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An Automated Syringe Pump System For Improving The Reproducibility Of Dynamic Hyperpolarized Mri Phantoms, Harlee G. Harrison 2016 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

An Automated Syringe Pump System For Improving The Reproducibility Of Dynamic Hyperpolarized Mri Phantoms, Harlee G. Harrison

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

AN AUTOMATED SYRINGE PUMP SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING THE REPRODUCIBILITY OF DYNAMIC HYPERPOLARIZED MRI PHANTOMS

Harlee Grace Harrison, B.S.

Advisory Professor: James Bankson, Ph.D.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool in the diagnosis of cancer due to its ability to provide good soft tissue contrast and image resolution without the use of ionizing radiation. The use of hyperpolarized pyruvate as a contrast agent for tumor metabolism during MR scans has the potential to provide information about tumor metabolism in vivo that is not available from traditional imaging measurements or any other method. Hyperpolarization is achieved through dynamic nuclear polarization. …


The Degradation Of Pharmaceutical Pollutants In Wastewater Catalyzed By Chloroperoxidase And The Construction Of Chloroperoxidase H105r Mutant, Qinghao He 2016 Florida International University

The Degradation Of Pharmaceutical Pollutants In Wastewater Catalyzed By Chloroperoxidase And The Construction Of Chloroperoxidase H105r Mutant, Qinghao He

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Trace amounts of pharmaceuticals have been detected in water, from nanograms per liter to micrograms per liter, and have a negatively effect in the aquatic environment and an increased potential risk of drug poisoning for human and animals. In order to address the problem, drug degradation catalyzed by chloroperoxidase (CPO) has been investigated. CPO is a heme-containing glycoprotein secreted by the fungus, Caldariomyces fumago, it catalyzes two major types of oxidations, two one-electron oxidations as catalyzed by most peroxidases and two-electron oxidations which are rare for conventional peroxidases.

Five common drugs from a variety of classes which were persistent in …


Interaction Between Two E3 Ligases, Nedd8ylated Cullin And Hhari, Kheewoong Baek 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Interaction Between Two E3 Ligases, Nedd8ylated Cullin And Hhari, Kheewoong Baek

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

RBR (RING1-in between RING-RING2) is a special type of E3 ubiquitin ligase containing three zinc-binding RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domains, while adopting mechanisms of HECT (Homologous to E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus) for substrate ubiquitination. Most well known RBRs include Parkin and HOIP, which are associated with Parkinson’s disease and innate immune deficiency. However, it is not well known how the RBR proteins gain activity, as they are known to be autoinhibited. Here I show that a specific F430A, E431A, E503A triple mutation of RBR protein HHARI (Human homologue of Ariadne) and its interaction with NEDD8ylated cullin RING ligase can both …


Purification Of Lactate Dehydrogenase, Irene J. Wilson 2016 Dominican University of California

Purification Of Lactate Dehydrogenase, Irene J. Wilson

Scholarly and Creative Works Conference (2015 - 2021)

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sometimes referred to as lactic acid dehydrogenase, is an enzyme that is found in the cytoplasm of almost all living cells. It converts lactate and NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) to pyruvate and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen), and it can also catalyze the reverse reaction. Heart muscle is highly oxygenated at all times; therefore, LDH catalyzes the reaction in the direction to form NADH and pyruvate, which is used in the Citric Acid Cycle to make energy for the cell via aerobic cellular respiration. When little or no oxygen (O2) is available to the cell, such as …


Biochemical Characterization Of Diamide Inhibitors With N-Acetylglucosaminidases Lytg From Bacillus Subtilis, Drew Phelan 2016 Bryant University

Biochemical Characterization Of Diamide Inhibitors With N-Acetylglucosaminidases Lytg From Bacillus Subtilis, Drew Phelan

Honors Projects in Science and Technology

In recent years the frequency of antibiotic resistance has been on the rise creating a need for antibiotic development with specific and lethal targets. It has been recently reported that glycosyl trizole are a novel class of antibacterial agents (1). Further investigation on the antibacterial ability of glycosyl triazole inhibitors has shown that targets include exo-acting N-acetylglucosaminidases (GlcNAcase) LytG (Bacillus subtilis) and FlgJ (Salmonella enterica) of the GH73 family (2). The Glycoside Hydrolase Family 73 (GH73) is characterized by bacterial and viral glycoside hydrolase. This enzyme cleaves the β-1,4-glycosidic linkage between N-acetylglucosaminyl (NAG) and N-acetylmuramyl (NAM) of the carbohydrate backbone …


