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Drug Interactions With Glutaredoxin Orthologues, Kahlilah R. Napper, Thomas C. Leeper, Ram Khattri, Daniel Morris, Caroline Davis 2015 The University Of Akron

Drug Interactions With Glutaredoxin Orthologues, Kahlilah R. Napper, Thomas C. Leeper, Ram Khattri, Daniel Morris, Caroline Davis

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Glutaredoxin, an enzymatic protein, is an important component of cell viability and function. It catalyzes reactions involved in DNA synthesis and innate immunity [1,4]. Glutaredoxin is also essential in antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacterial species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in particular is responsible for infecting the lung tissue of its human hosts, resulting in the development of pneumonia and cystic fibrosis [3]. Because glutaredoxin is pertinent in cell proliferation of eukaryotic and bacterial cells alike, medicinal fragments that take advantage of the subtle differences in protein structure of the orthologous proteins can be synthesized and enhanced to bind bacterial glutaredoxins, without inhibiting …


Elucidation Of A Novel Pathway In Staphylococcus Aureus: The Essential Site-Specific Processing Of Ribosomal Protein L27, Erin A. Wall 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Elucidation Of A Novel Pathway In Staphylococcus Aureus: The Essential Site-Specific Processing Of Ribosomal Protein L27, Erin A. Wall

Theses and Dissertations

Ribosomal protein L27 is a component of the eubacterial large ribosomal subunit that has been shown to play a critical role in substrate stabilization during protein synthesis. This function is mediated by the L27 N-terminus, which protrudes into the peptidyl transferase center where it interacts with both A-site and P-site tRNAs as well as with 23S rRNA. We observed that L27 in S. aureus and other Firmicutes is encoded with a short N-terminal extension that is not present in most Gram-negative organisms, and is absent from mature ribosomes. The extension contains a conserved cleavage motif; nine N-terminal amino acids are …


Dysfunctional Conformational Dynamics Of Protein Kinase A Induced By A Lethal Mutant Of Phospholamban Hinder Phosphorylation, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Alessandro Cembran, Raffaello Verardi, Lei Shi, Jiali Gao, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia 2014 Hamline University

Dysfunctional Conformational Dynamics Of Protein Kinase A Induced By A Lethal Mutant Of Phospholamban Hinder Phosphorylation, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Alessandro Cembran, Raffaello Verardi, Lei Shi, Jiali Gao, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia

Larry Masterson

In the heart, phospholamban regulates Ca2+-ATPase function, controlling cardiac output. A single deletion (R14del) in the phospholamban recognition sequence kinase A is linked to the progression of familial dilated cardiomyopathy, a leading cause of death worldwide. Here, we provide the molecular mechanism for the sluggish phosphorylation of R14del by protein kinase A. We found that the R14 deletion affects the organization of the active site, which remains partially open and quite dynamic, preventing the formation of catalytically committed complex. We conclude that well-tuned structural and dynamic interplay between kinase and substrate is crucial for efficient phosphorylation. These results …


Synchronous Opening And Closing Motions Are Essential For Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase A Signaling, Atul K. Srivastava, Leanna R. McDonald, Alessandro Cembran, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Christopher L. McClendon, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia 2014 Hamline University

Synchronous Opening And Closing Motions Are Essential For Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase A Signaling, Atul K. Srivastava, Leanna R. Mcdonald, Alessandro Cembran, Jonggul Kim, Larry R. Masterson, Christopher L. Mcclendon, Susan S. Taylor, Gianluigi Veglia

Larry Masterson

Conformational fluctuations play a central role in enzymatic catalysis. However, it is not clear how the rates and the coordination of the motions affect the different catalytic steps. Here, we used NMR spectroscopy to analyze the conformational fluctuations of the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-C), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in a myriad of cell signaling events. We found that the wild-type enzyme undergoes synchronous motions involving several structural elements located in the small lobe of the kinase, which is responsible for nucleotide binding and release. In contrast, a mutation (Y204A) located far from the active site desynchronizes the opening and …


Hydroxamic Acid-Based Histone Deacetylase (Hdac) Inhibitors Can Mediate Neuroprotection Independent Of Hdac Inhibition, Sama Sleiman, Yan-Ling Zhang, Jennifer Gale, Manuela Basso, Giovanni Coppola, John T. Pinto, Rajiv Ratan 2014 New York Medical College

Hydroxamic Acid-Based Histone Deacetylase (Hdac) Inhibitors Can Mediate Neuroprotection Independent Of Hdac Inhibition, Sama Sleiman, Yan-Ling Zhang, Jennifer Gale, Manuela Basso, Giovanni Coppola, John T. Pinto, Rajiv Ratan

