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Toxicological Effects And Treatment Of Accidental Ingestion Of Simparica Trio® In Felis Catus: An Investigative Review, Aussia Stander 2024 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Toxicological Effects And Treatment Of Accidental Ingestion Of Simparica Trio® In Felis Catus: An Investigative Review, Aussia Stander

Honors Theses

Simparica TRIO®, a canine endectocide manufactured by Zoetis, contains sarolaner, moxidectin, and pyrantel pamoate salt in an orally administered chewable tablet. These compounds are all toxic to both cats and dogs in sufficient amounts. As Simparica TRIO® rises in popularity among pet owners, Felis catus (felines, cats) in multi-pet households (households with both cats and dogs) are at increased risk of overdosage and toxicosis from accidental ingestion of Simparica TRIO® due to their smaller weight.

Simparica TRIO® is not for feline use and little literature exists on the symptoms of and treatment for accidental ingestion …


Impact Of Fads Genotype On Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content In Human Milk Extracellular Vesicles: A Genetic Association Study, John J. Miklavcic, Natalie Paterson, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Laura M. Glynn 2024 Chapman University

Impact Of Fads Genotype On Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content In Human Milk Extracellular Vesicles: A Genetic Association Study, John J. Miklavcic, Natalie Paterson, Jennifer Hahn-Holbrook, Laura M. Glynn

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Extracellular vesicles in human milk are critical in supporting newborn growth and development. Bioavailability of dietary extracellular vesicles may depend on the composition of membrane lipids. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster impact the content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk phospholipids. This study investigated the relation between variation in FADS1 and FADS2 with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in extracellular vesicles from human milk.

Methods

Milk was obtained from a cohort of mothers (N = 70) at 2–4 weeks of lactation. SNPs in the FADS gene locus were determined using …


Efficacy And Safety Of Bempedoic Acid In Patients With Hyperlipidemia And Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Sibtain Nisar, Sidra Sohail, Saman Fatima, Muhammad Talha Akhtar, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Waqar Hanif, Masood Khan, Amin Mehmoodi, Jahanzeb Malik 2024 Department of Medicine, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan

Efficacy And Safety Of Bempedoic Acid In Patients With Hyperlipidemia And Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Sibtain Nisar, Sidra Sohail, Saman Fatima, Muhammad Talha Akhtar, Muhammad Ahmad, Muhammad Waqar Hanif, Masood Khan, Amin Mehmoodi, Jahanzeb Malik

Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives

Hyperlipidemia and its association with cardiovascular diseases have been significant public health concerns for many decades. Statins have long been the primary therapeutic option for lowering cholesterol levels and reducing cardiovascular mortality. However, a substantial number of patients either do not achieve optimal lipid goals with maximally tolerated statin doses or experience statin intolerance. In recent years, there have been remarkable developments in the field of hyperlipidemia management, leading to the approval of novel hypolipidemic drugs in North America and Europe. This article reviews the clinical development of bempedoic acid, a promising new drug, alone and in combination with ezetimibe, …


Determining The Ideal Concentrations Of Ethanol And Propylene Glycol In Ethosomes For Transdermal Delivery Of Vitamin D3, Rebecca Conner 2023 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

Determining The Ideal Concentrations Of Ethanol And Propylene Glycol In Ethosomes For Transdermal Delivery Of Vitamin D3, Rebecca Conner

Harrisburg University Research Symposium: Highlighting Research, Innovation, & Creativity

Vitamin D3 is an important chemical in the human body, however, many Americans have low levels of this vitamin. There are plenty of oral supplementations for Vitamin D3 deficiency, but those of older age and busy schedules may struggle to meet the minimum requirement. A recently developed ethosomal transmembrane delivery system (Touitou, 2000), similar to liposomes but also containing ethanol, allows users to apply a gel dermally and have the desired drug or active ingredient reach the bloodstream faster. However, there is considerable variation in the concentration of ethanol and permeation enhancers used. Using an affordable method to …


