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Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


Radiologic Contrast-Induced Transmetallation In Mineral Rich Fruits: X-Ray Imaging To Understand Heat Cycling During Climate Change And Map Metal Redistribution In Biological Media For Biomedical Applications, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Radiologic Contrast-Induced Transmetallation In Mineral Rich Fruits: X-Ray Imaging To Understand Heat Cycling During Climate Change And Map Metal Redistribution In Biological Media For Biomedical Applications, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur

Publications and Research

Heat cycling due to climate change can affect hydrated protein or carbohydrate functions, the latter is not well studied. The project started with involving the study of heat-stressed carbohydrate behavior when bulk water was partly stripped from carbohydrates in model microwaved fruits and vegetables, like apples and sweet potatoes (that are mineral-rich) and was set in mineral exchange competition with toxic metals like Gadolinium and chelating complexes like iodinated EDTA. These are common radiologic contrast medias that strongly absorb x-rays and are currently implicated in man-made environmental toxins. Our goal was to map diffusion of injected heavy atoms as well ...


Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Intro: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a national epidemic and is a disease that greatly affects the Rio Grande Valley. Many individuals in the United States, especially in the Rio Grande Valley, have a family history of T2D. Previous evidence has shown that those with a family history of T2D are metabolically inflexible, have a decreased ability to clear circulating glucose, and poor postprandial microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle tissue. The aforementioned occurs in otherwise healthy individuals with a family history of T2D to nearly the same extent as those who have T2D. Previous studies have not shown where ...


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer ...


Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith 2021 Southeastern University - Lakeland

Ketogenic Diet As A Preventative Measure Or Treatment Option For Osteoarthritistargeting Nfl Athletes As A High-Risk Group, Kelsi J. Smith

Selected Honors Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disease that results from the degradation of articular cartilage, leading to inflammation, pain, and eventual joint failure. At one time, it was thought that OA was only the result of the natural decline experienced in old age; however, various risk factors have now been identified that may contribute to an increased risk for developing OA. Risk factors may include joint loading, altered biomechanics, obesity, and joint injury, to which athletes are exposed at a high rate. NFL athletes are one group of athletes that have continued to show a high prevalence of arthritis in ...


Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. The K032 study is evaluating the effect ...


Synthesis Of Glycopharmaceuticals For The Treatment Of Microbial Sepsis, Nicholas Forsythe, Alexei Demchenko, Catherine Alex 2021 University of Missouri St. Louis

Synthesis Of Glycopharmaceuticals For The Treatment Of Microbial Sepsis, Nicholas Forsythe, Alexei Demchenko, Catherine Alex

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Carbohydrates (glycans) form the basis of all living organisms and, consequently, are ubiquitous both in nature as biologically active compounds and in medicine as pharmaceuticals. One important application of carbohydrate-based drugs (glycopharmaceuticals) is the treatment of microbial sepsis, an acute illness that causes 100,000+ human deaths annually in the US alone. Exposure of the patient’s blood system to E. coli bacteria causes a massive, and often fatal, immune response. One important cellular receptor that senses the bacterium and is critically involved in triggering the immune response is CD14. Significant efforts by our team and others have been made ...


Reversible Glucan Phosphorylation In The Red Alga, Cyanidioschyzon Merolae, Corey Owen Brizzee 2021 University of Kentucky

Reversible Glucan Phosphorylation In The Red Alga, Cyanidioschyzon Merolae, Corey Owen Brizzee

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Starch and glycogen are an essential component for the majority of species and have been developed to maintain homeostasis in response to environmental changes. Water-soluble glycogen is an excellent source of quick, short-term energy in response to energy demands. In contrast, plants and algae have developed the macromolecule starch that is elegantly suitable for their dependence on external circumstances. Semi-crystalline starch is water-insoluble and inaccessible to most amylolytic enzymes, thus plants and algae have developed a coordinated system so that these enzymes can gain access to the denser starch energy cache. Starch-like semi-crystalline polysaccharides are also found in red algae ...


Development Of Hyaluronic Acid-Derived Macromolecular Agents For Multimodal Imaging Probes And Nanomedicine, William M. Payne 2020 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Development Of Hyaluronic Acid-Derived Macromolecular Agents For Multimodal Imaging Probes And Nanomedicine, William M. Payne

Theses & Dissertations

Cancer, one of the most challenging maladies facing modern medicine, is a complex family of diseases that requires a multifaceted treatment regime. In recent years, increased research effort has been placed on the development of nanoscale formulations as a potential method to improve therapeutic efficacy and offer better treatment. Both drug formulation and biomedical imaging has benefitted from the development of new, nanoscale agents. Hyaluronic Acid (HA), a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan, is a promising platform for the development of new drug delivery systems. Furthermore, hyaluronic acid is the principal ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44, which is overexpressed on ...


