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Synthesis, Characterization, And Evaluation Of Metal Complexes With Cancer Selective Anti-Proliferative Effects And Hydrogen Evolution Catalytic Properties., Nicholas Vishnosky 2019 University of Louisville

Synthesis, Characterization, And Evaluation Of Metal Complexes With Cancer Selective Anti-Proliferative Effects And Hydrogen Evolution Catalytic Properties., Nicholas Vishnosky

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bis-thiosemicarbazones (BTSC) and their metal chelates have properties that are useful in several different scientific fields. These systems have already received attention in major fields of biology and engineering. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts need to be cheap and operate under minimal overpotentials with a long lifetime. The treatment of cancer requires, novel agents that have potent cytotoxic activity against cancer cells while displaying minimal side effects. In this dissertation the modular synthesis of these bis-thiosemicarbazone systems is utilized to regulate the redox chemistry for employment in the desired sector of chemistry. The ligand and metal chelates synthesized were characterized ...


Synthesis Of A Zn(Ii)-Responsive Paracest Mri Agent For Improved Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Megan Martin, Holly Clancy 2019 The University of San Francisco

Synthesis Of A Zn(Ii)-Responsive Paracest Mri Agent For Improved Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Megan Martin, Holly Clancy

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

In the United States, prostate cancer is the leading type of cancer diagnosed in men. Prostate cancer is currently diagnosed with the Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test; however, it leads to many false positives and therefore unneeded biopsies. Previous studies have shown that cancerous prostates have a much lower concentration of zinc than healthy prostates. The goal of this project is to create an MRI contrast agent capable of non-invasively quantifying zinc in the human prostate. Five out of the eight synthetic steps have been successfully completed so far, and the identities of these intermediate products have been verified by 1 ...


Peptide Functionalized Surfactant Msns, Sonia Barrett 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Peptide Functionalized Surfactant Msns, Sonia Barrett

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has become a rising problem since the first antibiotic was created, further aggravated by the improper overuse to treat common infections, because of this pharmaceutical companies must keep making new and stronger antibiotics. Surfactants are plentiful and effective killers of many surface bacteria and are also varied in their structure, all have a hydrophilic head and long hydrophobic carbon chain. These long hydrophobic carbon chains can pierce through the lipid bilayers that make up bacteria cell membranes and cause cytoplasmic leakage and lysis of the cell wall, leading to cell death. One proposed surfactant is synthesized ...


Caspases And Cancer: Connections Through Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy, Sarah M. Hethcox 2019 Georgia Southern University

Caspases And Cancer: Connections Through Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy, Sarah M. Hethcox

University Honors Program Theses

While excessive cell death inevitably leads to negative effects, the endurance of damaged cells in the presence of death signals can be equally detrimental to health. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a highly regulated process in which cues from within or from outside a cell can trigger an irreversible sequence of signals that carry out cell destruction known as the apoptotic cascade. A group of enzymes called caspases play a vital role in this cascade with some participating as initiators and others acting as effectors of protein cleavage and intracellular breakdown. Although it is normal for the activity of ...


Manganese Influx And Expression Of Zip8 Is Essential In Primary Myoblasts And Contributes To Activation Of Sod2 [Preprint], Shellaina J. V. Gordon, Daniel E. Fenker, Katherine E. Vest, Teresita Padilla-Benavides 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Manganese Influx And Expression Of Zip8 Is Essential In Primary Myoblasts And Contributes To Activation Of Sod2 [Preprint], Shellaina J. V. Gordon, Daniel E. Fenker, Katherine E. Vest, Teresita Padilla-Benavides

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Trace elements such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) are enzyme cofactors and second messengers in cell signaling. Trace elements are emerging as key regulators of differentiation and development of mammalian tissues including blood, brain, and skeletal muscle. We previously reported an influx of Cu and dynamic expression of various metal transporters during differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. Here, we demonstrate that during differentiation of skeletal myoblasts an increase of additional trace elements such as Mn, Fe and Zn occurs. Interestingly the Mn increase is concomitant with increased Mn-dependent SOD2 levels. To better understand the Mn ...