Integrated Inflammatory Signaling Landscape Response After Delivering Elovanoid Free-Fatty-Acid Precursors Leading To Experimental Stroke Neuroprotection, Madigan M. Reid, Ludmila Belayev, Larissa Khoutorova, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Andre Obenaus, Kierany Shelvin, Stacey Knowles, Sung Ha Hong, Nicolas G. Bazan 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Integrated Inflammatory Signaling Landscape Response After Delivering Elovanoid Free-Fatty-Acid Precursors Leading To Experimental Stroke Neuroprotection, Madigan M. Reid, Ludmila Belayev, Larissa Khoutorova, Pranab K. Mukherjee, Andre Obenaus, Kierany Shelvin, Stacey Knowles, Sung Ha Hong, Nicolas G. Bazan

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Despite efforts to identify modulatory neuroprotective mechanisms of damaging ischemic stroke cascade signaling, a void remains on an effective potential therapeutic. The present study defines neuroprotection by very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA) Elovanoid (ELV) precursors C-32:6 and C-34:6 delivered intranasally following experimental ischemic stroke. We demonstrate that these precursors improved neurological deficit, decreased T2WI lesion volume, and increased SMI-71 positive blood vessels and NeuN positive neurons, indicating blood–brain barrier (BBB) protection and neurogenesis modulated by the free fatty acids (FFAs) C-32:6 and C-34:6. Gene expression revealed increased anti-inflammatory and pro-homeostatic genes and decreases in expression of pro-inflammatory genes in …


Rod-Specific Downregulation Of Omega-3 Very-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Pathway In Age-Related Macular Degeneration, William C. Gordon, Marie Audrey I. Kautzmann, Bokkyoo Jun, Megan L. Cothern, Zhide Fang, Nicolas G. Bazan 2023 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Rod-Specific Downregulation Of Omega-3 Very-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Pathway In Age-Related Macular Degeneration, William C. Gordon, Marie Audrey I. Kautzmann, Bokkyoo Jun, Megan L. Cothern, Zhide Fang, Nicolas G. Bazan

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6) plays a key role in vision and is the precursor for very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs). The release of 32- and 34-carbon VLC-PUFAs and DHA from sn-1 and sn-2 of phosphatidylcholine (PC) leads to the synthesis of cell-survival mediators, the elovanoids (ELVs) and neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), respectively. Macula and periphery from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) donor retinas were assessed for the availability of DHA-related lipids by LC-MS/MS-based lipidomic analysis and MALDI-molecular imaging. We found reduced retina DHA and VLC-PUFA pathways to synthesize omega-3 ELVs from precursors that likely resulted in altered disks and photoreceptor loss. Additionally, …


Nanodiscs: A Novel Approach To The Study Of The Methionine Abc Transporter System, Michael T. Winslow 2023 University of San Francisco

Nanodiscs: A Novel Approach To The Study Of The Methionine Abc Transporter System, Michael T. Winslow

Master's Theses

Membrane transporter proteins play the vital role of moving compounds in and out of the cell and are essential for all living organisms. ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) family transporters function both as importers and exporters in prokaryotes. MetNI is an E. coli Type I ABC transporter responsible for the uptake of methionine into the cytosol from the cell periplasmic space through the cell membrane to maintain intracellular methionine pools. ABC transporters, like other membrane proteins, are most often mechanistically and structurally studied in vitro, solubilized by detergents. However, detergent micelles may affect the conformational changes of membrane proteins relative to …


Photoisomerizable Membrane Active Peptides, Cristina Ventura 2023 Seton Hall University

Photoisomerizable Membrane Active Peptides, Cristina Ventura

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Membrane active peptides (MAPs) bind and partition into the cell membrane thus causing permeabilization. Many α-helical membrane active peptides contain central proline residues that distinguish the hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces of the helix. The proline induces a bend that produces a helix-hinge-helix motif. Mutation of these proline residues has a significant effect on the activity of the MAP. Azobenzene is a photoisomerizable molecule that switches from its trans to cis isomer upon excitation with ultraviolet (UV) light and from its cis to trans isomer upon excitation with visible light (VL). In this work it is hypothesized that the hinge function …


Utilizing Ultra-Performance Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry To Investigate Fatty Acid Mediated Antibiotic Tolerance, Brittni Woodall 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Utilizing Ultra-Performance Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry To Investigate Fatty Acid Mediated Antibiotic Tolerance, Brittni Woodall

