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A Chemoenzymatic Approach For Synthesizing Polymeric Hemoglobin, Johann P. Sigurjonsson 2017 Western Washington University

A Chemoenzymatic Approach For Synthesizing Polymeric Hemoglobin, Johann P. Sigurjonsson

Graduate Student Symposium

Polymerized hemoglobin (Hb) molecules have been shown to decrease previously observed adverse events associated with the administration of cell-free hemoglobin. To create these polymers, a method will be developed which employs the site specific ligation reaction of the sortase A enzyme from S. aureus. An Hb mutant (“αcpβ“) previously developed in our lab has been further modified by adding either the sortase recognition sequence, LPXTG, to the C-terminus of the α-subunit (s-αcpβ), or a tetraglycine motif, GGGG, to the N-terminus (n-αcpβ). Three types of sortase mediated ligation (SML) will be employed in this study. First, we will attempt to ligate …


Using Enzyme-Based Biosensors To Measure Tonic And Phasic Glutamate In Alzheimer's Mouse Models, Holly C. Hunsberger, Sharay E. Setti, Ryan T. Heslin, Jorge E. Quintero, Greg A. Gerhardt, Miranda N. Reed 2017 West Virginia University

Using Enzyme-Based Biosensors To Measure Tonic And Phasic Glutamate In Alzheimer's Mouse Models, Holly C. Hunsberger, Sharay E. Setti, Ryan T. Heslin, Jorge E. Quintero, Greg A. Gerhardt, Miranda N. Reed

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Neurotransmitter disruption is often a key component of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a role in the pathology underlying Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety. Traditionally, microdialysis has been the most common (lauded) technique to examine neurotransmitter changes that occur in these disorders. But because microdialysis has the ability to measure slow 1-20 minute changes across large areas of tissue, it has the disadvantage of invasiveness, potentially destroying intrinsic connections within the brain and a slow sampling capability. A relatively newer technique, the microelectrode array (MEA), has numerous advantages for measuring specific neurotransmitter changes within discrete …


Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud 2017 University of Tennessee

Effects Of Nicotine On The Cyp6a8 Gene Promoter Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Leslie M. Stroud

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Chat Expression In Chlamydia Muridarum-Infected Female Murine Genital Tract, Hallie Sartain 2017 East Tennessee State University

Chat Expression In Chlamydia Muridarum-Infected Female Murine Genital Tract, Hallie Sartain

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the world. However, a profuse number of cases are unreported, as the infection is often asymptomatic. Sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease, an increased risk of cervical cancer, premature birth, and perinatal infections in pregnant women can occur. Inflammation occurs in the body in response to infection or injury. Although inflammation can lead to some unwanted secondary effects, such as pain, it serves to return the body to homeostasis by restoring injured tissues and eliminating pathogens. One recently identified connection between the central nervous system and the …


Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori 2017 University of Rhode Island

Kinetic Studies Of Dna Repair Enzyme Alkbh2, Michael R. Vittori

Senior Honors Projects

The genomes of living organisms are under constant bombardment from various sources, including chemical modification stemming from processes within the organisms themselves or from exogenous agents, and from radiation. These sources of genomic damage may induce structural changes in the genome’s most basic functional units, the nucleotides that comprise DNA. Damage to an organism’s DNA may result in the production of dysfunctional or nonfunctional proteins. Failure to repair such damage may result in the compounding of successive mutations within the organism’s genome, the pathogenesis of cancer and various genetic disorders in humans. To ensure their viability, organisms have developed unique …


Melatonin And Its Metabolites Protect Human Melanocytes Against Uvb-Induced Damage: Involvement Of Nrf2-Mediated Pathways, Zorica Janjetovic, Stuart G. Jarrett, Elizabeth F. Lee, Cory Duprey, Russel J. Reiter, Andrzej T. Slominski 2017 The University of Alabama at Birmingham

Melatonin And Its Metabolites Protect Human Melanocytes Against Uvb-Induced Damage: Involvement Of Nrf2-Mediated Pathways, Zorica Janjetovic, Stuart G. Jarrett, Elizabeth F. Lee, Cory Duprey, Russel J. Reiter, Andrzej T. Slominski

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Ultraviolet light (UV) is an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as 6-4-photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the skin, which further cause damage to the skin cells. Irradiation of cultured human melanocytes with UVB stimulated ROS production, which was reduced in cells treated with melatonin or its metabolites: 6-hydroxymelatonin (6-OHM), N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK), N-acetylserotonin (NAS), and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT). Melatonin and its derivatives also stimulated the expression of NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2) and its target enzymes and proteins that play an important role in cell protection from different damaging factors including UVB. Silencing …