Prevalence And Management Of Iron Overload In Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency: Report From The Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Natural History Study, Eduard J. van Beers, Peter E. Newburger, Rachael F. Grace 2018 University Medical Center Utrecht

Prevalence And Management Of Iron Overload In Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency: Report From The Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Natural History Study, Eduard J. Van Beers, Peter E. Newburger, Rachael F. Grace

Open Access Articles

Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is the most common red cell glycolytic enzyme defect causing hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. Current treatments are mainly supportive and include red cell transfusions and splenectomy.11 Regular red cell transfusions are known to result in iron overload; however, the prevalence and spectrum of transfusion-independent iron overload in the overall PK deficient population has not been well defined. This analysis describes the prevalence and clinical characteristics of iron overload in patients enrolled in the PK Deficiency Natural History Study (NHS) with a focus on those patients who are not regularly transfused.2


What Are The Characteristics Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Opioid Dependence? An Exploratory Longitudinal Study In Australian Primary Care, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Hulse 2018 Edith Cowan University

What Are The Characteristics Of Vitamin D Metabolism In Opioid Dependence? An Exploratory Longitudinal Study In Australian Primary Care, Albert Stuart Reece, Gary Hulse

ECU Publications Post 2013

OBJECTIVE: Compare vitamin D levels in opioid dependence and control population and adjust for relevant confounding effects. Nuclear hormone receptors (including the vitamin D receptor) have been shown to be key transducers and regulators of intracellular metabolism and comprise an important site of pathophysiological immune and metabolic dysregulation potentially contributing towards pro-ageing changes observed in opioid-dependent patients (ODPs).

DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective comparing ODPs with general medical controls (GMCs).

SETTING: Primary care.

PARTICIPANTS: Prospective review comparing 1168 ODP (72.5% men) and 415 GMC (51.6% men, p

INTERVENTIONS: Nil. Observational study only.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: Serum vitamin D levels ...


The Effects Of Emerging Technology On Healthcare And The Difficulties Of Integration, Skyler J. Pavlish-Carpenter 2018 University of Central Florida

The Effects Of Emerging Technology On Healthcare And The Difficulties Of Integration, Skyler J. Pavlish-Carpenter

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Background: Disruptive technology describes technology that is significantly more advanced than previous iterations, such as: 3D printing, genetic manipulation, stem cell research, innovative surgical procedures, and computer-based charting software. These technologies often require extensive overhauls to implement into older systems and must overcome many difficult financial and societal complications before they can be widely used. In a field like healthcare that makes frequent advancements, these difficulties can mean that the technology will not be utilized to its full potential or implemented at all.

Objective: To determine the inhibiting factors that prevent disruptive technology from being implemented in conventional healthcare.

Methods ...


Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed 2017 The Universty of Western Ontario

Fabrication And Modification Of Titania Nanotube Arrays For Harvesting Solar Energy And Drug Delivery Applications, Ahmed El Ruby Abdel Rahman Mohamed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The fast diminishing of fossil fuels in the near future, as well as the global warming caused by increasing greenhouse gases have motivated the urgent quest to develop advanced materials as cost-effective photoanodes for solar light harvesting and many other photocatalytic applications. Recently, titania nanotube arrays (TNTAs) fabricated by anodization process has attracted great interest due to their excellent properties such as: high surface area, vertically oriented, highly organized, one-dimensional, nanotubular structure, photoactivity, chemical stability and biocompatibility. This unique combination of excellent properties makes TNTAs an excellent photoanode for solar light harvesting. However, the relatively wide band gap energy of ...


Sodium Channel Nav1.3 Is Important For Enterochromaffin Cell Excitability And Serotonin Release, Peter R. Strege, Kaitlyn Knutson, Samuel J. Eggers, Joyce H. Li, Fan Wang, David Linden, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Lorin Milescu, Andrew B. Leiter, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder 2017 Mayo Clinic

Sodium Channel Nav1.3 Is Important For Enterochromaffin Cell Excitability And Serotonin Release, Peter R. Strege, Kaitlyn Knutson, Samuel J. Eggers, Joyce H. Li, Fan Wang, David Linden, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Lorin Milescu, Andrew B. Leiter, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder

Open Access Articles

In the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium, enterochromaffin (EC) cells are enteroendocrine cells responsible for producing > 90% of the body's serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). However, the molecular mechanisms of EC cell function are poorly understood. Here, we found that EC cells in mouse primary cultures fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. We examined the repertoire of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV) in fluorescence-sorted mouse EC cells and found that Scn3a was highly expressed. Scn3a-encoded NaV1.3 was specifically and densely expressed at the basal side of both human and mouse EC cells. Using electrophysiology, we found that EC cells expressed robust NaV1.3 ...


Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana 2017 Seton Hall University

Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The killer peptide sequence D-(KLAKLAK)2 has been originally designed and developed as an antibacterial agent. Despite having excellent cytotoxicity towards bacteria, this sequence maintains low cell cytotoxity in malignant mammalian cell types such as cancer. The chemical basis for its selectivity has been attributed to its poly(cationic) amphiphilic nature, which facilitates cell permeability across the negatively charged bacterial membrane, but with limited permeability across the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. The positively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence has been found to accumulate on the surface of the mitochondria causing dissipation of the negatively charged mitochondrial membrane potential ...


Microarray Dataset Of Transient And Permanent Dna Methylation Changes In Hela Cells Undergoing Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition, Meredith Eckstein, Matthew Rea, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf 2017 University of Kentucky

Microarray Dataset Of Transient And Permanent Dna Methylation Changes In Hela Cells Undergoing Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition, Meredith Eckstein, Matthew Rea, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The novel dataset presented here represents the results of the changing pattern of DNA methylation profiles in HeLa cells exposed to chronic low dose (0.5 µM) sodium arsenite, resulting in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, as well as DNA methylation patterns in cells where inorganic arsenic has been removed. Inorganic arsenic is a known carcinogen, though not mutagenic. Several mechanisms have been proposed as to how inorganic arsenic drives carcinogenesis such as regulation of the cell׳s redox potential and/or epigenetics. In fact, there are gene specific studies and limited genome-wide studies that have implicated epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation ...


Addressing Childhood Lead Poisoning Through Gis: A Proactive Approach In Scott County, Iowa, Tanner Osing 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Addressing Childhood Lead Poisoning Through Gis: A Proactive Approach In Scott County, Iowa, Tanner Osing

2016-2017: Scott County, Iowa and the Scott County Health Department

In June 2016, Scott County Health Department (SHCD) officially partnered with the Upper Mississippi Center (UMC) at Augustana College as part of the Sustainable Working Landscapes Initiative (SWLI). The initiative’s main goal is to address childhood lead poisoning in Scott County, Iowa. While the health department has ongoing efforts to address the problem, there are still approximately 50 children testing positive for lead poisoning every year (Tibbets, 2016). Currently, as part of the Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention and Control Program, the health department offers case management services for children poisoned under the age of six, follow-up inspections for residences ...


Connecting Energy Metabolism And Neurodegeneration: Pyruvate Kinase And Oxidative Stress, Julia P. Zuercher 2017 College of William and Mary

Connecting Energy Metabolism And Neurodegeneration: Pyruvate Kinase And Oxidative Stress, Julia P. Zuercher

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pyruvate kinase (PK), an important glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the final step of glycolysis through an irreversible mechanism to produce energy for the cell, contains nine cysteines, some of which are highly reactive and critical for function. This research sought to develop a protocol to measure quantitatively the functionality of PK under different experimental conditions. Using a three stage, consistent procedure, it was possible to analyze the effects of thiol modification by Ellman’s Reagent (DTNB) and oxidation by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on PK activity. Results showed that both DTNB and HOCl inhibited activity at high concentrations, which illustrates that ...


Epigenomic Reprogramming In Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Gene Expression Patterns During Carcinogenesis, Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Matthew Rea, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf 2017 University of Kentucky

Epigenomic Reprogramming In Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Gene Expression Patterns During Carcinogenesis, Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Matthew Rea, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid that is not mutagenic but is carcinogenic. The mechanism(s) by which arsenic causes cancer remain unknown. To date, several mechanisms have been proposed, including the arsenic-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, it is also becoming evident that inorganic arsenic (iAs) may exert its carcinogenic effects by changing the epigenome, and thereby modifying chromatin structure and dynamics. These epigenetic changes alter the accessibility of gene regulatory factors to DNA, resulting in specific changes in gene expression both at the levels of transcription initiation and gene splicing. In this review, we discuss recent literature ...