Doctoral Dissertations

The lipid membrane is the first component necessary to sustain life. To maintain homeostasis, segregate cellular machinery, provide protection from the environment, and reproduce, an organism must establish a boundary in which the processes can occur. Throughout the last two decades, research has propelled our knowledge of lipid membranes much beyond original hypotheses. Once thought of to be static and uniform, the understanding of the lipid membrane has evolved to encompass a structure that is responsive, unique, and intricately constructed by the organism itself. By chance or by choice, organisms adapt the lipid membrane according to the environment for which …


Development Of Surface-Modified Liposomes For Drug Delivery Applications, Megan Louise Qualls 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Development Of Surface-Modified Liposomes For Drug Delivery Applications, Megan Louise Qualls

Doctoral Dissertations

Liposomes are spherical vesicles composed of a lipid bilayer membrane that assembles around an internal aqueous core. This duality gives liposomes the ability to encapsulate both hydrophobic cargo within the lipid bilayer and hydrophilic cargo in the aqueous core, making them versatile molecular carriers for drug delivery. Liposome platforms have many advantages and are promising drug delivery carriers, and research is ongoing to improve their designs for continued clinical applications. Many liposome types have been developed, but further work is needed to improve surface modification, site-specific targeting, and triggered cargo release in order to further the therapeutic applications of these …


Fatty Acid Therapy And Implications For Spinal Cord Injury Treatment: A Literature Review, Philippe J. Dentino 2023 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Fatty Acid Therapy And Implications For Spinal Cord Injury Treatment: A Literature Review, Philippe J. Dentino

MEDI 9331 Scholarly Activities Clinical Years

Introduction: Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) are catastrophic injury to spinal neurons that cause a tremendous socioeconomic and public health burden on individuals globally. The role of fatty acids in treatment of SCI is not well understood and poorly standardized across treatment provision. This review seeks to explore the role of fatty acids in neurorecovery and propose emerging themes in SCI treatment with fatty acids.

Methods: A PICO was designed and online databases were searched for relevant articles. A total of 55 studies were deemed appropriate for the review and summarized into thematic elements including ) Cellular Transport 2) Neuroprotection 3) …


The Role Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome In Alzheimer's Disease, Ethan S. Terman 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Role Of The Nlrp3 Inflammasome In Alzheimer's Disease, Ethan S. Terman

Undergraduate Research Posters

This study examines the consequences of Alzheimer’s in rat and mice test subjects. The goal is to identify the effects of certain NLRP3 inhibiting drugs and to see if there are any noticeable effects in regards to impeding the pathological development of Alzheimer’s disease. The results are visualized by implementing the immunohistochemical process to identify neurodegeneration in the brain and to assess the expression levels of amyloid beta as an indicator of Alzheimer’s pathology. Other tests are also conducted on these transgenic mice to gauge cognitive functioning levels during the onset of their disease, those being behavior tests, but not …


Observing Ceramide Pathway With Ferroptosis Via Mia Paca-2 Cell Treatment With Rsl3, Tazrin Rahman 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

Observing Ceramide Pathway With Ferroptosis Via Mia Paca-2 Cell Treatment With Rsl3, Tazrin Rahman

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Composed of sphingosine and a fatty acid, ceramides are lipid molecules that serve as key metabolic signaling molecules of a sphingolipid pathway. While it acts as a precursor of complex sphingolipids, inducing ceramide generation can cause cell stress leading to subsequent cell death via apoptosis, necrosis, and even mitophagy. With regards to cell death specifically, a novel form of regulated cell death, ferroptosis, has recently been recognized of necrotic nature. Its unique morphological features and distinct properties have been observed over the last several decades; however, the molecular features were not identifiable as pure evidence of cell death, until recently …


Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

Proposing An Rna Interference (Rnai)-Based Treatment For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Hiv) By Analyzing The Post-Transcriptional Gene Targeting Of Sars-Cov-2, Hepatitis C Virus, And A549 Lung Cancer Cells, Arjun Jagdeesh

Undergraduate Research Posters

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that infects CD4+ T cell lymphocytes in humans, leading to the development of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) if left untreated. While current treatment methods, including antiretroviral combination treatments, effectively limit HIV replication, HIV can evade these treatments due to its high mutation rate. Long-term antiretroviral treatment can also be toxic to patients, meaning patients would benefit from a new mechanism of HIV treatment. RNA interference (RNAi) is an antiviral pathway found in mammals, plants, and insects that involves a small-interfering RNA that is incorporated into a protein complex called the RNA-induced Silencing Complex …