Selective Binding Of Airapl Tandem Uims To Lys48-Linked Tri-Ubiquitin Chains, Simin Rahighi, Ilauna Braunstein, Nicola Ternette, Benedikt Kessler, Masato Kawasaki, Ryuichi Kato, Tsutomu Matsui, Ariel Stanhill, Soichi Wakatsuki 2016 Chapman University

Selective Binding Of Airapl Tandem Uims To Lys48-Linked Tri-Ubiquitin Chains, Simin Rahighi, Ilauna Braunstein, Nicola Ternette, Benedikt Kessler, Masato Kawasaki, Ryuichi Kato, Tsutomu Matsui, Ariel Stanhill, Soichi Wakatsuki

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains act as the main targeting signals for protein degradation by the proteasome. Here we report selective binding of AIRAPL, a protein that associates with the proteasome upon exposure to arsenite, to Lys48-linked tri-ubiquitin chains. AIRAPL comprises two ubiquitin-interacting motifs in tandem (tUIMs) that are linked through a flexible inter-UIM region. In the complex crystal structure UIM1 binds the proximal ubiquitin, whereas UIM2 (the double-sided UIM) binds non-symmetrically to the middle and distal ubiquitin moieties on either side of the helix. Specificity of AIRAPL for Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains is determined by UIM2, and the flexible inter-UIM linker increases …


Long-Term Velaglucerase Alfa Treatment In Children With Gaucher Disease Type 1 Naïve To Enzyme Replacement Therapy Or Previously Treated With Imiglucerase., Laurie Smith, William Rhead, Joel Charrow, Suma P. Shankar, Ashish Bavdekar, Nicola Longo, Rebecca Mardach, Paul Harmatz, Thomas Hangartner, Hak-Myung Lee, Eric Crombez, Gregory M. Pastores 2016 Children's Mercy Hospital

Long-Term Velaglucerase Alfa Treatment In Children With Gaucher Disease Type 1 Naïve To Enzyme Replacement Therapy Or Previously Treated With Imiglucerase., Laurie Smith, William Rhead, Joel Charrow, Suma P. Shankar, Ashish Bavdekar, Nicola Longo, Rebecca Mardach, Paul Harmatz, Thomas Hangartner, Hak-Myung Lee, Eric Crombez, Gregory M. Pastores

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: Gaucher Disease type 1 (GD1) often manifests in childhood. Early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) may prevent disease complications. We report the assessment of velaglucerase alfa ERT in pediatric GD1 patients who participated in a long-term extension study (HGT-GCB-044, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00635427).

METHODS: Safety and efficacy were evaluated in pediatric patients receiving velaglucerase alfa 30-60U/kg by intravenous infusion every other week. In addition to key hematological and visceral efficacy assessments, exploratory assessments conducted specifically in pediatric patients included evaluation of height, bone age, bone marrow burden, and Tanner stage of puberty.

RESULTS: The study included 24 pediatric patients. …


Postprandial Paraoxonase 1 Activity Following Consumption Of Recommended Amounts Of Mixed Meals In Healthy Males, Noriko Kameyama, Chizuko Maruyama, Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Alejandro Gugliucci, Sadako Matsui, Taro Maruyama 2016 Touro University California

Postprandial Paraoxonase 1 Activity Following Consumption Of Recommended Amounts Of Mixed Meals In Healthy Males, Noriko Kameyama, Chizuko Maruyama, Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Alejandro Gugliucci, Sadako Matsui, Taro Maruyama

Faculty Publications & Research of the TUC College of Osteopathic Medicine

Aim: Postprandial lipid level increases induce oxidative stress, which is involved in atherogenesis. The antioxidant properties of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have attracted attention. However, changes in postprandial PON1 levels differ across prior studies, and changes in PON1 lactonase activity, potentially relevant to PON1 physiology, after the consumption of ordinary meals are unknown. Herein we evaluated postprandial serum lipid levels and PON1 changes following mixed-meal consumption of the amounts recommended for ordinary meals.
Methods: Nine healthy male volunteers consumed three different meals in a randomized cross-over design. The test meals were as follows: S, white rice; SMF, S with …


Understanding And Targeting The C-Terminal Binding Protein (Ctbp) Substrate-Binding Domain For Cancer Therapeutic Development, Benjamin L. Morris 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Understanding And Targeting The C-Terminal Binding Protein (Ctbp) Substrate-Binding Domain For Cancer Therapeutic Development, Benjamin L. Morris

