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Antibacterial Efficacy Of Novel Eastern Medicine-Inspired Toothpastes Compared To Commercial Formulations, Joshua S. Goldfaden 2020 University of the Pacific, Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry

Antibacterial Efficacy Of Novel Eastern Medicine-Inspired Toothpastes Compared To Commercial Formulations, Joshua S. Goldfaden

Pacific Journal of Health

Toothpaste is an oral health care agent that dates back to the 5th Century B.C. in East Asia. Following the conception of dentistry in the 7th Century B.C. and the field’s subsequent growth, the embodiment of toothpaste has evolved from containing natural substances such as tea leaves to abrasive chemicals, particularly: fluoride, triclosan, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Regarding how each respective reagent functions, fluoride forms a complex with calcium ions in the teeth to prevent erosion of the protective enamel coating. This ion also disrupts metabolic activities of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), which are ...


Fluorometric Characterization Of A Methylene Blue Derivative Sensitive To Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros), Matthew Weeks 2020 University of Mississippi

Fluorometric Characterization Of A Methylene Blue Derivative Sensitive To Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros), Matthew Weeks

Honors Theses

Methylene blue (MB) has many uses within both microbiology and pharmacology. MB can treat disorders such as methemoglobinemia, malaria, Alzheimer’s disease, and certain forms of cancer. MB is also useful for molecular imaging due to its off-on fluorescent capabilities. MB derivatives with a urea bond at the 10-N position have been cleavable by triggers such as light. However, I was interested in sensitivity to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, I wanted to determine if the MB derivative MB-EA exhibited sensitivity to ROS. MB-EA was exposed to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and MB release was measured. I ...


Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters 2020 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nicotinamide riboside (NR) form of vitamin B3and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are two of the most promising natural compounds yet identified for the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Forms of vitamin B3are precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)). In aged cells levels of NAD+decline, decreasing metabolism and decreasing activity of protective sirtuin protein deacetylases. In aged cells NR, but not more common forms of vitamin B3, boost NAD+levels. BHB is naturally produced by the body when individuals fast ...


Case Report: An Isolated Dematologic Reaction To Isosulfan Blue Dye After Lumpectomy, Micaela Moen MD, Aaron Pinnola, M Pahlkotter 2020 HCA Healthcare

Case Report: An Isolated Dematologic Reaction To Isosulfan Blue Dye After Lumpectomy, Micaela Moen Md, Aaron Pinnola, M Pahlkotter

General Surgery

P 154. CASE REPORT: AN ISOLATED DERMATOLOGIC REACTION TO ISOSULFAN BLUE DYE AFTER LUMPECTOMY Presenter: Micaela Moen MD | Grand Strand Medical Center Moen MR, Pahlkotter M, Nicholson G, Pinnola A Introduction: The use of isosulfan blue dye for sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer is considered routine (1). An array of adverse side effects from this dye have been described in the literature (2-3). Here we describe an atypical isolated dermatologic reaction. A 79 year old female with history of hypothyroidism, GERD, hypercholesterolemia, iron deficiency anemia who was found to have infiltrating ductal carinoma after a core biopsy of ...


The Nuclear Legacy In Appalachia, Michele Morrone, Harold Perkins 2020 Ohio University - Main Campus

The Nuclear Legacy In Appalachia, Michele Morrone, Harold Perkins

Journal of Appalachian Health

Nestled in the rolling hills of Appalachia Ohio is a reminder of the role that the region played in winning the Cold War. For more than 40 years in rural Pike County, the 3,700-acre Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), or the “A-Plant” as the locals refer to it, enriched uranium for use in nuclear weapons. While the facility produced nuclear fuel for national security, it simultaneously exposed plant workers to chemicals and radiation and discharged pollution into the surrounding community. The A-Plant is now being demolished and the site repurposed. However, the site continues to affect the community as ...


Discovery And Analysis Of New Cocrystal Solid Forms Of The Anti-Hiv Drug: Emtricitabine, Elizabeth Keene 2020 University of Iowa

Discovery And Analysis Of New Cocrystal Solid Forms Of The Anti-Hiv Drug: Emtricitabine, Elizabeth Keene

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Emtricitabine (trade name: Emtriva) is an anti-HIV prevention and treatment drug. Emtricitabine (EMT) is used along with Tenofovir to form the combination-drug, Truvada, which is extremely effective in the prevention and treatment of HIV. Emtricitabine works by inhibiting reverse transcriptase and is conventionally administered orally in a tablet. Only one solid form corresponding to the pure drug is currently known. Cocrystallization is a method of creating novel solid forms by combining two or more components. In this context, cocrystallization is a good strategy to generate new and enhanced solid forms of Emtricitabine. Through our work with Emtricitabine, we generated new ...


