Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical and Dental Materials Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

16 Full-Text Articles 29 Authors 4020 Downloads 15 Institutions

All Articles in Biomedical and Dental Materials

Faceted Search

16 full-text articles. Page 1 of 1.

Reporting Risk: The Case Of Silicone Breast Implants, Dorothy Nelkin 2016 University of New Hampshire

Reporting Risk: The Case Of Silicone Breast Implants, Dorothy Nelkin

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Professor Nelkin finds journalists to be, if reluctantly, subject to influence and describes their uneasy relationship with scientists in filling a difficult role.


Inhibition Of Bacterial Growth And Prevention Of Bacterial Adhesion With Localized Nitric Oxide Delivery, Julia Osborne 2016 Michigan Technological University

Inhibition Of Bacterial Growth And Prevention Of Bacterial Adhesion With Localized Nitric Oxide Delivery, Julia Osborne

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Bacterial infections continue to be a problem at the site of an indwelling medical device, and over the years, various bacterial strains have become more resistant to current antibiotic treatments. Bacterial infection at an indwelling medical device can be dangerous and affect the performance of the medical device which can ultimately lead to the failure of the device due to bacterial resistance to treatment.

Nitric Oxide (NO) has been shown to possess antibacterial properties to prevent and inhibit bacterial growth. NO releasing coatings on indwelling medical devices could provide a reduction in bacterial infections that occur at the device site ...


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

Nancy A. Burnham

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since ...


Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey 2015 Olivet Nazarene University

Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

Samples of numerous plant species were received from the southwestern part of the USA from Richard Spjut, and plant samples were collected here in Illinois. All were extracted with typical solvents, giving crude residues, some of which were subjected to counter-current or flash chromatographic methods. Some of the crude extracts and chromatographic fractions had anti-tuberculosis and/or antibacterial activity.

In a general way, bioactive natural products are dealt with very well by Liang & Fang, 2006. More specifically, the southwestern part of the United States has a large variety of indigenous plants, many of which have not been investigated for their ...


Bio-Inspired Composite Hydrogels For Osteochondral Regenerative Engineering, Grant N. Gellert, Liangju Kuang, Chunhui Jiang, Nur P. Damayanti, Joseph Irudayaraj, Meng Deng 2015 Purdue University

Bio-Inspired Composite Hydrogels For Osteochondral Regenerative Engineering, Grant N. Gellert, Liangju Kuang, Chunhui Jiang, Nur P. Damayanti, Joseph Irudayaraj, Meng Deng

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Treatment of osteochondral defects encompassing injury or degeneration to both the articular cartilage as well as the underlying subchondral bone presents a significant medical challenge. Current treatment options including autografts and allografts suffer from limited availability and risk of immunogenicity, respectively. The long term goal of this work is to develop an integrated scaffold system for treatment of osteochondral defects via in situ regeneration of bone, cartilage and the bone-cartilage interface. Hydrogels composed of polymer networks swollen in water provide an attractive biomaterial platform for regeneration of cartilage. In the present study, we have developed a novel composite hydrogel consisting ...


Effects Of Pringle Maneuver And Partial Hepatectomy On The Pharmacokinetics And Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Of Sodium Fluorescein In Rats, Mohammad K. Miah, Imam H. Shaik, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar 2015 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

Effects Of Pringle Maneuver And Partial Hepatectomy On The Pharmacokinetics And Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Of Sodium Fluorescein In Rats, Mohammad K. Miah, Imam H. Shaik, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Liver diseases are known to affect the function of remote organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pringle maneuver, which results in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury, and partial hepatectomy (Hx) on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of sodium fluorescein (FL), which is a widely used marker of blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Rats were subjected to Pringle maneuver (total hepatic ischemia) for 20 min with (HxIR) or without (IR) 70% hepatectomy. Sham-operated animals underwent laparotomy only. After 15 min or 8 h of reperfusion, a single 25-mg/kg dose of FL was injected ...


Stability Of Lidocaine Tested By Forced Degradation And Its Interactions With Serum Albumin, Lindsay Nichols 2015 San Luis Obispo High School

Stability Of Lidocaine Tested By Forced Degradation And Its Interactions With Serum Albumin, Lindsay Nichols

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

A concern for future long-term manned space expeditions is the ability to treat illnesses with appropriate pharmaceuticals. However, pharmaceuticals degrade faster in space than on Earth presumably due to an abundance of space radiation. The stability of Lidocaine was investigated because it is a common pain reliever currently used on the International Space Station. One of the most common proteins in blood is serum albumin, which acts as a carrier to distribute drugs throughout the body. It is important to know how well the drug binds to serum albumin so that the rate of distribution of Lidocaine-bound protein in blood ...


Use Of Swine Small Intestine Submucosa As A Dermal Suture, Paige E. Black 2015 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Use Of Swine Small Intestine Submucosa As A Dermal Suture, Paige E. Black

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

The purpose of this preliminary study is to determine if swine small intestine submucosa (SIS) can be used to create a suture that will perform comparably to commercially available chromic gut sutures when placed into a wound in rat dermis. This study is part of an ongoing collaboration that has explored SIS as a biologic scaffold in various tissues and surgical procedures. In this study, eight Sprague-dawley rats were divided into two groups, each receiving a full thickness skin wound between the scapula, made by a 5mm biopsy punch. The wound was then closed with commercially available chromic gut suture ...


