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Synergism Of Quercetin And Sodium Butyrate For Controlling Growth Of Glioblastoma, Matthew Alan Taylor 2017 University of South Carolina

Synergism Of Quercetin And Sodium Butyrate For Controlling Growth Of Glioblastoma, Matthew Alan Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or simply glioblastoma, is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, with a prevalence of approximately 20,000 new cases per year in the United States and a 3-year survival rate of just 2%. Quercetin (QCT) is a dietary flavonoid that can be found in common foods such as red kidney beans, cilantro, and onions. Despite little evidence showing any benefits through dietary intake of QCT, various studies show its promising anti-cancer results in vitro. In glioblastoma, QCT is able to cause significant amounts of apoptosis through a variety of mechanisms. These include activation of caspase-9 ...


Functional Role Of The Homeobox Transcription Factor Six1 In Neoplastic Transformation Of Human Keratinocytes, Maria Hosseinipour 2017 University of South Carolina

Functional Role Of The Homeobox Transcription Factor Six1 In Neoplastic Transformation Of Human Keratinocytes, Maria Hosseinipour

Theses and Dissertations

The homeobox transcription factor SIX1 contributes to both tumor development and progression. Numerous studies have determined that the inappropriate expression of embryonic genes, in particular transcription factors, contributes to carcinogenesis. SIX1 is essential for the development of numerous organs including the auditory and olfactory system as well as the kidney, by promoting proliferation, survival and migration of progenitor cells during embryogenesis. SIX1 has also been shown to increase cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasion. The aberrant expression of SIX1 occurs in numerous adult and pediatric cancers. We have previously determined that our in-vitro model system for HPV16-mediated tumorigenesis shares many ...


Individual Differences In Markers Of Cholinergic Signaling Correlating To Fear And Extinction Learning, Grace C. Jones 2017 University of South Carolina

Individual Differences In Markers Of Cholinergic Signaling Correlating To Fear And Extinction Learning, Grace C. Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results when individuals are exposed to a life threatening event, assault, serious injury, or other traumatic incident. Individuals with PTSD are impaired in their ability to extinguish fear memories, resulting in intrusive symptoms that impair their ability to live otherwise healthy lives. It remains unclear why some individuals exposed to traumatic events develop PTSD while others do not. Acetylcholine has been shown to play a critical role in fear learning, but its role in fear extinction is not well understood. This study utilized a rat model of fear learning and extinction to determine if individual differences ...


Garlic Inhibits Inflammation During Dengue Infection, Alex R. Hall 2017 University of South Carolina

Garlic Inhibits Inflammation During Dengue Infection, Alex R. Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant human disease and mortality in the tropics and subtropics. There has been a recent global trend of increased epidemic activity, and DENV infection is considered a serious emerging health problem worldwide. A relatively unexplored approach to develop new treatments for dengue virus infection and the prevention of severe disease development is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during the host response to dengue virus infection. Several studies have proposed that it is the oxidative stress response induced by dengue virus infection that is responsible ...


Inhibition Of Bacterial Growth And Prevention Of Bacterial Adhesion With Localized Nitric Oxide Delivery, Julia Osborne 2016 Michigan Technological University

Inhibition Of Bacterial Growth And Prevention Of Bacterial Adhesion With Localized Nitric Oxide Delivery, Julia Osborne

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Bacterial infections continue to be a problem at the site of an indwelling medical device, and over the years, various bacterial strains have become more resistant to current antibiotic treatments. Bacterial infection at an indwelling medical device can be dangerous and affect the performance of the medical device which can ultimately lead to the failure of the device due to bacterial resistance to treatment.

Nitric Oxide (NO) has been shown to possess antibacterial properties to prevent and inhibit bacterial growth. NO releasing coatings on indwelling medical devices could provide a reduction in bacterial infections that occur at the device site ...


