A V-To-F Substitution In Sk2 Channels Causes Ca2+ Hypersensitivity And Improves Locomotion In A C. Elegans Als Model, Young-Woo Nam, Sabia N. Baskoylu, Dimitris Gazgalis, Razan Orfali, Meng Cui, Anne C. Hart, Miao Zhang
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels mediate medium afterhyperpolarization in the neurons and play a key role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. SK channels are potential drug targets for ataxia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). SK channels are activated exclusively by the Ca2+-bound calmodulin. Previously, we identified an intrinsically disordered fragment that is essential for the mechanical coupling between Ca2+/calmodulin binding and channel opening. Here, we report that substitution of a valine to phenylalanine (V407F) in the intrinsically disordered fragment caused a ~6 fold increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of SK2-a channels. This substitution resulted in a ...
Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, 2018 Nazareth College of Rochester
Avoiding Death Like The Plague: Wound Care In The Roman Army, Gwendolyn E. Dougherty
#History: A Journal of Student Research
At its peak, Roman Empire controlled over two million square miles of territory. To conquer and control that much land, Rome produced a highly skilled army. Casualties and deaths were to be expected, but ancient medical sources about caring for the wounded in the Roman army point to treatments considered advanced for the time period. Galen of Pergamum was an important contributor to this field. The use of food products and natural resources helped combat infections, healing the wounded soldiers and returning them to their military units. This paper identifies and analyzes what those specific products for wound care were ...
Sirna Knock-Down Of Vav1 In Breast Cancer Cells: Effects On Pi3kinase And Akt, 2018 University of Lynchburg
Sirna Knock-Down Of Vav1 In Breast Cancer Cells: Effects On Pi3kinase And Akt, Tajai Sion-Milligan
Student Scholar Showcase
One in eight women in the United States will be diagnosed with breast cancer. Approximately 25-30% of these breast tumors will overexpress Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2), associated with a worse prognosis and decreased survival rate. Stimulation of HER2 results in activation and production of many signaling molecules, ultimately resulting in increased cell division. Two of the downstream molecules activated are PI3Kinase and, further downstream, the molecule Akt. Typically, overproduction and/or overactivation of PI3Kinase can lead to oncogenesis. A molecule that may have a significant role in PI3Kinase formation is VAV1 ...
Towards The Development Of A Novel Dna Binding Fluorescent Cell Stain; An Analysis Of Common Dna Dyes And Their Applications, Lauren Kapteyn
Senior Honors Theses
Fluorescent deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) stains that permeate cells are used to observe cellular processes in vivo, making them valuable tools. For the proposal of a new stain, ethidium bromide, cyanine dyes, Hoechst stains, macarpine, DAPI and DRAQ5 are first examined. Features contributing to DNA binding mechanism, toxicity, and cell membrane transport are analyzed for these compounds. The mechanism of DNA binding contributes to the toxicity of the compound. For dyes with well-understood transport mechanisms, multi-drug protein transporters are vital players, though this remains an area for ongoing research as many mechanisms are not well studied. A novel anthraquinone-based compound is ...
Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Studies Of Amino Acid Mutations In Drug Resistance Of The Smo Protein, Eunice Wintona
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Smoothened receptor (SMO) is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SMO gene. A systemic mutation in its binding pocket helps predict the sensitivity of mutant proteins to different drugs. Known as a GPCR-like receptor, it is a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway; a pathway involved in body patterning and the regulation of adult stem cells. An uncontrolled or inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog pathway drives tumor progression in cancers and a number of birth defects. To achieve these goals, the molecular modeling software MOE was used to build small molecules and drug molecules like Vismodegib and ...
Testing Cr(Ii)-Btc For Ammonia Adsorption Capabilities: A Research Proposal, 2018 Gardner-Webb University
Testing Cr(Ii)-Btc For Ammonia Adsorption Capabilities: A Research Proposal, Tyler Hemingway
Undergraduate Honors Theses
Excerpt from Purpose and Hypothesis
The purpose of this thesis is to determine the ability of a particular metal-organic framework (MOF), Cr(II)-BTC, to adsorb ammonia (NH3) gas. This particular MOF was chosen for this study due to the Cr having open metal sites, which are generally suitable locations for ammonia adsorption as seen in other MOFs.1,2,3 This study will be done by testing Cr(II)-BTC’s ability to adsorb as well as another MOFs ability to adsorb ammonia. From this data, the ability of Cr(II)-BTC to adsorb ammonia repeatedly and under ...
The Shady Persecution Of Doping: Performance Enhancement Drugs And Meaning In Sport, Tyrin Antwan Stevenson
Senior Projects Fall 2018
This project deals with the debate around performance enhancement drugs, utilizing a philosophical approach to meaning in sport to shed light on the topic.