Theses and Dissertations

Cancer involves the dysregulated proliferation and growth of cells throughout the body. C-terminal binding proteins (CtBP) 1 and 2 are transcriptional co-regulators upregulated in several cancers, including breast, colorectal, and ovarian tumors. CtBPs drive oncogenic properties, including migration, invasion, proliferation, and survival, in part through repression of tumor suppressor genes. CtBPs encode an intrinsic dehydrogenase activity, utilizing intracellular NADH concentrations and the substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB), to regulate the recruitment of transcriptional regulatory complexes. High levels of MTOB inhibit CtBP dehydrogenase function and induce cytotoxicity among cancer cells in a CtBP-dependent manner. While encouraging, a good therapeutic would utilize >100-fold …


Probing Allosteric, Partial Inhibition Of Thrombin Using Novel Anticoagulants, Stephen S. Verespy III 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Probing Allosteric, Partial Inhibition Of Thrombin Using Novel Anticoagulants, Stephen S. Verespy Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Thrombin is the key protease that regulates hemostasis; the delicate balance between procoagulation and anticoagulation of blood. In clotting disorders, like deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, procoagulation is up-regulated, but propagation of clotting can be inhibited with drugs targeting the proteases involved, like thrombin. Such drugs however, have serious side effects (e.g., excessive bleeding) and some require monitoring during the course of treatment. The reason for these side effects is the mechanism by which the drugs’ act. The two major mechanisms are direct orthosteric and indirect allosteric inhibition, which will completely abolish the protease’s activity. Herein we sought an …


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky 2016 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of these preparatory course set of learning objectives is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

These 40+ learning objectives to prepare for Human Anatomy and Physiology can be downloaded and played in a desktop, or laptop (windows exe file).

The entire course has four parts:

Each learning objective is followed by a set of multiple choice question similar to those found later in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course.

The organization and …


Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean PhD 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity is Critical for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Activity and Provides Novel Targets for Inhibiting Tumor Growth

By Geoffrey Grandjean

Advisory Professor: Garth Powis, D. Phil

Unique to proliferating cancer cells is the observation that their increased need for energy is provided by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in a process known as the Warburg Effect, a process many times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation employed by normal cells to satisfy a similar energy demand [1]. This high rate of glycolysis occurs regardless of the concentration of oxygen in the cell and …


Chemical Modifications Mark Alternatively Spliced And Uncapped Messenger Rnas In Arabidposis, Lee E. Vandivier, Rafael Campos, Pavel P. Kuksa, Ian M. Silverman, Li-San Wang, Brian D. Gregory 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Chemical Modifications Mark Alternatively Spliced And Uncapped Messenger Rnas In Arabidposis, Lee E. Vandivier, Rafael Campos, Pavel P. Kuksa, Ian M. Silverman, Li-San Wang, Brian D. Gregory

Departmental Papers (Biology)

Posttranscriptional chemical modification of RNA bases is a widespread and physiologically relevant regulator of RNA maturation, stability, and function. While modifications are best characterized in short, noncoding RNAs such as tRNAs, growing evidence indicates that mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are likewise modified. Here, we apply our high-throughput annotation of modified ribonucleotides (HAMR) pipeline to identify and classify modifications that affect Watson-Crick base pairing at three different levels of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome (polyadenylated, small, and degrading RNAs). We find this type of modifications primarily within uncapped, degrading mRNAs and lncRNAs, suggesting they are the cause or consequence of …


Theaflavin-3, 3'-Digallate Decreases Human Ovarian Carcinoma Ovcar-3 Cell-Induced Angiogenesis Via Akt And Notch-1 Pathways, Not Via Mapk Pathways, Ying Gao, Gary O. Rankin, Youying Tu, Yi Charlie Chen 2015 Marshall University

Theaflavin-3, 3'-Digallate Decreases Human Ovarian Carcinoma Ovcar-3 Cell-Induced Angiogenesis Via Akt And Notch-1 Pathways, Not Via Mapk Pathways, Ying Gao, Gary O. Rankin, Youying Tu, Yi Charlie Chen

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate (TF3) is a black tea polyphenol produced from polymerization and oxidization of the green tea ployphenols epicatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) during fermentation of fresh tea leaves. TF3 has been reported to have anticancer properties. However, the effect of TF3 on tumor angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present study, TF3 was verified to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Compared with EGCG, TF3 was more potent. TF3 inhibited human ovarian carcinoma OVCAR-3 cell-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cell model and in chick chorioallantoic membrane model. TF3 reduced tumor angiogenesis by downregulating HIF-1α and VEGF. …


Cloning And Characterization Of The Escherichia Coli Heptosyltransferase Iii: Exploring Substrate Specificity In Lipopolysaccaride Core Biosynthesis, Jagadesh Mudapaka, Erika Taylor 2015 Wesleyan University

Cloning And Characterization Of The Escherichia Coli Heptosyltransferase Iii: Exploring Substrate Specificity In Lipopolysaccaride Core Biosynthesis, Jagadesh Mudapaka, Erika Taylor

Erika A. Taylor, Ph.D.