Correlating The Physicochemical Properties Of Magnesium Stearate With Tablet Dissolution And Lubrication, Julie L. Calahan 2020 University of Kentucky

Correlating The Physicochemical Properties Of Magnesium Stearate With Tablet Dissolution And Lubrication, Julie L. Calahan

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Magnesium stearate (MgSt) is the most commonly used pharmaceutical excipient and is present in over half the tablet formulations on the market. In spite of its popularity as an effective lubricant, it has been repeatedly recognized that there is significant variability between MgSt samples, which can cause inconsistent lubrication between batches of MgSt. The hypothesis of this research is that the batch-to-batch variability in tablet lubrication and dissolution observed in tablet formulations containing different MgSt samples can be correlated with differences in MgSt physicochemical properties (fatty acid salt composition, crystal hydrate form, particle size and surface area). Developing correlations between ...


Determining The Antibacterial Activity And Mode Of Action Of Tirandamycin, Hailey Bouchard 2020 Claremont Colleges

Determining The Antibacterial Activity And Mode Of Action Of Tirandamycin, Hailey Bouchard

CMC Senior Theses

Tirandamycin is a small molecule natural product that has been isolated from various species of marine and terrestrial Streptomyces. The natural product has shown antibacterial activity against an array of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, showing promise as a pharmaceutical drug. Tirandamycin has 14 known derivatives, many of which have been created synthetically. Some of its derivatives are particularly potent against the high-risk bacteria vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. However, the antibacterial potency of these derivatives has not been tested systematically leading to the possibility of discovering more potent derivatives of the drug which ...


Organic Compound Farnesol Reduces Disease Severity And Onset In Mouse Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Lacey B. Sell 2020 Eastern Washington University

Organic Compound Farnesol Reduces Disease Severity And Onset In Mouse Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Lacey B. Sell

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, 2019 Kennesaw State University

Evaluating Volatile Organic Compounds For Contact-Independent Antagonism Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans

Symposium of Student Scholars

White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is responsible for the extensive mortality of bats in the United States. In an effort to develop tools to reduce bat mortality attributed to WNS, an in vitro experiment was conducted to quantify the inhibitory effects of select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as explore potential synergistic activities. The experiment involved exposing mycelial plugs of P. destructans to various concentrations of B23 as well as B23 and decanal together at equimolar ratios. Measurements of the plugs were taken over the course of the 13 day experiment allowing the ...


Doxycycline-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Likely Source Rarely Seen, Paul Hoffman DO, Wilco Civil Sr, Jung Yoon DO, Gurjeet Kang DO, Christopher Lozano Orpiano DO, Michael Quinn DO, Joseph Staffetti MD, Dilip Ghanekar MD, Lakshminarasimhan Venu MD, Lily N. Jones DO, Ji Kwon DO, Shaival Thakore MD 2019 HCA Healthcare

Doxycycline-Induced Acute Pancreatitis: A Likely Source Rarely Seen, Paul Hoffman Do, Wilco Civil Sr, Jung Yoon Do, Gurjeet Kang Do, Christopher Lozano Orpiano Do, Michael Quinn Do, Joseph Staffetti Md, Dilip Ghanekar Md, Lakshminarasimhan Venu Md, Lily N. Jones Do, Ji Kwon Do, Shaival Thakore Md

Gastroenterology

No abstract provided.


P-19 Anticancer Activity Of Heteroaromatic Cyanostilbenes, Joshua Rotich 2019 Andrews University

P-19 Anticancer Activity Of Heteroaromatic Cyanostilbenes, Joshua Rotich

Celebration of Research and Creative Scholarship

Cancer is currently the second leading killer disease. There are many different kinds of cancer that are associated with almost every organ in the human body (e.g., brain cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, blood cancer, lung cancer, etc.).

In the Biology Department, Dr. Smith and Dr. Murray are researching glioblastoma brain cancer cells. Glioblastoma is a very invasive cancer that is highly lethal. Chances of not surviving when its at stage four is more than 98%. Detecting this cancer while it is developing is difficult because symptoms are mild headache, fatigue, nausea and slight loss of weight ...