Effect Of Energy Metabolism On Nf-Kb Activity In Ovarian Cancer, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
Effect Of Energy Metabolism On Nf-Kb Activity In Ovarian Cancer, Simren K. Bagri
Undergraduate Research Posters
NF-kB is a transcription factor involved in cancer cell growth and survival. The activation of NF-kB can be assessed by monitoring phosphorylation of RelA p65 at Ser-536, which is a surrogate of the NF-kB transcription factor activation. The objective of this study was to determine if the loss of ATP leads to NF-kB deficiency and thus, apoptotic cell death of “bad” cells in ovarian cancer cells. The independent variables were metformin (Met), an anti-diabetic medicine, another compound MinB functionally similar to Met and a glucose transporter inhibitor BAY-876. The dependent variables were the resulting effect of Met and MinB on ...
The Evaluation Of Mefloquine Drug Repurposing On Acute Myeloid Leukemia, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
The Evaluation Of Mefloquine Drug Repurposing On Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Jessica L. Phan, Bhavuk Garg, Hrishikesh Mehta, Seth Corey
Undergraduate Research Posters
The aim of this study is to observe cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and autophagy on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, NB4 and U937, with the drug repurposing of mefloquine (MQ). Methods such as the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue staining have shown a decrease in live cells with high concentrations of mefloquine. Using their average perspective IC50 values of MQ concentration, Western blotting was applied by means of apoptosis and autophagy markers to determine if the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy was present in MQ-treated AML cells. The experiment will ...
Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
Nicotine Administration And Withdrawal And Its Effect On Sleep Latency, Relevant Sleep Variables, And Endogenous Corticosterone Levels In Mice, Vishnu Iyer
Undergraduate Honors Theses
NREM and REM sleep have shown an exceptional importance in controlling various cognitive functions (Brown et al, 2012), and disruption of such sleep states can cause mental and physical impairments (Christie et al, 2008). Disruptions in sleep stages (Wakefulness, REM, NREM) can be identified via EEG recordings in mice without much interference (Mckenna et al, 2008). Circadian Rhythm, hormonal markers, and stress all affect the duration, intensity and timing of these sleep stages (Brown et al, 2004; Veasey et al 2004; Christie et al, 2008). One cohort of mice (n=7) underwent a baseline condition (BL), a nicotine administration condition ...
Healthy People Are Bad For Capitalism, 2017 CUNY Hunter College
Healthy People Are Bad For Capitalism, Eri King
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Healthy People are Bad For Capitalism is a four part installation that creates an alternative space for the chemicals, Red 40 and Monosodium Glutamate. Presented as a holistic center that offers healing services and remedies, Center for the Red 40 and MSG Healing explores the homeopathic doctrine of Like Cures Like (what make a human ill also cures them) through the relationship between Traditional Japanese Healing Practices, and Western Capitalism.
Healthy People are Bad For Capitalism presents Red 40 MSG Apothecary, Red 40 Zen MSG Healing Rock Garden, Theta Wave Eternal Flame Meditation and Red 40 MSG Apothecary Studio ...
Tumor-Targeted Delivery Of Sirna Using Fatty Acyl-Cgkrk Peptide Conjugates, 2017 Chapman University
Tumor-Targeted Delivery Of Sirna Using Fatty Acyl-Cgkrk Peptide Conjugates, Meenakshi Sharma, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Hung Do, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Tumor-targeted carriers provide efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor tissue. CGKRK is one of the well-known tumor targeting peptides with significant specificity for angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells. Here, we designed fatty acyl conjugated CGKRK peptides, based on the hypothesis that hydrophobically-modified CGKRK peptide could enhance cellular permeation and delivery of siRNA targeted to tumor cells for effective silencing of selected proteins. We synthesized six fatty acyl-peptide conjugates, using a diverse chain of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids to study the efficiency of this approach. At peptide:siRNA weight/weight ratio of 10:1 (N/P ≈ 13.6 ...
Antimicrobial Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin-Silica Composite Pastes With Tunable Setting Properties, 2017 Chapman University
Antimicrobial Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin-Silica Composite Pastes With Tunable Setting Properties, Vuk Uskoković, Shreya Ghosh, Victoria M. Wu
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Bone grafting is one of the commonest surgical procedures, yet all bone substitutes developed so far suffer from specific weaknesses and the search for a bone graft material with ideal physical and biological properties is still ongoing. Calcium phosphate pastes are the most frequently used synthetic bone grafts, yet they (a) often take an impractically long time to set, (b) release the drug content too fast, and (c) do not form pores large enough to accommodate host cells and foster osseointegration. To make up for these deficiencies, we introduced gelatin and silica to pastes composed of 5–15 nm sized ...
Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, 2017 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University
Circling The Drain: Regulating Nutrient Pollution From Agricultural Sources, William Gutermuth
Journal of Law and Health
The 2014 Toledo, Ohio tap water ban has, at least temporarily, put a spotlight on United States water supplies. Consequently, many Americans have begun to take a closer look at the quality of the fresh water bodies being used to supply tap water to their homes. Therefore, this Note analyzes the problems currently threatening the lakes, rivers, and other surface waters that are the source of fresh drinking water for huge populations in the United States. Part II examines the problem of nutrient pollution and explains the harmful effects it has on human health. Part III provides an overview of ...
