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The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana 2021 Faculty of Medicine, Duta Wacana Christian University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

The Benefits Of Astaxanthin To Improve Pain Relief In Patients With Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled Trial, Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Mary Rose Angelina Budi Harsana

Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research

Treatment of diabetic neuropathy is still carried out by providing symptomatic therapy, which only improves ± 50% of the total symptoms felt by patients, but does not tackle the underlying causes of the disease. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic carotenoid that could be an additional treatment option. We aimed to measure the effectiveness of administering astaxanthin as an additional therapy to improve the impact of pain and discomfort experienced daily by diabetes mellitus patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. We conducted a randomized experimental study with an open label design of 36 patients who had been diagnosed with painful ...


Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain 2021 Chapman University

Evaluating The 0–10 Point Pain Scale On Adolescent Opioid Use In Us Emergency Departments, Michael T. Phan, Daniel M. Tomaszewski, Cody Arbuckle, Sun Yang, Brooke Jenkins, Michelle A. Fortier, Theodore Heyming, Erik Linstead, Candice Donaldson, Zeev N. Kain

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: To evaluate trends in national emergency department (ED) adolescent opioid use in relation to reported pain scores. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis on National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data was conducted on ED visits involving patients aged 11–21 from 2008–2017. Crude observational counts were extrapolated to weighted estimates matching total population counts. Multivariate models were used to evaluate the role of a pain score in the reported use of opioids. Anchors for pain scores were 0 (no pain) and 10 (worst pain imaginable). Results: 31,355 observations were captured, which were extrapolated by the NHAMCS ...


Recombinant Human Proteoglycan 4 Regulates Phagocytic Activation Of Monocytes And Reduces Il-1Β Secretion By Urate Crystal Stimulated Gout Pbmcs, Sandy ElSayed, Gregory D. Jay, Ralph Cabezas, Marwa Qadri, Tannin A. Schmidt, Khaled A. Elsaid 2021 Chapman University

Recombinant Human Proteoglycan 4 Regulates Phagocytic Activation Of Monocytes And Reduces Il-1Β Secretion By Urate Crystal Stimulated Gout Pbmcs, Sandy Elsayed, Gregory D. Jay, Ralph Cabezas, Marwa Qadri, Tannin A. Schmidt, Khaled A. Elsaid

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives

To compare phagocytic activities of monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from acute gout patients and normal subjects, examine monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced IL-1β secretion ± recombinant human proteoglycan 4 (rhPRG4) or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and study the anti-inflammatory mechanism of rhPRG4 in MSU stimulated monocytes.

Methods

Acute gout PBMCs were collected from patients in the Emergency Department and normal PBMCs were obtained from a commercial source. Monocytes in PBMCs were identified by flow cytometry. PBMCs were primed with Pam3CSK4 (1μg/mL) for 24h and phagocytic activation of monocytes was determined using fluorescently labeled latex beads. MSU ...


Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody 2021 Utah State University

Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Avian species are highly susceptible to the hepatotoxic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Domesticated turkeys are exquisitely sensitive, due to a combination of highly-efficient hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated bioactivation, and to dysfunctional alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs) which typically detoxify the bioactivated electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Wild turkeys are relatively resistant to AFB1 in large part due to expression of functional GSTAs. Quail, a related Galliforme, are slightly less sensitive in vivo to AFB1, but whether this is related to the hepatic metabolic profiles of these two critical enzymes has not been rigorously evaluated ...


Atomistic Simulations And In Silico Mutational Profiling Of Protein Stability And Binding In The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Complexes With Nanobodies: Molecular Determinants Of Mutational Escape Mechanisms, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Deniz Yasar Oztas, Grace Gupta 2021 Chapman University

Atomistic Simulations And In Silico Mutational Profiling Of Protein Stability And Binding In The Sars-Cov-2 Spike Protein Complexes With Nanobodies: Molecular Determinants Of Mutational Escape Mechanisms, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Steve Agajanian, Deniz Yasar Oztas, Grace Gupta

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Structure-functional studies have recently revealed a spectrum of diverse high-affinity nanobodies with efficient neutralizing capacity against SARS-CoV-2 virus and resilience against mutational escape. In this study, we combine atomistic simulations with the ensemble-based mutational profiling of binding for the SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD complexes with a wide range of nanobodies to identify dynamic and binding affinity fingerprints and characterize the energetic determinants of nanobody-escaping mutations. Using an in silico mutational profiling approach for probing the protein stability and binding, we examine dynamics and energetics of the SARS-CoV-2 complexes with single nanobodies Nb6 and Nb20, VHH E, a pair combination VHH E + U ...