Stable Nanopalladium Hydride In Water For Sustainable And Selective Reductions, Jesse Klus, Sachin Handa 2019 University of Louisville

Stable Nanopalladium Hydride In Water For Sustainable And Selective Reductions, Jesse Klus, Sachin Handa

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The synthesis of air-stable ligand-free nanopalladium hydride (PdNHx) in water was achieved and applied to various organic transformations, including (1) reduction of heteroaromatics such as (iso)quinolines, phenanthrolines, benzotriazole, and naphthyridines, (2) regio- and chemoselective reduction of nitroarenes, (3) alkyne reductions, (4) chemoselective dehalogenation, and (5) base-free detriflation. Both the synthesis of PdNHx and the reductions were carried out under mild conditions in a micellar medium using our designer surfactant PS-750-M, which eliminates the need for toxic organic solvents and extremely high hydrogen pressure and temperature. Notably, PS-750-M is also a replacement of hazardous polar-aprotic solvents. This newer approach for ...


Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


Heterocycle Synthesis From Quinols, Jing Wu 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Heterocycle Synthesis From Quinols, Jing Wu

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Three cascade reactions that provide access to various heterocyclic skeletons from quinols were developed. Various substituted 1-hydroxyacridones, 4-hydroxycarbazoles and 4-hydroxy-indolin-3-ones were readily synthesized in moderate to excellent yields. The common sequential transformation involves carbamation/Michael addition/mixed Claisen condensation/decarboxylative aromatization which were realized in one-pot reactions in the synthesis of acridones and indolin-3-ones, or two-step reactions in the synthesis of carbazoles. A side reaction from oxidative dearomatization of phenols, affording iodo diaryl ethers in one step from commercial phenols, albeit in low yields, revealed an intricate mechanistic pathway. The synthesis of jaboticabin was realized in nine linear steps from ...


Iron-Containing Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Chrionic Biofilm Infections In Cystic Fibrosis, Leisha M. A. Martin 2019 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Iron-Containing Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Chrionic Biofilm Infections In Cystic Fibrosis, Leisha M. A. Martin

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease resulting in the morbidity and mortality of Caucasian children and adults worldwide. Due to a genetic mutation resulting in malfunction of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein, CF patients produce highly viscous mucus in their respiratory tract. This leads to impairment of the mucociliary clearance of inhaled microbes. In addition to reduced microbial clearance, anoxic environmental conditions in the lungs promote biofilm-mode growth of the pathogenic bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chronic infections of P. aeruginosa begin in early childhood and typically persist until respiratory failure and death result. The ...


Peptide Functionalized Surfactant Msns, Sonia Barrett 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Peptide Functionalized Surfactant Msns, Sonia Barrett

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become a rising problem since the first antibiotic was created, further aggravated by the improper overuse to treat common infections, because of this pharmaceutical companies must keep making new and stronger antibiotics. Surfactants are plentiful and effective killers of many surface bacteria and are also varied in their structure, all have a hydrophilic head and long hydrophobic carbon chain. These long hydrophobic carbon chains can pierce through the lipid bilayers that make up bacteria cell membranes and cause cytoplasmic leakage and lysis of the cell wall, leading to cell death. One proposed surfactant is synthesized ...


Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of In Situ Forming Hydrogels For Intra-Articular Drug Delivery, Andy Prince

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels are 3-dimensional crosslinked polymer networks that can absorb significant amounts of water. The physical properties associated with hydrogels affords them resemblance to biological tissues making them good candidates for biomedical applications. Many pharmaceuticals, specifically non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), have poor aqueous solubility, which limits their bioavailability and efficacy. People suffering from chronic osteoarthritis (OA) are required to frequently take large doses to mitigate pain, which can lead to serious side effects. Hydrogels are good strategies to deliver NSAIDs via articular injection because they can form solid gels in situ. This thesis describes the synthesis, formulation, mechanical testing, in vitro ...


The Journey Of Implementing A Pediatric Essential Oil Program, Elizabeth Edmundson, Tiffany Kim 2019 Children's Mercy Hospital

The Journey Of Implementing A Pediatric Essential Oil Program, Elizabeth Edmundson, Tiffany Kim

Nurse Presentations

Describes use of essential oil patches for specific indications with pediatric patients greater than 3 years old or greater than 20 kilograms. Lavender, peppermint, mandarin, or spearmint inhalation patches are used.


Understanding Structure-Activity Relationship Of Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Utilizing Methylphenidate, Barkha J. Yadav 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Understanding Structure-Activity Relationship Of Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Utilizing Methylphenidate, Barkha J. Yadav

Theses and Dissertations

Synthetic cathinones are stimulant drugs of abuse that act at monoamine transporters e.g. the dopamine transporter (DAT) as releasing agents or as reuptake inhibitors. More than >150 new synthetic cathinones have emerged on the clandestine market and have attracted considerable attention from the medical and law enforcement communities.

threo-Methylphenidate (tMP) is an FDA approved drug for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy, which also acts as a DAT reuptake inhibitor and is widely abused. tMP and synthetic cathinones share some structural similarities and extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on tMP have been conducted. However, much less is known about ...


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