Silver Salt-Mediate Benzylation Of Carbohydrates Under Mildly Acidic Conditions, Nicholas Forsythe, Samira Escopy, Yashapal Singh 2436808, Alexei Demchenko 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Silver Salt-Mediate Benzylation Of Carbohydrates Under Mildly Acidic Conditions, Nicholas Forsythe, Samira Escopy, Yashapal Singh 2436808, Alexei Demchenko

Undergraduate Research Symposium

When looking at biomolecules, carbohydrate represent a large group of macromolecules that play an important role in the body. Most importantly, carbohydrates provide an energy supply for organisms, but it is proven that they are also involved in a myriad of other processes. Furthermore, synthesizing these molecules leads to advancements in chemistry, such as drug design, and other structures such as glycolipids play important roles in the immune system. Understanding this, an efficient and reliable way to create these carbohydrates is needed.

The protection and deprotection manipulations of carbohydrates play an essential role in synthetic carbohydrate chemistry.1 Using benzyl ...


Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Comparative Pangenomics Of The Mammalian Gut Commensal Bifidobacterium Longum, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David Sela

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Bifidobacterium longum colonizes mammalian gastrointestinal tracts where it could metabolize host-indigestible oligosaccharides. Although B. longum strains are currently segregated into three subspecies that reflect common metabolic capacities and genetic similarity, heterogeneity within subspecies suggests that these taxonomic boundaries may not be completely resolved. To address this, the B. longum pangenome was analyzed from representative strains isolated from a diverse set of sources. As a result, the B. longum pangenome is open and contains almost 17,000 genes, with over 85% of genes found in < /=28 of 191 strains. B. longum genomes share a small core gene set of only ~500 genes, or ~3% of the total pangenome. Although the individual B. longum subspecies pangenomes share similar relative abundances of clusters of orthologous groups, strains show inter- and intrasubspecies differences with respect to carbohydrate utilization gene content and growth phenotypes.


Selective Inhibition Of N-Linked Glycosylation Impairs Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Processing, Elsenoor Klaver, Peng Zhao, Melanie May, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Hudson H. Freeze, Reid Gilmore, Lance Wells, Joseph Contessa, Richard Steet 2019 University of Georgia

Selective Inhibition Of N-Linked Glycosylation Impairs Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Processing, Elsenoor Klaver, Peng Zhao, Melanie May, Heather Flanagan-Steet, Hudson H. Freeze, Reid Gilmore, Lance Wells, Joseph Contessa, Richard Steet

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Global inhibition of N-linked glycosylation broadly reduces glycan occupancy on glycoproteins, but identifying how this inhibition functionally impacts specific glycoproteins is challenging. This limits our understanding of pathogenesis in the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). We used selective exo-enzymatic labeling of cells deficient in the two catalytic subunits of oligosaccharyltransferase - STT3A and STT3B - to monitor the presence and glycosylation status of cell surface glycoproteins. We show reduced abundance of two canonical tyrosine receptor kinases - the insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) - at the cell surface in STT3A-null cells, due to decreased N-linked glycan site occupancy and proteolytic ...


Arachidin 3 Modulation Of Lipid Metabolism In Rotavirus Infections, Stormey Wisdom 2019 Stephen F Austin State University

Arachidin 3 Modulation Of Lipid Metabolism In Rotavirus Infections, Stormey Wisdom

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rotavirus (RV) can cause severe and deadly gastroenteritis in young children, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies have shown that arachidin 3 (A3) inhibits RV replication, and that RV replication is dependent on the presence of lipids. This study investigated the alteration of lipid metabolism by A3 in RV infected HT29.f8 cells. A decrease in the RV regulation of lipid biosynthesis genes was observed with the addition of A3 using qRT-PCR. Also, immunofluorescent and histochemical staining for neutral fats, a major component of cellular lipid droplets, revealed an increased accumulation with both RV and RV+A3 when compared to ...


Adipocyte Acly Facilitates Dietary Carbohydrate Handling To Maintain Metabolic Homeostasis In Females, Sully Fernandez, John M. Viola, AnnMarie Torres, Martina Wallace, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Hayley C. Affronti, Jivani M. Gengatharan, David A. Guertin, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Christian M. Metallo, Kathryn E. Wellen 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Adipocyte Acly Facilitates Dietary Carbohydrate Handling To Maintain Metabolic Homeostasis In Females, Sully Fernandez, John M. Viola, Annmarie Torres, Martina Wallace, Sophie Trefely, Steven Zhao, Hayley C. Affronti, Jivani M. Gengatharan, David A. Guertin, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Christian M. Metallo, Kathryn E. Wellen

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Sugars and refined carbohydrates are major components of the modern diet. ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is upregulated in adipocytes in response to carbohydrate consumption and generates acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) for both lipid synthesis and acetylation reactions. Here, we investigate the role of ACLY in the metabolic and transcriptional responses to carbohydrates in adipocytes and unexpectedly uncover a sexually dimorphic function in maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis. When fed a high-sucrose diet, Acly(FAT-/-) females exhibit a lipodystrophy-like phenotype, with minimal fat accumulation, insulin resistance, and hepatic lipid accumulation, whereas Acly(FAT-/-) males have only mild metabolic phenotypes. We find that ACLY is ...