The Role Of Epidermal Stem/Progenitor-Like Cells In Hpv-Mediated Pre-Neoplastic Transformation, Yvon L. Woappi 2016 University of South Carolina

The Role Of Epidermal Stem/Progenitor-Like Cells In Hpv-Mediated Pre-Neoplastic Transformation, Yvon L. Woappi

Theses and Dissertations

The role of epidermal basal stem cells in dysplasia is a matter of great interest in the human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven cancers. To assess the relationship between “stemness” and HPV-mediated transformation, we made use of 3-D suspension culture and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify stem/progenitor-like cells from primary normal human keratinocyte (NHKc) cultures. We found that NHKc cells derived from multicellular keratinocyte spheroids were enriched for a basal subpopulation of epidermal stem-like cells, that could be maintained for prolonged time in culture and used to conduct transfection experiments with full-length HPV16 DNA. Thus, by using these stem ...


Regulation Of Chronic And Acute Inflammatory Disease By Microrna And Microbiota, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami 2016 University of South Carolina

Regulation Of Chronic And Acute Inflammatory Disease By Microrna And Microbiota, Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami

Theses and Dissertations

Inflammation is implicated in cancer development, degenerative diseases, allergies as well as artherosecelorsis. Dysregulated immune responses lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Finding the ways to terminate inflammatory responses when no longer needed, demands further investigation. Herein, we investigated the modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory disease models by inducing antiinflammatory state. Acute inflammatory model was induced with SEB, an enterotoxin produced by a ubiquitous Gram-positive coccus, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which exerts profound toxic effects on the immune system, which leads to the cytokine storm and adverse immune response. SEB is the main cause of nosocomial infections, acute ...


Differences In Resting-State Functional Connectivity Of Chronic Migraine, With And Without Medication Overuse Headache, And The Effectiveness Of Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block As A Treatment For Repairing Dysfunctional Connectivity., Kaitlin Krebs 2016 University of South Carolina

Differences In Resting-State Functional Connectivity Of Chronic Migraine, With And Without Medication Overuse Headache, And The Effectiveness Of Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block As A Treatment For Repairing Dysfunctional Connectivity., Kaitlin Krebs

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic Migraine (CM) is a debilitating neurological condition that occurs when the migraine frequency progresses to a chronic state of more than 15 headache days per month. The overuse of analgesic medication (MOH) is one of the most prominent risk factor of this chronification and little is known about why it is a cause. The repetitive inhibition of the Sphenopalatine Ganglion is one promising treatment that is used to treat chronic migraine. The purpose of this study is to determine if a specific pattern of disruption is present for chronic migraine, both with and without medication overuse headache, and if ...


The Identification Of The Direct And Indirect Pathways Through Which Leptin Facilitates Synaptic Plasticity In The Hippocampus, Catherine Van Doorn 2016 University of South Carolina

The Identification Of The Direct And Indirect Pathways Through Which Leptin Facilitates Synaptic Plasticity In The Hippocampus, Catherine Van Doorn

Theses and Dissertations

Leptin, a peptide synthesized by adipocytes in the periphery, has been shown to play significant roles in feeding and energy expenditure mediated by the hypothalamus. Growing evidence supports the role of leptin in influencing synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus in that leptin dose-dependently enhances LTP, alters morphology and neurogenesis, facilitates spatial learning and memory, as well as memory retention. Models of leptin deficiency and resistance have further supported the importance of leptin in synaptic plasticity by exhibiting deficits in electrophysiological, morphological and behavioral tests that are improved after leptin restoration. The effects of leptin when applied directly into the hippocampus ...


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

Nancy A. Burnham

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since ...


Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey 2015 Olivet Nazarene University

Anti-Tb And Antibacterial Activities Of Natural Products Extracts, Douglas Armstrong, Nathan Krause, Drew Frey

Faculty Scholarship – Chemistry

Samples of numerous plant species were received from the southwestern part of the USA from Richard Spjut, and plant samples were collected here in Illinois. All were extracted with typical solvents, giving crude residues, some of which were subjected to counter-current or flash chromatographic methods. Some of the crude extracts and chromatographic fractions had anti-tuberculosis and/or antibacterial activity.