Small Molecule Inhibitors Of Inflammatory Caspases-1, -4, And -5, Christopher D. Ahlers 2021 DePaul University

Small Molecule Inhibitors Of Inflammatory Caspases-1, -4, And -5, Christopher D. Ahlers

DePaul Discoveries

Inflammatory caspases-1, -4, and -5 play critical roles in mediating the innate immune response to pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns. Caspase-1 produces the cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), while caspases-4 and -5 activate the NOD-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome via the non-canonical pathway. Overactivation of these enzymes is associated with an increased risk for inflammatory diseases such as lupus, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) have been developed to attenuate the production of IL-1β, but unfavorable bioavailability and toxicity have provided an insurmountable barrier in clinical trials. This work is concerned with delivering an overview of current progress in the ...


Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Brain Endothelial Erythrophagocytosis, Jiahong Sun, Prema Vyas, Samar Mann, Annlia Paganini-Hill, Ane C. F. Nunes, Wei Ling Lau, David H. Cribbs, Mark J. Fisher, Rachita K. Sumbria 2021 Keck Graduate Institute

Insights Into The Mechanisms Of Brain Endothelial Erythrophagocytosis, Jiahong Sun, Prema Vyas, Samar Mann, Annlia Paganini-Hill, Ane C. F. Nunes, Wei Ling Lau, David H. Cribbs, Mark J. Fisher, Rachita K. Sumbria

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The endothelial cells which form the inner cellular lining of the vasculature can act as non-professional phagocytes to ingest and remove emboli and aged/injured red blood cells (RBCs) from circulation. We previously demonstrated an erythrophagocytic phenotype of the brain endothelium for oxidatively stressed RBCs with subsequent migration of iron-rich RBCs and RBC degradation products across the brain endothelium in vivo and in vitro, in the absence of brain endothelium disruption. However, the mechanisms contributing to brain endothelial erythrophagocytosis are not well defined, and herein we elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying brain endothelial erythrophagocytosis. Murine brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd ...


Exploration Of Patient Variables And Characteristics Best Suited For Medical Marijuana Treatment For Anxiety And Depressive Disorders, Corey Gazoo 2021 National Louis University

Exploration Of Patient Variables And Characteristics Best Suited For Medical Marijuana Treatment For Anxiety And Depressive Disorders, Corey Gazoo

Dissertations

Individuals with posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive disorders are currently being prescribed medical marijuana as a treatment in many states across the United States. However, marijuana is still considered a schedule one narcotic by the Drug Enforcement Administration and federal government, which provides several barriers and challenges to conduct research such as approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and following guidelines from the National Institute on Drug Abuse issued by the DEA. Additionally, individuals prescribed medical marijuana for mental health disorders are not always thoroughly instructed on the type of medical marijuana, the dosage, and how frequently ...


Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal

Dissertations

Glycoalkaloids (GAs) are secondary metabolites found mostly in higher plant species and some marine invertebrates. They are known to form complexes with 3β-hydroxy sterols such as cholesterol causing membrane disruption. So far the visual evidence showcasing the complexes formed between glycoalkaloids and sterols has been mainly restricted to some earlier studies using Brewster angle microscopy. This study aimed to develop a method for topographic and morphological analysis of sterol-glycoalkaloid complexes. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transfer of monolayers comprising of glycoalkaloid tomatine, sterols, and lipids in varying molar ratios onto mica followed by AFM examination was performed. The AFM method used required minimal ...


Ganglioside Alters Phospholipase Trafficking, Inhibits Nf-Κb Assembly, And Protects Tight Junction Integrity, John J. Miklavcic, Qun Li, Jordan Skolnick, Alan B. R. Thomson, Vera C. Mazurak, Michael Tom Clandinin 2021 Chapman University

Ganglioside Alters Phospholipase Trafficking, Inhibits Nf-Κb Assembly, And Protects Tight Junction Integrity, John J. Miklavcic, Qun Li, Jordan Skolnick, Alan B. R. Thomson, Vera C. Mazurak, Michael Tom Clandinin

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Background and Aims: Dietary gangliosides are present in human milk and consumed in low amounts from organ meats. Clinical and animal studies indicate that dietary gangliosides attenuate signaling processes that are a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gangliosides decrease pro-inflammatory markers, improve intestinal permeability, and reduce symptoms characteristic in patients with IBD. The objective of this study was to examine mechanisms by which dietary gangliosides exert beneficial effects on intestinal health.

