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Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela

Open Access Articles

Bifidobacterium longum colonizes mammalian gastrointestinal tracts where it could metabolize host-indigestible oligosaccharides. Although B. longum strains are currently segregated into three subspecies that reflect common metabolic capacities and genetic similarity, heterogeneity within subspecies suggests that these taxonomic boundaries may not be completely resolved. To address this, the B. longum pangenome was analyzed from representative strains isolated from a diverse set of sources. As a result, the B. longum pangenome is open and contains almost 17,000 genes, with over 85% of genes found in < /=28 of 191 strains. B. longum genomes share a small core gene set of only ~500 genes, or ~3% of the total pangenome. Although the individual B. longum subspecies pangenomes share similar relative abundances of clusters of orthologous groups, strains show inter- and intrasubspecies differences with respect to carbohydrate utilization gene content and growth phenotypes.


Selective Inhibition Of N-Linked Glycosylation Impairs Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Processing, Elsenoor Klaver, Peng Zhao, Melanie May, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Hudson H. Freeze, Reid Gilmore, Lance Wells, Joseph Contessa, Richard Steet 2019 University of Georgia

Selective Inhibition Of N-Linked Glycosylation Impairs Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Processing, Elsenoor Klaver, Peng Zhao, Melanie May, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Hudson H. Freeze, Reid Gilmore, Lance Wells, Joseph Contessa, Richard Steet

Open Access Articles

Global inhibition of N-linked glycosylation broadly reduces glycan occupancy on glycoproteins, but identifying how this inhibition functionally impacts specific glycoproteins is challenging. This limits our understanding of pathogenesis in the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). We used selective exo-enzymatic labeling of cells deficient in the two catalytic subunits of oligosaccharyltransferase - STT3A and STT3B - to monitor the presence and glycosylation status of cell surface glycoproteins. We show reduced abundance of two canonical tyrosine receptor kinases - the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) - at the cell surface in STT3A-null cells, due to decreased N-linked glycan site occupancy and proteolytic ...


Adipocyte Acly Facilitates Dietary Carbohydrate Handling To Maintain Metabolic Homeostasis In Females, Sully Fernandez, John M. Viola, AnnMarie Torres, Martina Wallace, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Hayley C. Affronti, Jivani M. Gengatharan, David A. Guertin, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Christian M. Metallo, Kathryn E. Wellen 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Adipocyte Acly Facilitates Dietary Carbohydrate Handling To Maintain Metabolic Homeostasis In Females, Sully Fernandez, John M. Viola, Annmarie Torres, Martina Wallace, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Hayley C. Affronti, Jivani M. Gengatharan, David A. Guertin, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Christian M. Metallo, Kathryn E. Wellen

Open Access Articles

Sugars and refined carbohydrates are major components of the modern diet. ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is upregulated in adipocytes in response to carbohydrate consumption and generates acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) for both lipid synthesis and acetylation reactions. Here, we investigate the role of ACLY in the metabolic and transcriptional responses to carbohydrates in adipocytes and unexpectedly uncover a sexually dimorphic function in maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis. When fed a high-sucrose diet, Acly(FAT-/-) females exhibit a lipodystrophy-like phenotype, with minimal fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipid accumulation, whereas Acly(FAT-/-) males have only mild metabolic phenotypes. We find that ACLY is ...


Diet And Addiction: Interview With A Former Food, Pornography, And Alcohol Addict, Tro Kalayjian, Brian Lenzkes 2019 University of Rhode Island

Diet And Addiction: Interview With A Former Food, Pornography, And Alcohol Addict, Tro Kalayjian, Brian Lenzkes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Drs. Tro Kalayjian (Tapan, New York) and Brian Lenzkes (Santee, California) talk to Matt about his struggles with food, pornography, and alcohol addiction, and how changing his diet contributed to his recovery from his addictions. This report is excerpted from the audio podcast LowCarbMD, Episode 13 (https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/low-carb-md-podcast/ ), January 30, 2019). This podcast has filled us with immense hope for those struggling with addiction.


35 - Synthesis Of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrates (Tacs) Using Lewis Acid Catalysts, Rania Saleb 2018 University of North Georgia

35 - Synthesis Of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrates (Tacs) Using Lewis Acid Catalysts, Rania Saleb

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Cancer is a collection of diseases that result from uncontrolled cell division. The tumors are broadly classified as benign or malignant. Benign tumors are localized to a specific tissue, and thus, can be removed surgically with a limited chance for reoccurrence. On the other hand, malignant tumors undergo a process called metastasis to migrate to neighboring or distant tissues from the original site of occurrence. Since malignant tumors invade other tissues they are hard to detect and difficult to treat. According to the National Cancer Institute, 1.7 million cases of cancer were reported in 2014. Unfortunately, these numbers are ...


Red Wine And Green Tea Flavonoids Are Cis-Allosteric Activators And Competitive Inhibitors Of Glut1-Mediated Sugar Uptake, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Red Wine And Green Tea Flavonoids Are Cis-Allosteric Activators And Competitive Inhibitors Of Glut1-Mediated Sugar Uptake, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers

Open Access Articles

The anti-oxidant, flavonoid-rich content of red wine and green tea is reported to offer protection against cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Some studies, however, show that flavonoids inhibit GLUT1-mediated, facilitative glucose transport raising the possibility that their interaction with GLUT1 and subsequent, downstream effects on carbohydrate metabolism may also impact health. The present study explores the structure/function relationships of flavonoid-GLUT1 interactions. We find that low concentrations of flavonoids act as cis-allosteric activators of sugar uptake while higher concentrations competitively inhibit sugar uptake and noncompetitively inhibit sugar exit. Studies with heterologously expressed human GLUTs 1, 3 and 4 reveal that ...


The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela

Open Access Articles

Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing identified these isolates as unique strains of Bifidobacterium callitrichos. All three strains, including these ...


Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, Christina F. Haughton, Meera Sreedhara, Lori Pbert, Molly E. Waring, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, Christina F. Haughton, Meera Sreedhara, Lori Pbert, Molly E. Waring, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

UMass Worcester PRC Presentations

Background: Among adolescents, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added dietary sugar and constitute 10-15% of their total caloric intake. A range of factors influence adolescent dietary behaviors and food choices. This study aimed to explore adolescents' attitudes and knowledge about SSBs, how they receive messages about SSBs, and motivations for SSB consumption.

Methods: We conducted 5 focus groups with youth aged 12-14 years that attend one of the eight Youth Connect programs in Worcester, MA in 2016-2017. Groups were sex-specific because of changes during adolescence and experiences with body image and health behaviors between the groups. A ...


Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to increased intake of sweet solutions by mammals, learning, particularly classically-conditioned “Pavlovian-like” learning, also plays an important role. An orosensory conditioned flavor preference (CFP) can be elicited by pairing one novel flavor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a fructose solution and a second novel flavor (CS-) with a saccharin solution. Rats will prefer the CS+ flavor in a subsequent 2-bottle choice test with both flavors mixed in saccharin. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 as well as NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonists eliminated the acquisition (learning) of fructose-CFP. Further, expression of ...


Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Carbohydrate Template And Analogs Thereof For Potential Cns-Active Drugs, Emi Hanawa-Romero 2017 Seton Hall University

Synthesis And Evaluation Of A Novel Carbohydrate Template And Analogs Thereof For Potential Cns-Active Drugs, Emi Hanawa-Romero

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Central nervous system (CNS) disorders are becoming a major societal problem. Examples of well-known CNS disorders are: neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer’s diseases, epilepsy/seizures, addiction, bipolar disorder, catalepsy, meningitis, migraines, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and multiple sclerosis. CNS disorders can be caused by various factors and therefore can affect ages, genders and races of all.

The population of patients with CNS disorders is increasing and a significant percentage of patients have symptoms that are not controlled by existing treatments. In addition, since CNS disorders are chronic disorder, there is no cure and ...


Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana 2017 Seton Hall University

Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The killer peptide sequence D-(KLAKLAK)2 has been originally designed and developed as an antibacterial agent. Despite having excellent cytotoxicity towards bacteria, this sequence maintains low cell cytotoxity in malignant mammalian cell types such as cancer. The chemical basis for its selectivity has been attributed to its poly(cationic) amphiphilic nature, which facilitates cell permeability across the negatively charged bacterial membrane, but with limited permeability across the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. The positively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence has been found to accumulate on the surface of the mitochondria causing dissipation of the negatively charged mitochondrial membrane potential ...


Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, Kevin Decker 2017 James Madison University

Mouth Exposure To Carbohydrate Prior To Exercise Possibly Impairs The Efficacy Of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing During Exercise, Kevin Decker

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

Decker K. P., M. J. Saunders, N. D. Luden, C. J. Womack, and N. J. Hladick. Mouth Exposure to Carbohydrate Prior to Exercise Possibly Impairs the Efficacy of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing during Exercise. Purpose: Carbohydrate mouth-rinsing (CHO-MR) during intense endurance exercise has been associated with improved cycling performance, due to neurological influences. However, prior studies have reported the efficacy of CHO-MR is attenuated following a pre-exercise meal. To determine if this outcome is related to desensitization of CHO receptors (rather than metabolic effects following digestion), this study will investigate whether CHO-MR prior to exercise influences cycling performance when CHO-MR is ...