In a general way, bioactive natural products are dealt with very well by Liang & Fang, 2006. More specifically, the southwestern part of the United States has a large variety of indigenous plants, many of which have not been investigated for their ...


Bio-Inspired Composite Hydrogels For Osteochondral Regenerative Engineering, Grant N. Gellert, Liangju Kuang, Chunhui Jiang, Nur P. Damayanti, Joseph Irudayaraj, Meng Deng 2015 Purdue University

Bio-Inspired Composite Hydrogels For Osteochondral Regenerative Engineering, Grant N. Gellert, Liangju Kuang, Chunhui Jiang, Nur P. Damayanti, Joseph Irudayaraj, Meng Deng

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Treatment of osteochondral defects encompassing injury or degeneration to both the articular cartilage as well as the underlying subchondral bone presents a significant medical challenge. Current treatment options including autografts and allografts suffer from limited availability and risk of immunogenicity, respectively. The long term goal of this work is to develop an integrated scaffold system for treatment of osteochondral defects via in situ regeneration of bone, cartilage and the bone-cartilage interface. Hydrogels composed of polymer networks swollen in water provide an attractive biomaterial platform for regeneration of cartilage. In the present study, we have developed a novel composite hydrogel consisting ...


Effects Of Pringle Maneuver And Partial Hepatectomy On The Pharmacokinetics And Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Of Sodium Fluorescein In Rats, Mohammad K. Miah, Imam H. Shaik, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar 2015 Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center

Effects Of Pringle Maneuver And Partial Hepatectomy On The Pharmacokinetics And Blood–Brain Barrier Permeability Of Sodium Fluorescein In Rats, Mohammad K. Miah, Imam H. Shaik, Ulrich Bickel, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Liver diseases are known to affect the function of remote organs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Pringle maneuver, which results in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury, and partial hepatectomy (Hx) on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of sodium fluorescein (FL), which is a widely used marker of blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Rats were subjected to Pringle maneuver (total hepatic ischemia) for 20 min with (HxIR) or without (IR) 70% hepatectomy. Sham-operated animals underwent laparotomy only. After 15 min or 8 h of reperfusion, a single 25-mg/kg dose of FL was injected ...


Stability Of Lidocaine Tested By Forced Degradation And Its Interactions With Serum Albumin, Lindsay Nichols 2015 San Luis Obispo High School

Stability Of Lidocaine Tested By Forced Degradation And Its Interactions With Serum Albumin, Lindsay Nichols

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

A concern for future long-term manned space expeditions is the ability to treat illnesses with appropriate pharmaceuticals. However, pharmaceuticals degrade faster in space than on Earth presumably due to an abundance of space radiation. The stability of Lidocaine was investigated because it is a common pain reliever currently used on the International Space Station. One of the most common proteins in blood is serum albumin, which acts as a carrier to distribute drugs throughout the body. It is important to know how well the drug binds to serum albumin so that the rate of distribution of Lidocaine-bound protein in blood ...


Engineering Approaches For Suppressing Deleterious Host Responses To Medical Implants, Connor McCarthy 2015 Michigan Technological University

Engineering Approaches For Suppressing Deleterious Host Responses To Medical Implants, Connor Mccarthy

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts suffer from serious deleterious effects not encountered with their larger diameter relatives, leading to premature graft failure through restenosis. Platelet activation, inflammation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation are leading contributors to thrombosis and neointimal hyperplasia, both contributors to the progression of restenosis. It may be possible to suppress negative biological responses to vascular implants through the modification of surface properties and incorporation of drug release into blood contacting materials. In this work, bioengineering approaches are presented to improve the biocompatibility of small diameter vascular grafts.