Methods: Studies were conducted in vitro using CaCo-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Gangliosides were extracted from milk powder and incubated with differentiated CaCo-2 cells after exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli ...


A Comparative Study On Cannabidiol In Melanoma Migration And Invasion: Charlotte's Web Vs. Purified Cbd, 2020–2021, Ruby Thamert 2021 Jacksonville State University

A Comparative Study On Cannabidiol In Melanoma Migration And Invasion: Charlotte's Web Vs. Purified Cbd, 2020–2021, Ruby Thamert

Theses

Over the last decade, much attention has been focused on compounds from Cannabis sativa in treating a variety of diseases including cancer. This study examines the abilities of two different cannabidiol oils to decrease the migration and invasion of melanoma cells in vitro. Skin cancers are the most common cancers in the world. While malignant melanoma is the least common type of skin cancer, it is the deadliest. Patients diagnosed with stage IV disease have only a 15-20% five-year survival rate even with aggressive multimodal treatment, demonstrating the need for additional therapeutic options. Because melanoma is often fatal when it ...


Radiologic Contrast-Induced Transmetallation In Mineral Rich Fruits: X-Ray Imaging To Understand Heat Cycling During Climate Change And Map Metal Redistribution In Biological Media For Biomedical Applications, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Radiologic Contrast-Induced Transmetallation In Mineral Rich Fruits: X-Ray Imaging To Understand Heat Cycling During Climate Change And Map Metal Redistribution In Biological Media For Biomedical Applications, Lin Mousa, Hayley Sanchez, Subhendra Sarkar, Zoya Vinokur

Publications and Research

Heat cycling due to climate change can affect hydrated protein or carbohydrate functions, the latter is not well studied. The project started with involving the study of heat-stressed carbohydrate behavior when bulk water was partly stripped from carbohydrates in model microwaved fruits and vegetables, like apples and sweet potatoes (that are mineral-rich) and was set in mineral exchange competition with toxic metals like Gadolinium and chelating complexes like iodinated EDTA. These are common radiologic contrast medias that strongly absorb x-rays and are currently implicated in man-made environmental toxins. Our goal was to map diffusion of injected heavy atoms as well ...


Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Intro: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a national epidemic and is a disease that greatly affects the Rio Grande Valley. Many individuals in the United States, especially in the Rio Grande Valley, have a family history of T2D. Previous evidence has shown that those with a family history of T2D are metabolically inflexible, have a decreased ability to clear circulating glucose, and poor postprandial microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle tissue. The aforementioned occurs in otherwise healthy individuals with a family history of T2D to nearly the same extent as those who have T2D. Previous studies have not shown where ...


The Effect Of Diazepam On Early Neural Stem Cells Proliferative Activity And Hippocampal-Dependent Memory After Traumatic Brain Injury, Van Khanh Doan 2021 Portland State University

The Effect Of Diazepam On Early Neural Stem Cells Proliferative Activity And Hippocampal-Dependent Memory After Traumatic Brain Injury, Van Khanh Doan

University Honors Theses

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces an upregulation of neurogenesis in the brain specifically in the hippocampus, an area pertaining to learning and memory formation. Although this upregulated response is intuitively thought to be restorative, previous studies show that the nascent neurons generated after TBI exhibit abnormalities, such as aberrant morphologies and early migrations, which could suggest to be maladaptive. The GABA-A agonist diazepam has been shown to inhibit this upregulation in neurogenesis and normalizes dendrites after TBI. To determine whether this modulation of neurogenesis is ultimately beneficial or detrimental to cognitive recovery, diazepam was administered to C57BI/6J wild-type mice ...


Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji 2021 Chapman University

Differential Effect Of Proinflammatory Cytokines On Corneal And Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins And Glycocalyx, Kiumars Shamloo, Priya Mistry, Ashley Barbarino, Christopher Ross, Vishal Jhanji

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: Ocular surface mucins and glycocalyx are critical for providing ocular hydration as well lubrication and repelling pathogens or allergens. Elevated levels of tear proinflammatory cytokines in dry eye may have detrimental effect on mucins and glycocalyx. The present study tested the effect of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ on membrane-tethered mucins expression, glycocalyx, and viability of ocular surface epithelial cells.