NYMC Faculty Publications

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition improves function and extends survival in rodent models of a host of neurological conditions, including stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Our understanding, however, of the contribution of individual HDAC isoforms to neuronal death is limited. In this study, we used selective chemical probes to assess the individual roles of the Class I HDAC isoforms in protecting Mus musculus primary cortical neurons from oxidative death. We demonstrated that the selective HDAC8 inhibitor PCI-34051 is a potent neuroprotective agent; and by taking advantage of both pharmacological and genetic tools, we established that HDAC8 is not critically involved in PCI-34051's …


Investigating Propargyl-Linked Antifolates In Inhibiting Bacterial And Fungal Dihydrofolate Reductase, Joshua Andrade 2014 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Investigating Propargyl-Linked Antifolates In Inhibiting Bacterial And Fungal Dihydrofolate Reductase, Joshua Andrade

Honors Scholar Theses

Antimicrobial agents have been invaluable in reducing illness and death associated with bacterial infection. However, over time, bacteria have evolved resistance to all major drug classes as a result of selective pressure. The advancement of new drug compounds is therefore vital. The Anderson-Wright Lab has focused on developing potent and selective inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme key in cell proliferation and survival, in several pathogenic species. The lab has found that a set of compounds, known as propargyl-linked antifolates, are DHFR inhibitors that are both biologically effective and have strong pharmacokinetic properties.

The efficacy of novel propargyl-linked antifolates …


Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: Regulation Of Pyrimidine Enzymes, Ashley N. Broadway 2014 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: Regulation Of Pyrimidine Enzymes, Ashley N. Broadway

Honors Theses

Purple Urine Bag Syndrome, PUBS, is a unique condition that shows an interesting discoloration of the urine from women who have a chronic catheter. This study focused on the regulation of enzyme activities to determine the effects that may create an environment where PUBS is seen in patients with catheters. In this study, the reductive pyrimidine pathway was used to read out the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692. This microorganism expresses a pathway that synthesizes indoxyl from tryptophan. The bacteria strains were grown using various carbon and nitrogen sources. Concentrations of acetonitrile at 2 mM and 10 mM, concentrations of …


Metal Stopping Reagents Facilitate Discontinuous Activity Assays Of The De Novo Purine Biosynthesis Enzyme Pure, Kelly L. Sullivan, Loredana C. Huma, Elwood Mullins, Michael E. Johnson, T. Joseph Kappock 2014 Purdue University

Metal Stopping Reagents Facilitate Discontinuous Activity Assays Of The De Novo Purine Biosynthesis Enzyme Pure, Kelly L. Sullivan, Loredana C. Huma, Elwood Mullins, Michael E. Johnson, T. Joseph Kappock

Department of Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The conversion of 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) to 4-carboxy-AIR (CAIR) represents an unusual divergence in purine biosynthesis: microbes and nonmetazoan eukaryotes use class I PurEs while animals use class II PurEs. Class I PurEs are therefore a potential antimicrobial target; however, no enzyme activity assay is suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). Here we report a simple chemical quench that fixes the PurE substrate/product ratio for 24 h, as assessed by the Bratton-Marshall assay (BMA) for diazotizable amines. The ZnSO4 stopping reagent is proposed to chelate CAIR, enabling delayed analysis of this acid-labile product by BMA or other HTS methods


The Development Of A Synthetic Route For A Disubsitituted Diphenylacetylene And Its Conformational Characteristics Upon Coordination To Tungsten: A Prospect For Beta-Sheet Studies, Francis Herman 2014 Trinity College

The Development Of A Synthetic Route For A Disubsitituted Diphenylacetylene And Its Conformational Characteristics Upon Coordination To Tungsten: A Prospect For Beta-Sheet Studies, Francis Herman

Senior Theses and Projects

The study of β-sheet mimetics represents an important step in understanding the structural and function of β-sheets. The purpose of this report was to develop a β-sheet mimetic through a diphenylacetylene backbone, coordinate the complex to tungsten and determine the structural and conformational characteristics of the complex. In order to characterize the different compounds ESI-MS, 1HNMR, COSY NMR, NOESY NMR, and ROESY NMR were employed. The diphenylacetylene backbone contained two phenyl substituents with a peptide chain of two amino acids. The β-sheet mimetic 1 was successfully synthesized utilizing peptide coupling reactions and a Sonogashira coupling reaction. Previous research by …


Mechanism Underlying Ikk Activation Mediated By The Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac), Hiroaki Fujita, Simin Rahighi, Mariko Akita, Ryuichi Kato, Yoshiteru Sasaki, Soichi Wakatsuki, Kazuhiro Iwai 2014 Osaka University

Mechanism Underlying Ikk Activation Mediated By The Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac), Hiroaki Fujita, Simin Rahighi, Mariko Akita, Ryuichi Kato, Yoshiteru Sasaki, Soichi Wakatsuki, Kazuhiro Iwai