We demonstrate a novel engineering approach for incorporating natural, decollagenized elastin matrices into PEU 1074A reinforced vascular grafts through spray-coating and electrospinning processes in a manner that retains elastin’s excellent blood contacting properties. A vascular construct with excellent mechanical and surgical handling properties demonstrating the suppression of neointimal hyperplasia is presented after 21 days in vivo.

Nitric oxide (NO) has been investigated over the past several decades due to its platelet, inflammation, and smooth muscle cell suppressing effects; and if appropriately delivered, could positively mediate the contributors to restenosis. Here, we characterize a novel macrocyclic NO donor ...


Use Of Swine Small Intestine Submucosa As A Dermal Suture, Paige E. Black 2015 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Use Of Swine Small Intestine Submucosa As A Dermal Suture, Paige E. Black

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

The purpose of this preliminary study is to determine if swine small intestine submucosa (SIS) can be used to create a suture that will perform comparably to commercially available chromic gut sutures when placed into a wound in rat dermis. This study is part of an ongoing collaboration that has explored SIS as a biologic scaffold in various tissues and surgical procedures. In this study, eight Sprague-dawley rats were divided into two groups, each receiving a full thickness skin wound between the scapula, made by a 5mm biopsy punch. The wound was then closed with commercially available chromic gut suture ...


Characterization Of Stard4 And Stard6 Proteins In Human Ovarian Tissue And Human Granulosa Cells And Cloning Of Human Stard4 Transcripts, Aisha Shaaban 2015 University of South Carolina

Characterization Of Stard4 And Stard6 Proteins In Human Ovarian Tissue And Human Granulosa Cells And Cloning Of Human Stard4 Transcripts, Aisha Shaaban

Theses and Dissertations

Progesterone is essential hormone for pregnancy, which is produced by the human corpus luteum in early pregnancy until the placenta assumes this function. Transport of the cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane is the rate limiting step for the de novo synthesis of pregnenolone (the precursor to progesterone), a process mediated by STARD1. STARD1 contains a C-terminal lipid binding domain which binds cholesterol and an N-terminal domain targeting STARD1 to the mitochondrial membrane. Unlike STARD1, STARD4 and STARD6 proteins lack a mitochondrial targeting sequence; however, they can bind cholesterol and increase steroidogenesis in model systems. In this ...


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham 2014 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since ...


Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana 2014 University of Kentucky

Bioerodible Calcium Sulfate Bone Grafting Substitutes With Tailored Drug Delivery Capabilities, Bryan R. Orellana

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Bone regeneration or augmentation is often required prior to or concomitant with implant placement. With the limitations of many existing technologies, a biologically compatible synthetic bone grafting substitute that is osteogenic, bioerodible, and provides spacing-making functionality while acting as a drug delivery vehicle for bioactive molecules could provide an alternative to ‘gold standard’ techniques.

In the first part of this work, calcium sulfate (CS) space-making synthetic bone grafts with uniformly embedded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) biodegradable hydrogel particles was developed to allow controlled release of bioactive agents. The embedded gel particles’ influence on the physical and chemical characteristics of CS ...


Modified Seed Growth Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In Benzyl Alcohol: Magnetic Nanoparticles For Radio Frequency Hyperthermia Treatment Of Cancer, Stanley E. Gilliland III 2014 Virginia Commonwealth University

Modified Seed Growth Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles In Benzyl Alcohol: Magnetic Nanoparticles For Radio Frequency Hyperthermia Treatment Of Cancer, Stanley E. Gilliland Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Iron oxide nanoparticles have received sustained interest for biomedical applications as synthetic approaches are continually developed for precise control of nanoparticle properties. This thesis presents an investigation of parameters in the benzyl alcohol synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. A modified seed growth method was designed for obtaining optimal nanoparticle properties for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. With a one or two addition process, iron oxide nanoparticles were produced with crystallite sizes ranging from 5-20 nm using only benzyl alcohol and iron precursor. The effects of reaction environment, temperature, concentration, and modified seed growth parameters were investigated to obtain precise control over properties ...


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