Structural Studies On Hiv-1 Protease To Investigate Correlation Between Conformational Dynamics And Drug-Resistance, Rowan Brothers 2017 Georgia State University

Structural Studies On Hiv-1 Protease To Investigate Correlation Between Conformational Dynamics And Drug-Resistance, Rowan Brothers

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Rock2 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms And Association With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia In Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants, Sharina Rajbhandari, Asma Amin, Shaili Amatya, Leewen Hsu, Anna Zylak, Umesh Paudel, Lance A. Parton 2017 New York Medical College

Rock2 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms And Association With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia In Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants, Sharina Rajbhandari, Asma Amin, Shaili Amatya, Leewen Hsu, Anna Zylak, Umesh Paudel, Lance A. Parton

NYMC Faculty Posters

No abstract provided.


Pdip46 Is Involved In Replication Timing Control, Hsiao H. Chao, Hong Zhao, Sufang Zhang 2017 New York Medical College

Pdip46 Is Involved In Replication Timing Control, Hsiao H. Chao, Hong Zhao, Sufang Zhang

NYMC Faculty Posters

No abstract provided.


Down-Regulation Of Fructose-1, 6-Bisphosphatase-1 (Fbp1) In High Grade Urothelial Carcinoma (Uc); As A New Diagnostic Marker To Differentiate Nested Variants Of Urothelial Carcinoma From Benign Entities, Taliya Farooq, Anas Mashlah, Faisal Saeed, Humayun Islam, Jonathan I. Epstein, Minghao Zhong 2017 New York Medical College

Down-Regulation Of Fructose-1, 6-Bisphosphatase-1 (Fbp1) In High Grade Urothelial Carcinoma (Uc); As A New Diagnostic Marker To Differentiate Nested Variants Of Urothelial Carcinoma From Benign Entities, Taliya Farooq, Anas Mashlah, Faisal Saeed, Humayun Islam, Jonathan I. Epstein, Minghao Zhong

NYMC Faculty Posters

No abstract provided.


Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, Komal Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro 2017 New York Medical College

Pnaktide Attenuates Steatohepatitis And Atherosclerosis By Blocking Na/K-Atpase/Ros Amplification In C57bi6 And Apoe Knockout Mice Fed A Western Diet, Komal Sodhi, K Srikanthan, P Goguet-Rubio, A Nichols, A Mallick, A Nawab, R Martin, P Shah, M Chaudhry, S Sigdel, M El-Hamdani, J Liu, Z Xie, Nader Abraham, J Shapiro

NYMC Faculty Publications

We have previously reported that the alpha1 subunit of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K-ATPase), acts as a receptor and an amplifier for reactive oxygen species, in addition to its distinct pumping function. On this background, we speculated that blockade of Na/K-ATPase-induced ROS amplification with a specific peptide, pNaKtide, might attenuate the development of steatohepatitis. To test this hypothesis, pNaKtide was administered to a murine model of NASH: the C57Bl6 mouse fed a "western" diet containing high amounts of fat and fructose. The administration of pNaKtide reduced obesity as well as hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Of interest, we also noted …


Maysin And Its Flavonoid Derivative From Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques By Inducting Humoral Immune Response With Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response In The Tg (Appswe, Ps1de9) Alzheimer's Mouse Model, Yuno Song, Hong-Duck Kim, Min-Kwon Lee, Il-Hwa Hong, Chung-Kil Won, Seung Sik Lee, Jae-Hyeon Cho 2017 New York Medical College

Maysin And Its Flavonoid Derivative From Centipedegrass Attenuates Amyloid Plaques By Inducting Humoral Immune Response With Th2 Skewed Cytokine Response In The Tg (Appswe, Ps1de9) Alzheimer's Mouse Model, Yuno Song, Hong-Duck Kim, Min-Kwon Lee, Il-Hwa Hong, Chung-Kil Won, Seung Sik Lee, Jae-Hyeon Cho