High Epstein-Barr Virus Load And Genomic Diversity Are Associated With Generation Of Gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies Following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis, Eric R. Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L. Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakis, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

High Epstein-Barr Virus Load And Genomic Diversity Are Associated With Generation Of Gp350-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies Following Acute Infectious Mononucleosis, Eric R. Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L. Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakis, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa K. Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga

Garber Lab Publications

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and the evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis [AIM]) and again 6 months later (during convalescence [CONV]). EBV gp350-specific IgG was detected in the sera of 17 (71%) of 24 individuals at the time of AIM and all 24 ...


Beer Potomania: A Challenging Case Of Hyponatremia, Hind Rafei, Raza Yunus, Parvinder S. Khurana 2016 George Washington University

Beer Potomania: A Challenging Case Of Hyponatremia, Hind Rafei, Raza Yunus, Parvinder S. Khurana

Medicine Faculty Publications

Beer potomania is a syndrome of hyponatremia associated with excessive beer drinking. Little or no salt content of beer results in marked reduction in the solute load to the kidney. This leads to impaired water clearance and dilutional hyponatremia. A 66-year-old man with history of alcoholism and alcoholic cardiomyopathy presented to the emergency room with tremors of his upper and lower extremities. He had a significant history of alcohol consumption, usually drinking 4 - 5 cans of beer per night for the past 34 years. In addition, he had consumed a fifth of a vodka bottle the day before presentation. He ...


Extraction, Purification And Partial Characterization Of A Carotenoid Binding Protein (Cbp) From The Epidermis Of The Monarch Butterfly Larvae (Danaus Plexippus), Nan Fang 2016 Florida International University

Extraction, Purification And Partial Characterization Of A Carotenoid Binding Protein (Cbp) From The Epidermis Of The Monarch Butterfly Larvae (Danaus Plexippus), Nan Fang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes the purification and partial characterization of CBP from the epidermis of the monarch butterfly larvae (Danaus plexippus). A yellow protein-carotenoid complex was extracted from the yellow pigmented epidermal tissue from monarch butterfly larvae by homogenization. Additional steps in the purification process included differential precipitation with ammonium sulfate, cation and anion chromatography, and lastly size exclusion chromatography. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrates that a single protein was isolated (M-LBP) having a ~60 kDa molecular weight, the value has subsequently been confirmed by HR-tandem MS. Lutein is the sole carotenoid bound by M-LBP with a stoichiometry of the binding of ...


Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Engineering A Mutation In The Heparin Binding Pocket Of The Human Fibroblast Growth Factor, Roshni Patel

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are family of proteins that belong to a group of growth factors that are found in mammals and play an important role in angiogenesis, differentiation, organogenesis, and tissue repair. In summary, their main functionality is involved in cell division and proliferation. Because FGFs plays such a vital role in cell proliferation, they are mainly involved in the process of wound healing and injuries. FGF binds to its ligand, heparin—a heavily sulfated glycosaminoglycan. The binding of heparin to FGF occurs through electrostatic interactions, specifically between the negatively charged sulfate groups on heparin and positively charged residues ...


Anti-Cancer Diets: Revolution Or Ruse?, Lauren Hogan 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Anti-Cancer Diets: Revolution Or Ruse?, Lauren Hogan

First Year Inquiry: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

This paper discusses how the foods we consume can play a role in the diagnosis of cancer.


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky 2016 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of these preparatory course set of learning objectives is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

These 40+ learning objectives to prepare for Human Anatomy and Physiology can be downloaded and played in a desktop, or laptop (windows exe file).

The entire course has four parts:

Each learning objective is followed by a set of multiple choice question similar to those found later in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course.

The organization and ...


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

Nancy A. Burnham

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since ...


Design And Synthesis Of Novel Nucleoside Analogues: Oxidative And Reductive Approaches Toward Synthesis Of 2'-Fluoro Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Ramanjaneyulu Rayala 2015 Florida International University

Design And Synthesis Of Novel Nucleoside Analogues: Oxidative And Reductive Approaches Toward Synthesis Of 2'-Fluoro Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Ramanjaneyulu Rayala

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fluorinated nucleosides, especially the analogues with fluorine atom(s) in the ribose ring, have been known to exert potent biological activities. The first part of this dissertation was aimed at developing oxidative desulfurization-fluorination and reductive desulfonylation-fluorination methodologies toward the synthesis of 2'-mono and/or 2',2'-difluoro pyrimidine nucleosides from the corresponding 2'-arylthiopyrimidine precursors. Novel oxidative desulfurization-difluorination methodology was developed for the synthesis of α,α-difluorinted esters from the corresponding α-arylthio esters, wherein the arylthio group is present on a secondary internal carbon. For the reductive desulfonylation studies, cyclic voltammetry was utilized to measure the reduction potentials at ...


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