Chemical Modulation Of Cancer Cells To Enhance Tumor Immunity, 2017 Portland State University
Chemical Modulation Of Cancer Cells To Enhance Tumor Immunity, Florisela Herrejon Chavez
PSU McNair Scholars Online Journal
Breakthroughs in immunotherapy have led to cancer therapeutics that activate the immune system by blocking inhibitory mechanisms. This class of therapeutics has resulted in longer survival rates for cancer patients, some living over 10 years after being diagnosed as terminally ill. However, only a small fraction of patients who receive immunotherapy drugs respond favorably.Recent studies suggest that certain anticancer agents (both cytotoxic chemotherapeutics and targeted drugs) stimulate immune recognition of cancers. Identification of such immunomodulatory anticancer agents would make ideal partners for current immunotherapy treatments, thus increasing the proportion of the treated patients who benefit from immunotherapy. This study ...
Synthesis And Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Activity Of [R4w4k]-Levofloxacin And [R4w4k]-Levofloxacin-Q Conjugates, Neda Riahifard, Kathy Tavakoli, Jason Yamaki, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
The development of a new class of antibiotics to fight bacterial resistance is a time-consuming effort associated with high-cost and commercial risks. Thus, modification, conjugation or combination of existing antibiotics to enhance their efficacy is a suitable strategy. We have previously reported that the amphiphilic cyclic peptide [R4W4] had antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.97 g/mL against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Herein, we hypothesized that conjugation or combination of the amphiphilic cyclic peptide [R4W4] with levofloxacin or levofloxacin-Q could improve the antibacterial activity of levofloxacin and levofloxacin-Q. Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry was employed to ...
Theaflavin-3, 3'-Digallate Decreases Human Ovarian Carcinoma Ovcar-3 Cell-Induced Angiogenesis Via Akt And Notch-1 Pathways, Not Via Mapk Pathways, Ying Gao, Gary O. Rankin, Youying Tu, Yi Charlie Chen
Gary O. Rankin
Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate (TF3) is a black tea polyphenol produced from polymerization and oxidization of the green tea ployphenols epicatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) during fermentation of fresh tea leaves. TF3 has been reported to have anticancer properties. However, the effect of TF3 on tumor angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present study, TF3 was verified to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Compared with EGCG, TF3 was more potent. TF3 inhibited human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cell model and in chick chorioallantoic membrane model. TF3 reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating HIF-1α and ...
Structure Activity Relationship Studies Of Novel Diarylpentanoid Analogs Targeting The Androgen Receptor In Prostate Cancer Cells, Haili Coffin, Marco Bisoffi
Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters
The development of prostate cancer (PCa) relies strongly on the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway by its natural ligand dihydrotestosterone. Furthermore, PCa progression to metastatic disease represents oncogene addiction to AR activity. Androgen ablation therapy is thus a mainstay therapy against this disease, but the development of ligand-independent AR activation and persisting AR expression eventually leads to castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Therefore, down-regulation of AR expression in PCa cells may be an effective therapeutic modality. The diarylpentanoid ca27 has previously been shown to down-regulate AR expression by an unknown mechanism of action. The present work represents a ...
“Ecstasy” To Addiction: Mechanistic And Reinforcing Effects Of Synthetic Cathinone Analogs Of Mdma, 2017 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth
“Ecstasy” To Addiction: Mechanistic And Reinforcing Effects Of Synthetic Cathinone Analogs Of Mdma, Sean B. Dolan
Theses and Dissertations
Following widespread scheduling, many synthetic cathinone compounds have been diverted from “bath salts” to “Ecstasy” tablets or “Molly” powder formulations in addition to or in lieu of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). The current study aimed to assess the mechanism and reinforcing effects of three under-researched synthetic cathinone analogs of MDMA frequently used as adulterants in “Ecstasy” formulations: methylone, butylone, and pentylone. To assess the mechanism of these compounds in vitro, we utilized whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology on HEK293 cells expressing the serotonin transporter (SERT). The abuse-related, in vivo mechanisms were determined using a drug discrimination assay with rats trained to discriminate ...
Synthesis Of Non-Toxic Compounds And The Inhibition Of Oral Bacteria, 2017 Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Synthesis Of Non-Toxic Compounds And The Inhibition Of Oral Bacteria, Monica Patel
Theses and Dissertations (All)
In recent years, research has shown that dental care correlates with many health factors due to the amount of bacteria present in the mouth. Thus, it is important to create more efficient compounds to fight oral bacteria, specifically Streptococci mutans. This research chose cost effective compounds to inhibit the cavity causing S. mutans.
Based on a study on phenolic antibacterial compounds against oral bacteria, 4- hexylphenol had reasonable germ-kill activity and log P values. By modeling this compound with one alcohol group and a long hydrophobic carbon chain, Geraniol was chosen as a starting material.
Three compounds were synthesized and ...