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules are an important cell surface component that enables adhesion to surfaces and cell motility, amongst other functions. In Escherichia coli, there are multiple Heptosyltransferase enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the core region of LPS. Here we describe the first ever cloning, expression, purification and characterization of Heptosyltransferase III (HepIII) from E. coli, which catalyzes the addition of an l-glycero-d-manno-heptose (Hep) residue to the growing LPS core via an α(1→7) bond. Inspired by results from our lab on the E. coli HepI, we assessed the catalytic efficiency with phospho-Hep2-Kdo2-Lipid A (PH2K2LA) and two deacylated analogues.


Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing 5’-Inositol Phosphatase-2 (Ship2) Is An Effector Of Lymphatic Dysfunction, Germaine D. Agollah 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing 5’-Inositol Phosphatase-2 (Ship2) Is An Effector Of Lymphatic Dysfunction, Germaine D. Agollah

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The lymphatic system is essential for the transport of excess fluid, protein, and foreign materials from interstitial tissues to lymph nodes; for immune surveillance, and to maintain fluid homeostasis. Dysregulated lymphatics can be attributed to pathological conditions including tumor metastasis, inflammation, chronic wounds, obesity, blood vascular disorders, and lymphedema. Of these, lymphedema is the most extreme of lymphatic disorders and is represented by a spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild, subtle presentation to severe, disfiguring, overt presentation. Lymphedema is more manageable in the early stages of disease but severely reduces quality of life with progression. Due to lack of molecular …


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course (1st Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2015 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course (1st Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of this preparatory course textbook is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

The organization and functioning of the human organism generally is discussed in terms of different levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest building blocks to the entire body. This Anatomy and Physiology preparatory course covers the foundations on the chemical level, and a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system levels. There is also an introduction to homeostasis at the beginning.


Characterization Of A Novel Protease In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adam L. Johnson 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization Of A Novel Protease In Staphylococcus Aureus, Adam L. Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

A newly discovered cysteine protease, Prp, has been shown to perform an essential, site-specific cleavage of ribosomal protein L27 in Staphylococcus aureus. In Firmicutes and related bacteria, ribosomal protein L27 is encoded with a conserved N-terminal extension that must be removed to expose residues critical for ribosome function. Uncleavable and pre-cleaved variants were unable to complement an L27 deletion in S. aureus, indicating that this N-terminal processing event is essential and likely plays an important regulatory role. The gene encoding the responsible protease (prp) has been shown to be essential, and is found in all organisms …


Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen 2015 University of Kentucky

Chemoenzymatic Studies To Enhance The Chemical Space Of Natural Products, Jhong-Min Chen

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Natural products provide some of the most potent anticancer agents and offer a template for new drug design or improvement with the advantage of an enormous chemical space. The overall goal of this thesis research is to enhance the chemical space of two natural products in order to generate novel drugs with better in vivo bioactivities than the original natural products.

Polycarcin V (PV) is a gilvocarcin-type antitumor agent with similar structure and comparable bioactivity with the principle compound of this group, gilvocarcin V (GV). Modest modifications of the polyketide-derived tetracyclic core of GV had been accomplished, but the most …


The Metabolism Of Alcohol: Risk And Protective Factors, Sydney E. Levan, Amy Adkins, Danielle Dick, Karen G. Chartier 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Metabolism Of Alcohol: Risk And Protective Factors, Sydney E. Levan, Amy Adkins, Danielle Dick, Karen G. Chartier

Undergraduate Research Posters

Purpose: Abstract for poster submission to VCU Poster Symposium for

Undergraduate Research and Creativity

Title: The Metabolism of Alcohol: Risk and Protective Factors

Background: In 2002, it was reported by the National Institutes of Health that

60.3% of college aged students (18-22) drank alcohol in the past month of being

asked, as compared to 51.9% of those not in college. They also found that 20% of

college students met the criteria for at least one alcohol use disorder (AUDs)1.

Many genes have been linked to an increased risk for AUDs and how individuals

with various ethnic backgrounds respond to alcohol. …


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