NYMC Faculty Publications

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common type of dementia in the elderly. The etiology of AD and its underlying mechanism are still not clear. In a previous study, we found that an ethyl acetate extract of Centipedegrass (CG) (i.e., EA-CG) contained 4 types of Maysin derivatives, including Luteolin, Isoorientin, Rhamnosylisoorientin, and Derhamnosylmaysin, and showed protective effects against Amyloid beta (Aβ) by inhibiting oligomeric Aβ in cellular and in vitro models. Here, we examined the preventative effects of EA-CG treatment on the Aβ burden in the Tg (Mo/Hu APPswe PS1dE9) AD mouse model. We …


Toward Biochemical Conversion Of Lignocellulose On-Farm: Pretreatment And Hydrolysis Of Corn Stover In Situ, Alicia A. Modenbach, Sue E. Nokes, Michael D. Montross, Barbara L. Knutson 2017 University of Kentucky

Toward Biochemical Conversion Of Lignocellulose On-Farm: Pretreatment And Hydrolysis Of Corn Stover In Situ, Alicia A. Modenbach, Sue E. Nokes, Michael D. Montross, Barbara L. Knutson

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

High-solids lignocellulosic pretreatment using NaOH followed by high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated for an on-farm biochemical conversion process. Increasing the solids loadings for these processes has the potential for increasing glucose concentrations and downstream ethanol production; however, sequential processing at high-solids loading similar to an on-farm cellulose conversion system has not been studied. This research quantified the effects of high-solids pretreatment with NaOH and subsequent high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis on cellulose conversion. As expected, conversion efficiency was reduced; however, the highest glucose concentration (40.2 g L-1), and therefore the highest potential ethanol concentration, resulted from the high-solids combined pretreatment …


Chemical Probes For Protein Α-N-Terminal Methylation, Brianna D. Mackie 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Chemical Probes For Protein Α-N-Terminal Methylation, Brianna D. Mackie

Theses and Dissertations

While protein α-N-terminal methylation has been known for nearly four decades since it was first uncovered on bacteria ribosomal proteins L33, the function of this modification is still not entirely understood. Recent discoveries have demonstrated α-N-terminal methylation is essential to stabilize the interactions between regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) and chromatin during mitosis, to localize and enhance the interaction of centromere proteins (CENPs) with chromatin, and to facilitate the recruitment of DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) to DNA damage foci. Identification of N-terminal methyltransferase 1 (NTMT1) unveiled the eukaryotic methylation writer for protein α-N-termini. In addition, NTMT2 that shares …


Molecular Modeling Of Novel Tryptamine Analogs With Antibiotic Potential Through Their Inhibition Of Tryptophan Synthase, Jared Schattenkerk 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Molecular Modeling Of Novel Tryptamine Analogs With Antibiotic Potential Through Their Inhibition Of Tryptophan Synthase, Jared Schattenkerk

CMC Senior Theses

The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global health crisis that threatens the effectiveness of antibiotics in medical treatment. Increases in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and a drop in the pharmaceutical development of novel antibiotics have combined to form a situation that is rapidly increasing the likelihood of a post-antibiotic era. The development of antibiotics with novel enzymatic targets is critical to stall this growing crisis. In silico methods of molecular modeling and drug design were utilized in the development of novel tryptamine analogs as potential antibiotics through their inhibition of the bacterial enzyme tryptophan synthase. Following the …


Discovering A Novel Antifungal Target In Downstream Sterol Biosynthesis Using A Squalene Synthase Functional Motif, Kristin Brooke Linscott 2017 University of Kentucky

Discovering A Novel Antifungal Target In Downstream Sterol Biosynthesis Using A Squalene Synthase Functional Motif, Kristin Brooke Linscott

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The sterol biosynthetic pathway is essential for growth of all eukaryotic cells and the main target of antifungal agents. The emergence of resistance to these antifungals in an already ill patient population indicates a need to develop drugs that have a broad spectrum of activity among pathogenic fungi and have minimal patient toxicity. Squalene synthase is the first committed step in the sterol pathway and has been studied intensively for development of antifungal agents. While the overall architecture of this enzyme is identical throughout eukaryotes, it was shown that plant and animal genes cannot complement a squalene synthase knockout mutation …


Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Dasatinib-Amino Acid And Dasatinib-Fatty Acid Conjugates As Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, Rakesh Tiwari, Alex Brown, Neda Sadeghiani, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Jared Bolton, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Keykavous Parang, Gongqin Sun 2016 Chapman University

Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Dasatinib-Amino Acid And Dasatinib-Fatty Acid Conjugates As Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors, Rakesh Tiwari, Alex Brown, Neda Sadeghiani, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Jared Bolton, Amanda Tse, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Keykavous Parang, Gongqin Sun