Diet And Addiction: Interview With A Former Food, Pornography, And Alcohol Addict, Tro Kalayjian, Brian Lenzkes 2019 University of Rhode Island

Diet And Addiction: Interview With A Former Food, Pornography, And Alcohol Addict, Tro Kalayjian, Brian Lenzkes

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Drs. Tro Kalayjian (Tapan, New York) and Brian Lenzkes (Santee, California) talk to Matt about his struggles with food, pornography, and alcohol addiction, and how changing his diet contributed to his recovery from his addictions. This report is excerpted from the audio podcast LowCarbMD, Episode 13 (https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/low-carb-md-podcast/ ), January 30, 2019). This podcast has filled us with immense hope for those struggling with addiction.


35 - Synthesis Of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrates (Tacs) Using Lewis Acid Catalysts, Rania Saleb 2018 University of North Georgia

35 - Synthesis Of Tumor-Associated Carbohydrates (Tacs) Using Lewis Acid Catalysts, Rania Saleb

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Cancer is a collection of diseases that result from uncontrolled cell division. The tumors are broadly classified as benign or malignant. Benign tumors are localized to a specific tissue, and thus, can be removed surgically with a limited chance for reoccurrence. On the other hand, malignant tumors undergo a process called metastasis to migrate to neighboring or distant tissues from the original site of occurrence. Since malignant tumors invade other tissues they are hard to detect and difficult to treat. According to the National Cancer Institute, 1.7 million cases of cancer were reported in 2014. Unfortunately, these numbers are ...


Red Wine And Green Tea Flavonoids Are Cis-Allosteric Activators And Competitive Inhibitors Of Glut1-Mediated Sugar Uptake, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Red Wine And Green Tea Flavonoids Are Cis-Allosteric Activators And Competitive Inhibitors Of Glut1-Mediated Sugar Uptake, Ogooluwa A. Ojelabi, Kenneth P. Lloyd, Julie K. De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

The anti-oxidant, flavonoid-rich content of red wine and green tea is reported to offer protection against cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Some studies, however, show that flavonoids inhibit GLUT1-mediated, facilitative glucose transport raising the possibility that their interaction with GLUT1 and subsequent, downstream effects on carbohydrate metabolism may also impact health. The present study explores the structure/function relationships of flavonoid-GLUT1 interactions. We find that low concentrations of flavonoids act as cis-allosteric activators of sugar uptake while higher concentrations competitively inhibit sugar uptake and noncompetitively inhibit sugar exit. Studies with heterologously expressed human GLUTs 1, 3 and 4 reveal that ...


The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Comparative Genomics Of Bifidobacterium Callitrichos Reflects Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization Within The Common Marmoset Gut, Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A. Sela

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing identified these isolates as unique strains of Bifidobacterium callitrichos. All three strains, including these ...


Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, Christina F. Haughton, Meera Sreedhara, Lori Pbert, Molly E. Waring, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exploring Perceptions Of Sugar Sweetened Beverages Among Early Adolescents In Worcester, Ma: A Qualitative Study, Christina F. Haughton, Meera Sreedhara, Lori Pbert, Molly E. Waring, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

UMass Worcester PRC Presentations

Background: Among adolescents, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the primary source of added dietary sugar and constitute 10-15% of their total caloric intake. A range of factors influence adolescent dietary behaviors and food choices. This study aimed to explore adolescents' attitudes and knowledge about SSBs, how they receive messages about SSBs, and motivations for SSB consumption.

Methods: We conducted 5 focus groups with youth aged 12-14 years that attend one of the eight Youth Connect programs in Worcester, MA in 2016-2017. Groups were sex-specific because of changes during adolescence and experiences with body image and health behaviors between the groups. A ...


Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to increased intake of sweet solutions by mammals, learning, particularly classically-conditioned “Pavlovian-like” learning, also plays an important role. An orosensory conditioned flavor preference (CFP) can be elicited by pairing one novel flavor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a fructose solution and a second novel flavor (CS-) with a saccharin solution. Rats will prefer the CS+ flavor in a subsequent 2-bottle choice test with both flavors mixed in saccharin. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 as well as NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonists eliminated the acquisition (learning) of fructose-CFP. Further, expression of ...


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