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) ligase, consisting of HOIL-1L, HOIP, and SHARPIN, specifically generates linear polyubiquitin chains. LUBAC-mediated linear polyubiquitination has been implicated in NF-κB activation. NEMO, a component of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex, is a substrate of LUBAC, but the precise molecular mechanism underlying linear chain-mediated NF-κB activation has not been fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that linearly polyubiquitinated NEMO activates IKK more potently than unanchored linear chains. In mutational analyses based on the crystal structure of the complex between the HOIP NZF1 and NEMO CC2-LZ domains, which are involved in the HOIP-NEMO interaction, NEMO mutations …


A Nmr Experiment For Simultaneous Correlations Of Valine And Leucine/Isoleucine Methyls With Carbonyl Chemical Shifts In Proteins, Vitali Tugarinov, Vincenzo Venditti, G. Marius Clore 2014 National Institutes of Health

A Nmr Experiment For Simultaneous Correlations Of Valine And Leucine/Isoleucine Methyls With Carbonyl Chemical Shifts In Proteins, Vitali Tugarinov, Vincenzo Venditti, G. Marius Clore

Vincenzo Venditti

A methyl-detected ‘out-and-back’ NMR experiment for obtaining simultaneous correlations of methyl resonances of valine and isoleucine/leucine residues with backbone carbonyl chemical shifts, SIM-HMCM(CGCBCA)CO, is described. The developed pulse-scheme serves the purpose of convenience in recording a single data set for all Ileδ1, Leuδ and Valγ (ILV) methyl positions instead of acquiring two separate spectra selective for valine or leucine/isoleucine residues. The SIM-HMCM(CGCBCA)CO experiment can be used for ILV methyl assignments in moderately sized protein systems (up to ~100 kDa) where the backbone chemical shifts of 13Cα, 13Cβ and 13CO are known from prior NMR studies and where some losses in …


The Effect Of Maté On Enzymes Involved In The Recovery From Oxidative Stress, Amina Sadik, Theodore Chang 2014 Touro University Nevada

The Effect Of Maté On Enzymes Involved In The Recovery From Oxidative Stress, Amina Sadik, Theodore Chang

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

In comparing the effect of Maté to that of green tea, it has been shown that Maté has higher anti-oxidative properties. We have shown that the extract of Yerba Maté, paraguariensis, leaves does indeed have strong anti-oxidative properties through the evaluation of its scavenging activity and its ability of assist cardiomyocytes in their recovery from induced oxidative stress using both spectroscopy, a colorimetric assay and flow cytometry. In order to elucidate the mechanism behind this action, we quantified the enzymes known to be expressed naturally by cells under oxidative stress such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. These enzymes …


Synthesis And Evaluation Of C-Src Kinase Inhibitory Activity Of Pyridin-2(1h)-One Derivatives, Karam Chand, Suchita Prasad, Rakesh Tiwari, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Sumit Kumar, Keykavous Parang, Sunil K. Sharma 2014 University of Delhi

Synthesis And Evaluation Of C-Src Kinase Inhibitory Activity Of Pyridin-2(1h)-One Derivatives, Karam Chand, Suchita Prasad, Rakesh Tiwari, Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi, Sumit Kumar, Keykavous Parang, Sunil K. Sharma

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Src kinase, a prototype member of the Src family of kinases (SFKs), is over-expressed in various human tumors, and has become a target for anticancer drug design. In this perspective, a series of eighteen 2-pyridone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their c-Src kinase inhibitory activity. Among them, eight compounds exhibited c-Src kinase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of less than 25 mu M. Compound 1-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-5-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (36) exhibited the highest c-Src kinase inhibition with an IC50 value of 12.5 mu M. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitory activity of compound 36 was studied against EGFR, MAPK and PDK, however no significant activity …


Structure-Functional Prediction And Analysis Of Cancer Mutation Effects In Protein Kinases, Anshuman Dixit, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2014 University of Kansas - Main Campus

Structure-Functional Prediction And Analysis Of Cancer Mutation Effects In Protein Kinases, Anshuman Dixit, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

A central goal of cancer research is to discover and characterize the functional effects of mutated genes that contribute to tumorigenesis. In this study, we provide a detailed structural classification and analysis of functional dynamics for members of protein kinase families that are known to harbor cancer mutations. We also present a systematic computational analysis that combines sequence and structure-based prediction models to characterize the effect of cancer mutations in protein kinases. We focus on the differential effects of activating point mutations that increase protein kinase activity and kinase-inactivating mutations that decrease activity. Mapping of cancer mutations onto the conformational …