Engineering Approaches For Suppressing Deleterious Host Responses To Medical Implants, Connor McCarthy 2015 Michigan Technological University

Engineering Approaches For Suppressing Deleterious Host Responses To Medical Implants, Connor Mccarthy

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts suffer from serious deleterious effects not encountered with their larger diameter relatives, leading to premature graft failure through restenosis. Platelet activation, inflammation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation are leading contributors to thrombosis and neointimal hyperplasia, both contributors to the progression of restenosis. It may be possible to suppress negative biological responses to vascular implants through the modification of surface properties and incorporation of drug release into blood contacting materials. In this work, bioengineering approaches are presented to improve the biocompatibility of small diameter vascular grafts.

We demonstrate a novel engineering approach for incorporating natural, decollagenized elastin matrices into PEU 1074A reinforced vascular grafts through spray-coating and electrospinning processes in a manner that retains elastin’s excellent blood contacting properties. A vascular construct with excellent mechanical and surgical handling properties demonstrating the suppression of neointimal hyperplasia is presented after 21 days in vivo.

Nitric oxide (NO) has been investigated over the past several decades due to its platelet, inflammation, and smooth muscle cell suppressing effects; and if appropriately delivered, could positively mediate the contributors to restenosis. Here, we characterize a novel macrocyclic NO donor ...


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham 2014 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since ...


Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana 2014 University of Kentucky

Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Bone regeneration or augmentation is often required prior to or concomitant with implant placement. With the limitations of many existing technologies, a biologically compatible synthetic bone grafting substitute that is osteogenic, bioerodible, and provides spacing-making functionality while acting as a drug delivery vehicle for bioactive molecules could provide an alternative to ‘gold standard’ techniques.

In the first part of this work, calcium sulfate (CS) space-making synthetic bone grafts with uniformly embedded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) biodegradable hydrogel particles was developed to allow controlled release of bioactive agents. The embedded gel particles’ influence on the physical and chemical characteristics of CS ...


Modified Seed Growth Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In Benzyl Alcohol: Magnetic Nanoparticles For Radio Frequency Hyperthermia Treatment Of Cancer, Stanley E. Gilliland III 2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

Modified Seed Growth Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In Benzyl Alcohol: Magnetic Nanoparticles For Radio Frequency Hyperthermia Treatment Of Cancer, Stanley E. Gilliland Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Iron oxide nanoparticles have received sustained interest for biomedical applications as synthetic approaches are continually developed for precise control of nanoparticle properties. This thesis presents an investigation of parameters in the benzyl alcohol synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. A modified seed growth method was designed for obtaining optimal nanoparticle properties for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. With a one or two addition process, iron oxide nanoparticles were produced with crystallite sizes ranging from 5-20 nm using only benzyl alcohol and iron precursor. The effects of reaction environment, temperature, concentration, and modified seed growth parameters were investigated to obtain precise control over properties ...


Combatting Dental Anxiety In Patients, Gretchen Osdoba 2013 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Combatting Dental Anxiety In Patients, Gretchen Osdoba

Natural Science Capstone Theses

Dental Anxiety is a highly debilitating condition that can keep people away from the dentist and from receiving critical care. This can lead to serious medical conditions that could have easily been prevented through proper dental care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of dental fear and the different treatment options available. I will focus on helpful traits of dentists and the use of psychological treatments, nitrous oxide, anti-anxiety medications, and general anesthesia to reduce this fear. I will also discuss a comparison of a psychological treatment and an anti-anxiety medication as short-term and long-term treatment ...


Frictional Forces Of A Fixed, Esthetic Orthodontic Appliance System, Brady Michael Nance 2012 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Frictional Forces Of A Fixed, Esthetic Orthodontic Appliance System, Brady Michael Nance

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Purpose: The demands of an all esthetic fixed orthodontic appliance system are ever increasing in today's world. Frictional values of an esthetic, fixed orthodontic appliance system are needed to evaluate their clinical effectiveness for orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frictional values of various esthetic orthodontic archwires ligated to an esthetic orthodontic bracket.

Methods: Three types of stainless steel and nickel titanium alloy (niti) esthetic orthodontic archwires (epoxy, poly, plastic) in four sizes (.016, .018, .017 x .025, .019 x .025 inches) were ligated to both a stainless steel bracket system and a ceramic ...


Finite Element Analysis Of Stress Distribution Within Metal-On-Metal Joint Replacements, Yujing Liu 2012 Edith Cowan University

Finite Element Analysis Of Stress Distribution Within Metal-On-Metal Joint Replacements, Yujing Liu

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Demand for joint replacements is rising in Australia, driven by a sharp increase in the number of joint problems associated with population aging and obesity. In artificial joints, delamination or failure within the coatings occurs when the stress reaches a critical level, resulting in large wear debris particles appearing on the contact surface between the head and the cup. The process has been described as due to a stress-corrosion-cracking mechanism. Under the same loading, stress increases when the contact area decreases, which happens in the vicinity of wear debris. As such, once wear debris is generated, a catastrophic process could ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress