame Law School

Do Desperate Times Really Call For Desperate Measures? The Ethical Dilemma Behind The Regulation And Use Of Experimental Drugs, Lauren Kuehn

Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law

This Note will argue that, unlike what many patients believe, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) plays an invaluable and imperative role in seeking the efficacy and safety of new treatment options and drugs. The balance of interests between those who are terminally ill, who wish to see increased access to unapproved medicines; the general public, who has an interest in preserving the drug approval process; and the FDA, who has been mandated by law to safeguard the safety of the general public, creates a tension that will continue to go unresolved. Thus, the patients who continue to ...


Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett 2017 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis And In-Vitro Cell Viability/Cytotoxicity Studies Of Novel Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Derivatives, John M. Jarrett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are a group of naturally occurring compounds that were discovered in the cultures of Streptomyces in the 1960s. Some natural PBDs discovered in these cultures, such as anthramycin and sibiromycin, were shown to possess a broad spectrum of anti-tumor activity. Since cancer is still a leading cause of death globally, the development of novel anti-proliferative derivatives of PBDs is essential for human welfare worldwide. Further synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the parent natural products and their tetracyclic analogs will lead to the discovery of drug candidates. In this work, thirteen PBD analogues were synthesized using no ...


Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Synthesis Of A Nanoscale Gold-Coated, Thermoresponsive Molecular Release System., Ryan C. Weegens 2017 University of Louisville

Synthesis Of A Nanoscale Gold-Coated, Thermoresponsive Molecular Release System., Ryan C. Weegens

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The work presented here was performed in conjunction with an experimental group in order to prove the concept that an alternating magnetic field (AMF) could be used to induce an intramolecular cyclization to effect payload release. The system studied here consisted of a fluorophore tethered to gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) via an organic linker consisting of 2 key elements: a carbonate (electrophile) and an amine (nucleophile). Connected to the carbonate was the fluorophore, anthracene, which was attached to the organic linker system by means of an oxime ether linkage. This thesis work served as the ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard 2017 University of Louisville

Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

AS1411 is an oligonucleotide that has shown promising results in lab experiments and clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug, Likewise, treatments with guanine based purine compounds (GBPCs) have demonstrated similar anti-proliferative effects in vitro. This activity is dependent on the HGPRT enzyme. Similarities in activity and physical structure has led us to believe that AS1411 and GBPCs operate by a similar mechanism. To test this, we compare the activity of both in the presence of HGPRT siRNAs and HGPRT deficient cells. While siRNA treatment was unable to alter the activity of GBPCs or AS1411 in our cell lines, HGPRT deficient ...


Investigating The Role Of Dispatched In Hedgehog Ligand Transport And Delivery, William Bodeen 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Investigating The Role Of Dispatched In Hedgehog Ligand Transport And Delivery, William Bodeen

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

During the development of all metazoans, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway provides instructional cues influencing a variety of cellular processes. The pathway ligand, Hh, is dually lipidated by cholesterol and palmitate, which effectively anchors the molecule to the lipid bilayer of the signal producing cell. To complicate the Hh pathway induction process, the Hh ligand is often produced at a significant distance from the cells it influences. Only one known conserved molecule, Dispatched (Disp), can alleviate the membrane tethering imparted by Hh lipidation. Underscoring the importance of Disp protein during development, knockout animals succumb to lethality at E9.5, an ...


Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud 2017 University of Tennessee

Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori 2017 University of Rhode Island

Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori

Senior Honors Projects

The genomes of living organisms are under constant bombardment from various sources, including chemical modification stemming from processes within the organisms themselves or from exogenous agents, and from radiation. These sources of genomic damage may induce structural changes in the genome’s most basic functional units, the nucleotides that comprise DNA. Damage to an organism’s DNA may result in the production of dysfunctional or nonfunctional proteins. Failure to repair such damage may result in the compounding of successive mutations within the organism’s genome, the pathogenesis of cancer and various genetic disorders in humans. To ensure their viability, organisms ...


Antiemetic Use Among Pregnant Women In The United States: The Escalating Use Of Ondansetron, Lockwood G. Taylor, Steven T. Bird, Leyla Sahin, Melissa S. Tassinari, Patty Greene, Marsha Reichman, Susan E. Andrade, Katherine Haffenreffer, Sengwee Toh 2017 US Food and Drug Administration

Antiemetic Use Among Pregnant Women In The United States: The Escalating Use Of Ondansetron, Lockwood G. Taylor, Steven T. Bird, Leyla Sahin, Melissa S. Tassinari, Patty Greene, Marsha Reichman, Susan E. Andrade, Katherine Haffenreffer, Sengwee Toh

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

PURPOSE: To examine ondansetron use in pregnancy in the context of other antiemetic use among a large insured United States population of women delivering live births. METHODS: We assessed ondansetron and other antiemetic use among pregnant women delivering live births between 2001 and 2015 in 15 data partners contributing data to the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database. We identified live birth pregnancies using a validated algorithm, and all forms of ondansetron and other available antiemetics were identified using National Drug Codes or procedure codes. We assessed the prevalence of antiemetic use by trimester, calendar year, and formulation. RESULTS: In over 2.3 ...


Compromised External Validity: Federally Produced Cannabis Does Not Reflect Legal Markets, Daniela Vergara, L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Steep Hill, Kent E. Hutchison, Nolan C. Kane 2017 CU Boulder

Compromised External Validity: Federally Produced Cannabis Does Not Reflect Legal Markets, Daniela Vergara, L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Steep Hill, Kent E. Hutchison, Nolan C. Kane

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have statelegalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects. Our results demonstrate that the federally-produced Cannabis has significantly less variety ...


Worldwide Use Of Triclosan: Can Dentistry Do Without This Antimicrobial?, Diana V. Macri 2017 CUNY Hostos Community College

Worldwide Use Of Triclosan: Can Dentistry Do Without This Antimicrobial?, Diana V. Macri

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

E,E-Farnesol Inhibits Swarming Motility In Burkholderia Cepacia Through Rhamnolipid Production, Stephanie E. Nicholls, Alayna N. Sanderson, Andrea P. Schwartz, Lauren E. Ward, Jessica N. Weisensee, Molly Yandrofski, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia and Candida albicans both exhibit cell-to-cell communication through the use of quorum-sensing molecules (QSM) known as autoinducers. E,E-farnesol is a QSM produced by C. albicans which regulates its conversion from yeast to mycelium. Because there is a positive correlation between the presence of B. cepacia and C. albicans in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether E,E-farnesol had an effect on swarming motility in B. cepacia. Swarming motility was inhibited when B. cepacia was exposed to 250 µM of E,E-farnesol. In addition, there was a 26.8% decrease in rhamnolipid production ...


The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins 2017 Cedarville University

The Effect Of Photoactivated Tmp On Burkholderia Cepacia Biofilms, Reyna G. Osorio, Chandra N. Swiech, Tracy L. Collins

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infections in immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. B. cepacia infections are typically characterized by the formation of complex communities of cells known as biofilms. Because B. cepacia biofilms are difficult to eradicate using antibiotics, it is important to pursue alternative treatment methods. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a type of therapy that uses light, a photosensitizer, and oxygen to elicit cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species. PDT has been shown in previous studies to be successful in killing both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we ...


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