Investigating Structure And Protein-Protein Interactions Of Key Post-Type Ii Pks Tailoring Enzymes, Theresa E. Downey 2014 University of Kentucky

Investigating Structure And Protein-Protein Interactions Of Key Post-Type Ii Pks Tailoring Enzymes, Theresa E. Downey

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Type II polyketide synthase (PKS) produced natural products have proven to be an excellent source of pharmacologically relevant molecules due to their rich biological activities and chemical scaffolds. Type II-PKS manufactured polyketides share similar polycyclic aromatic backbones leaving their diversity to stem from various chemical additions and alterations facilitated by post-PKS tailoring enzymes. Evidence suggests that post-PKS tailoring enzymes form complexes in order to facilitate the highly orchestrated process of biosynthesis. Thus, protein-protein interactions between these enzymes must play crucial roles in their structures and functions. Despite the importance of these interactions little has been done to study them. In …


Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang 2013 University of San Francisco

Biochemical Assay Optimization And Computational Screening Efforts To Identify Potential Luxs Inhibitors, Keeshia Q. Wang

Master's Theses

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of coordination of bacterial gene expression in response to cell population. System two QS is regulated by the small signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and is implicated in the infectious behaviors of various bacterial species. AI-2 is biosynthesized from S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH) by the enzyme LuxS and induces interspecies cell-to-cell communication. Inhibition of LuxS would therefore inhibit interspecies QS. Herein, a search for novel molecular species that will competitively bind with SRH in the LuxS binding site is performed in silico. Computational screening results are then validated in vitro using an optimized LuxS inhibition …


Investigation Of Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) Kits: Specificity And Utility For Residues Of Foods Subjected To Proteolysis During Processing, Katherine O. Ivens 2013 University of Nebraska – Lincoln

Investigation Of Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) Kits: Specificity And Utility For Residues Of Foods Subjected To Proteolysis During Processing, Katherine O. Ivens

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Analytical methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are used to detect and quantify residues from allergenic sources in food products. However, ELISAs have not been validated for use in foods that have been exposed to proteolysis. This thesis explores the specificities, sensitivities, and capabilities of commercially-available milk ELISA kits for detecting milk residues in cheeses that have undergone varying degrees of proteolysis.

The specificity, accuracy, and consistency of twelve commercially-available milk ELISA kits for individual milk proteins and commonly used milk-derived ingredients, including α-,β-, and κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, non-fat dry milk, sodium caseinate, and whey protein concentrate were evaluated. …


Radiosensitization Of Head & Neck Carcinoma Cells By Linifanib, A Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Heng-Wei Hsu 2013 Loma Linda University

Radiosensitization Of Head & Neck Carcinoma Cells By Linifanib, A Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Heng-Wei Hsu

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Tumor angiogenesis is a hallmark of advanced cancers and promotes invasion and metastasis. Over 90% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) express angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Since radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatments for HNSCC, it is imperative to identify the interactions between antiangiogenic therapy and radiotherapy, and to develop combination therapy to improve clinical outcome. The mechanisms between antiangiogenic agents and ionizing radiation are complicated and involve many interactions between the vasculature, tumor stroma and tumor cells. The proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells rely on angiogenesis/blood vessel formation. …


Aspects Of The Innate Immune System In The Caribbean Octocoral Swiftia Exserta, Lorenzo P. Menzel 2013 Florida International University

Aspects Of The Innate Immune System In The Caribbean Octocoral Swiftia Exserta, Lorenzo P. Menzel

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The immune systems of cnidaria are important to study for two reasons: to gain a better understanding of the evolution of immune responses, and to provide a basis to partially redress the precipitous world-wide die-offs of reef corals, some of which have been attributed to diseases and stress. Many immune responses share ancient evolutionary origins and are common across many taxa.

Using Swiftia exserta, an azooxanthellate ahermatypic local octocoral, as a proxy model organism to study aspects of innate immunity in corals and cnidaria allows us to address both of the reasons listed above while not using endangered species. …


Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Biomass At High-Solids Loadings – A Review, Alicia A. Modenbach, Sue E. Nokes 2013 University of Kentucky

Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Biomass At High-Solids Loadings – A Review, Alicia A. Modenbach, Sue E. Nokes

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Enzymatic hydrolysis is the unit operation in the lignocellulose conversion process that utilizes enzymes to depolymerize lignocellulosic biomass. The saccharide components released are the feedstock for fermentation. When performed at high-solids loadings (≥ 15% solids, w/w), enzymatic hydrolysis potentially offers many advantages over conversions performed at low- or moderate-solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations and decreased capital and operating costs.

The goal of this review is to provide a consolidated source of information on studies using high-solids loadings in enzymatic hydrolysis. Included in this review is a brief discussion of the limitations, such as a lack of available …


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