Role Of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 7 In Functions Of Bv-2 Microglia, Yawen Hu, Rebecca A. Hill, Masami Yoshimura 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Role Of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 7 In Functions Of Bv-2 Microglia, Yawen Hu, Rebecca A. Hill, Masami Yoshimura

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

To assess the role of adenylyl cyclase type 7 (AC7) in microglia’s immune function, we generated AC7 gene knockout (AC7 KO) clones from a mouse microglial cell line, BV-2, using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system. The ability of BV-2 cells to generate cAMP and their innate immune functions were examined in the presence or absence of ethanol. The parental BV-2 cells showed robust cAMP production when stimulated with prostaglandin-E1 (PGE1) and ethanol increased cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AC7 KO clones of BV-2 cells showed diminished and ethanol-insensitive cAMP production. The phagocytic activity of the parental BV-2 cells was …


Crel And Wnt5a/Frizzled 5 Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Regulation Reveal Novel Neuroprotectin D1 Targets For Neuroprotection, Jorgelina M. Calandria, Khanh V. Do, Sayantani Kala-Bhattacharjee, Andre Obenaus, Ludmila Belayev, Nicolas G. Bazan 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Crel And Wnt5a/Frizzled 5 Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Regulation Reveal Novel Neuroprotectin D1 Targets For Neuroprotection, Jorgelina M. Calandria, Khanh V. Do, Sayantani Kala-Bhattacharjee, Andre Obenaus, Ludmila Belayev, Nicolas G. Bazan

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Abstract: Wnt5a triggers inflammatory responses and damage via NFkB/p65 in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells undergoing uncompensated oxidative stress (UOS) and in experimental ischemic stroke. We found that Wnt5a-Clathrin-mediated uptake leads to NFkB/p65 activation and that Wnt5a is secreted in an exosome-independent fashion. We uncovered that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and its derivative, Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), upregulate c-Rel expression that, as a result, blunts Wnt5a abundance by competing with NFkB/p65 on the Wnt5a promoter A. Wnt5a increases in ischemic stroke penumbra and blood, while DHA reduces Wnt5a abundance with concomitant neuroprotection. Peptide inhibitor of Wnt5a binding, Box5, is also neuroprotective. DHA-decreased …


Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer 2022 Seton Hall University

Flippase Inhibitors As Antimicrobial Agents, Robert Tancer

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Drug resistant microbes are a considerable challenge for modern medicine to overcome. The research described in this dissertation involved development of lipid flippase inhibitors and investigating their potential as antimicrobial agents against various drug resistant microbes. The microbes primarily investigated were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) & Cryptococcus neoformans. Chapter 1 reviews the historical perspective and summarizes the current state of the field of research. In Chapter 2, the design space of an antimicrobial peptide known as humimycin was explored and the effects of modifications on its structure were observed against MRSA. Several key observations resulted. Most notably, the …


Improvement Of Memory Loss Through Dietary Intervention In The Assisted Living And Rehabilitative Settings, Alexander Swartz, Martin Forsberg 2022 Rowan University

Improvement Of Memory Loss Through Dietary Intervention In The Assisted Living And Rehabilitative Settings, Alexander Swartz, Martin Forsberg

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

• The ketogenic diet is a popular, controversial diet that fuels the brain through beta-oxidation of fatty acids and production of ketone bodies, the most populous of which is betahydroxybutyrate (BHB).

  • The ketogenic diet consists of 70-80% fats, 20-25% protein, and 5-10% carbohydrates.

• Medically, the ketogenic diet is utilized in patients with epilepsy and recommended by some physicians to improve general health through weight loss and insulin sensitivity.

• Key factors of neurodegeneration include glucose hypometabolism, oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation.

  • Studies have shown that with ingestion of exogenous ketones alone, or endogenous ketonemia through a ketogenic diet, there is: …


Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, KayLee Freitas 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Identification Of Lipid Species: Potential Biomarkers For Early Detection Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Kit Yee Leung, Kaylee Freitas

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. HCC is associated with cirrhosis. Poor survival rate of HCC is due to diagnosis of HCC at late stage.


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


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