Methods: Stratified cultures of human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ for 24 hours. The mucins gene and protein expressions were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ...


The Comorbidity Of Drug And Alcohol Consumption In Relation To Mental Health Disorders, Sydney Dawson 2021 Brigham Young University

The Comorbidity Of Drug And Alcohol Consumption In Relation To Mental Health Disorders, Sydney Dawson

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

The constantly increasing use of drugs and alcohol in young adults has created great controversy in the medical community on the long-term effects of these substances. The average brain development of adolescence and young adults is not complete until the age of 25, though drug and alcohol intake occur across the United States at younger ages each year. Impulsive behavior and underdeveloped neural pathways create a strong pull for addiction formulations and the development of severe mental-health problems. This paper reviews the positive and negative effects of illicit drugs and alcohol intake and their comorbidity with mental health disorders. There ...


Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome After Dinutuximab, Kayeleigh Higgerson DO, Chandni Dargan MD 2021 Children's Mercy Hospital

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome After Dinutuximab, Kayeleigh Higgerson Do, Chandni Dargan Md

Research Days

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a reversible disorder associated with edema of subcortical white matter and cortical gray matter that usually involves the occipital and parietal lobes. Endothelial injury secondary to abrupt blood pressure changes breaks down the blood brain barrier leading to brain edema. Per the ANBL0032 Fall 2015 Study Progress Report, Dinutuximab was the probable cause of PRES in two patients. There have been published reports of PRES with other anti-GD2 antibody therapies but very few reports of Dinutuximab as the causative agent.

Objectives/Goal: To report a case of PRES after Dinutuximab

Methods/Design: Case ...


Reeling In New Antibiotics: Synthesis And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Of Zinc-Binding Clavanins From Styela Clava (Sea Squirt), Eduardo Badillo-Colberg 2021 University of Connecticut

Reeling In New Antibiotics: Synthesis And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Of Zinc-Binding Clavanins From Styela Clava (Sea Squirt), Eduardo Badillo-Colberg

Honors Scholar Theses

Clavanins have been a quite rarely studied antimicrobial peptide (AMP) family. Though the data in the few studies published on the matter and in theoretical experimental data presented by the Wang lab in their peptide library creation [14], in that the members of this family could potentially be quite effective novel antimicrobial candidates. Among those that have been targets of studies, Clavanin A has been at the forefront of this endeavor of finding effective novel antimicrobial peptides[14]. In these aforementioned studies, Clavanin A has been shown to be quite effective against many different bacterial strains, which begs the question ...


Fucoxanthin: A Review Of Potential Benefits Relative To Human Health, MICHAEL WHITE 2021 James Madison University

Fucoxanthin: A Review Of Potential Benefits Relative To Human Health, Michael White

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid sourced and extracted mainly from dark orange and brown seaweeds found in the pacific ocean, such as the wakame algae. The allenic bonds and unique oxygen groups give fucoxanthin its unique structure and are thought to be part of the reason fucoxanthin has unique physiological functions. Fucoxanthin has potentially numerous effects on the physiology of human health, ranging from skin health to metabolic health, which have been demonstrated in animal model research. The goal of this review is to examine current literature to discuss fucoxanthin’s potential application as a nutraceutical, treatment for obesity, type 2 ...


Development Of A Rapid Drug Detection Method For Insects Using Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Psi-Ms), Alexandria Plyler 2021 Duquesne University

Development Of A Rapid Drug Detection Method For Insects Using Paper Spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Psi-Ms), Alexandria Plyler

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Insects have the ability to reflect the chemical environment that they have developed in. Thus, necrogenous insects can reflect the chemical environment of cadavers they have fed on. Forensic scientists can potentially utilize insect larvae as an alternate biological matrix to detect drugs in cadavers that are skeletonized, burned, or otherwise badly damaged. Analysis of insects using paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PSI-MS), an analytical method requiring little to no sample preparation, could prove a rapid, cost-effective, and non-destructive alternative form of toxicological analysis. Traditional tissue analysis via GC and LC-MS often require lengthy sample preparation, use expensive reagents, and ...


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