Genome-Wide Dna Methylation Reprogramming In Response To Inorganic Arsenic Links Inhibition Of Ctcf Binding, Dnmt Expression And Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Caroline Smith, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf 2017 University of Kentucky

Genome-Wide Dna Methylation Reprogramming In Response To Inorganic Arsenic Links Inhibition Of Ctcf Binding, Dnmt Expression And Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Meredith Eckstein, Rebekah Eleazer, Caroline Smith, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure leads to changes in gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation. During this transformation, cells adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound gene expression changes. While many mechanisms have been implicated in this transformation, studies that focus on the role of epigenetic alterations in this process are just emerging. DNA methylation controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Several studies show alterations in DNA methylation patterns in iAs-mediated pathogenesis, but these studies focused on single genes. We present a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methyl-sequencing to measure changes between normal and iAs-transformed cells ...


Lead Poisoning In Linn County & Cedar Rapids, Ia, Sydney Fedor, Lexys Magadan, Shannon Okland, Morghan Smith, Anna Willems 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Lead Poisoning In Linn County & Cedar Rapids, Ia, Sydney Fedor, Lexys Magadan, Shannon Okland, Morghan Smith, Anna Willems

2016-2017: Scott County, Iowa and the Scott County Health Department

No abstract provided.


Black Hawk County’S Approach To Lead Poisoning, Ashley Comeau, Taylor Campbell, Nathan Ambrose, Travis Pulse 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Black Hawk County’S Approach To Lead Poisoning, Ashley Comeau, Taylor Campbell, Nathan Ambrose, Travis Pulse

2016-2017: Scott County, Iowa and the Scott County Health Department

Scott County, IA is facing a community lead poisoning problem, much like other counties in the state. One of these are Black Hawk County, northwest of Scott. Black Hawk County approached the lead poisoning problem by partnering with organizations including the University of Northern Iowa, the Iowa Poison Control Center, and a multitude of medical groups. Funding, procedures for action, and education were also factors in assessing the lead problem. Black Hawk County’s number of lead poisonings decreased after approaching the problem, while Scott County’s problem worsened. By using similar methods, we hope that Scott County's lead ...


Circumventing Cisplatin Resistance In Ovarian Cancers Through Reactivation Of P53 By Non-Cross-Resistant Platinum Analogs, Michelle Martinez-Rivera 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Circumventing Cisplatin Resistance In Ovarian Cancers Through Reactivation Of P53 By Non-Cross-Resistant Platinum Analogs, Michelle Martinez-Rivera

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Abstract

CIRCUMVENTING CISPLATIN RESISTANCE IN OVARIAN CANCERS THROUGH REACTIVATION OF P53 BY NON-CROSS-RESISTANT PLATINUM ANALOGS

Michelle Martinez-Rivera, B.S.

Advisory Professor: Zahid H. Siddik, Ph.D.

Cisplatin (cis-Pt), an anticancer platinum (Pt) drug, is used widely in the treatment of several malignancies, such as ovarian cancer. This Pt compound induces DNA damage, which results in p53 activation through post-translational modifications, mainly phosphorylation, culminating in execution of programmed cell-death. However, despite initial therapeutic response to cis-Pt, clinical resistance to this drug emerges leading to disease progression. Pt-resistance phenotypes have been associated with dysfunction in the p53 signaling pathway. Therefore, an effort ...


In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer 2016 Iowa State University

In-Season N Fertilization Strategies Using Active Sensors, Daniel Barker, John Sawyer

John E. Sawyer

The objectives of this project were to measure corn yield response to applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer based on active canopy sensing during the mid-vegetative corn growth stage (V10) and compare yield and N use efficiency between pre-plant N (PP-N), pre-plant + sensor N (PP+S-N), split N strategy (SNS), and rescue N strategy (RNS).


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