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Derivatives of dasatinib were synthesized via esterification with 25 carboxylic acids including amino acids and fatty acids by extending the inhibitor to interact with more diverse sites and to improve specificity. Dasatinib-L-arginine derivative (Das-R, 7) was the most potent of the inhibitors tested with IC50 values of 4.4 nM, <0.25 nM, and <0.45 nM against Csk, Src, and Abl kinases, respectively. The highest selectivity ratio obtained in our study, 91.4 Csk/Src belonged to compound 18 (Das-C10) with an IC50 of 3.2 μM for Csk compared to 35 nM for Src. Furthermore, many compounds displayed increased selectivity toward Src, as compared with Abl. Compounds 15 (Das-E) and 13 (Das-C) demonstrated the largest gains (10.2 and 10.3 Abl/Src IC50 ratios). Das-R (IC50 = 2.06 μM) was significantly more potent than Das (IC50 = 26.3 μM) against Panc-1 cells while they both showed an IC50 < 51.2 pM against BV-173 and K562 cells. Molecular modeling and binding free energy simulations revealed a good agreement with the experimental results and rationalized differences in selectivity of the studied compounds. Integration of experimental and computational approaches in the design and biochemical screening of dasatinib derivatives facilitated rational engineering and diversification of dasatinib scaffold, providing useful insights into mechanisms of kinase selectivity.


Lack Of Cross-Reactivity Allergy Following A Switch From Alirocumab To Evolocumab, Matthew D. Stryker, Michael Kane, Robert Busch 2016 Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Lack Of Cross-Reactivity Allergy Following A Switch From Alirocumab To Evolocumab, Matthew D. Stryker, Michael Kane, Robert Busch

Excerpts in Pharmacy Research Journal

The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene and gain-of-function mutations were first described in 2003. The gain-of-function mutations observed were associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the 400’s, in addition to premature cardiovascular disease. Subsequent loss-of-function experiments conducted in mice demonstrated marked reductions in plasma cholesterol levels in the absence of PCSK9. Physiologically, PCSK9 serves as a chaperone protein and functions to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor recycling; consequently, less LDL-C is removed from circulation and serum lipid concentrations become elevated. Inhibition of PCSK9 prevents LDL receptor degradation and preserves receptor recycling to the hepatocyte surface; this in …


221 Newborn-Screened Neonates With Medium-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Findings From The Inborn Errors Of Metabolism Collaborative, K Bentler, S Zhai, S Elsbecker, G Arnold, B Burton, J Vockley, C Cameron, S Hiner, M Edick, S Berry, J Thomas, M Dodge, R Singh, S Lakshman, David Kronn, Inborn Errors of Metabolism Collaborative 2016 New York Medical College

221 Newborn-Screened Neonates With Medium-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Findings From The Inborn Errors Of Metabolism Collaborative, K Bentler, S Zhai, S Elsbecker, G Arnold, B Burton, J Vockley, C Cameron, S Hiner, M Edick, S Berry, J Thomas, M Dodge, R Singh, S Lakshman, David Kronn, Inborn Errors Of Metabolism Collaborative

NYMC Faculty Publications

Introduction: There is limited understanding of relationships between genotype, phenotype and other conditions contributing to health in neonates with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) identified through newborn screening. Methods: Retrospective analysis of comprehensive data from a cohort of 221 newborn-screened subjects identified as affected with MCADD in the Inborn Errors of Metabolism-Information System (IBEM-IS), a long term follow-up database of the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Collaborative, was performed. Results: The average age at notification of first newborn screen results to primary care or metabolic providers was 7.45 days. The average octanoylcamitine (C8) value on first newborn screen was 11.2 …


Quef And Quef-Like: Diverse Chemistries In A Common Fold, Adriana Bon Ramos 2016 Portland State University

Quef And Quef-Like: Diverse Chemistries In A Common Fold, Adriana Bon Ramos

Dissertations and Theses

The tunneling fold (T-Fold) superfamily is a small superfamily of enzymes found in organisms encompassing all kingdoms of life. Seven members have been identified thus far. Despite sharing a common three-dimensional structure these enzymes perform very diverse chemistries.

QueF is a bacterial NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of the nitrile group of 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine (preQ0) to a primary amine (preQ1) in the queuosine biosynthetic pathway. Previous work on this enzyme has revealed the mechanism of reaction but the cofactor binding residues remain unknown. The experiments discussed herein aim to elucidate the role of residues lysine 80, …


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