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Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an organ system, the lung has unique advantages and disadvantages for direct drug delivery. Its contact with the external environment allows for the airways to be easily accessible to intrapulmonary delivery. However, its complex structure, which divides into more narrow airways with each branch, can make direct delivery to the remote alveoli challenging. The objective of this thesis was to overcome this issue by using exogenous surfactant, a lipoprotein complex used to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a carrier for pulmonary therapeutics. It was hypothesized that therapeutics administered with a surfactant vehicle would display enhanced delivery to the ...


Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2021 Bronx Community College

Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course Textbook (2nd Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The goal of this preparatory textbook is to give students a chance to become familiar with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later on in the Anatomy and Physiology course, especially during the first few weeks of the course.

Organization and functioning of the human organism are generally presented starting from the simplest building blocks, and then moving into levels of increasing complexity. This textbook follows the same presentation. It begins introducing the concept of homeostasis, then covers the chemical level, and later on a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system level. This ...


Characterization Of Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsifiers In Topical Creams Containing A Novel Solvent, Melinda Joanna Sutton 2021 Missouri State University

Characterization Of Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsifiers In Topical Creams Containing A Novel Solvent, Melinda Joanna Sutton

MSU Graduate Theses

Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE) is a promising solvent component in topical cream formulations due to its superior solubilizing abilities with certain active pharmaceutical ingredients. One of the goals of this study is to characterize the effects of pH on the physical and chemical stabilities of topical cream formulations containing particularly high concentrations of DEGEE by characterizing a full topical pH profile of 3.5 – 9.0. The second goal is to evaluate the presence, amount, and characteristics of lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs), molecularly structured in a lamellar phase, in a model cream emulsion utilizing polarized light microscopy (PLM). The ...


In Vivo Isotope Tracing Reveals The Versatility Of Glucose As A Brown Adipose Tissue Substrate, Su Myung Jung, Will G. Doxsey, Johnny Le, John A. Haley, Lorena Mazuecos, Amelia K. Luciano, Huawei Li, Cholsoon Jang, David A. Guertin 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

In Vivo Isotope Tracing Reveals The Versatility Of Glucose As A Brown Adipose Tissue Substrate, Su Myung Jung, Will G. Doxsey, Johnny Le, John A. Haley, Lorena Mazuecos, Amelia K. Luciano, Huawei Li, Cholsoon Jang, David A. Guertin

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Active brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes copious amounts of glucose, yet how glucose metabolism supports thermogenesis is unclear. By combining transcriptomics, metabolomics, and stable isotope tracing in vivo, we systematically analyze BAT glucose utilization in mice during acute and chronic cold exposure. Metabolite profiling reveals extensive temperature-dependent changes in the BAT metabolome and transcriptome upon cold adaptation, discovering unexpected metabolite markers of thermogenesis, including increased N-acetyl-amino acid production. Time-course stable isotope tracing further reveals rapid incorporation of glucose carbons into glycolysis and TCA cycle, as well as several auxiliary pathways, including NADPH, nucleotide, and phospholipid synthesis pathways. Gene expression differences ...


Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal 2021 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Complexation Of Glycoalkaloid Α- Tomatine With Sterols And Its Potential Application As An Anti-Cancer Drug, Bishal Nepal

Dissertations

Glycoalkaloids (GAs) are secondary metabolites found mostly in higher plant species and some marine invertebrates. They are known to form complexes with 3β-hydroxy sterols such as cholesterol causing membrane disruption. So far the visual evidence showcasing the complexes formed between glycoalkaloids and sterols has been mainly restricted to some earlier studies using Brewster angle microscopy. This study aimed to develop a method for topographic and morphological analysis of sterol-glycoalkaloid complexes. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) transfer of monolayers comprising of glycoalkaloid tomatine, sterols, and lipids in varying molar ratios onto mica followed by AFM examination was performed. The AFM method used required minimal ...


Lipoprotein-Induced Increases In Cholesterol And 7-Ketocholesterol Result In Opposite Molecular-Scale Biophysical Effects On Membrane Structure, Manuela A.A. Ayee, Irena Levitan 2021 Dordt University

Lipoprotein-Induced Increases In Cholesterol And 7-Ketocholesterol Result In Opposite Molecular-Scale Biophysical Effects On Membrane Structure, Manuela A.A. Ayee, Irena Levitan

Faculty Work Comprehensive List

Under hypercholesterolemic conditions, exposure of cells to lipoproteins results in a subtle membrane increase in the levels of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, as compared to normal conditions. The effect of these physiologically relevant concentration increases on multicomponent bilayer membranes was investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Significant changes in the structural and dynamic properties of the bilayer membranes resulted from these subtle increases in sterol levels, with both sterol species inducing decreases in the lateral area and inhibiting lateral diffusion to varying extents. Cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol, however, exhibited opposite effects on lipid packing and orientation. The results from this study indicate ...


Loss Of Function Of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (Lal) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis And Increases Fracture Risk In Humans, Ron C. Helderman, Daniel G. Whitney, Madalina Duta-Mare, Alena Akhmetshina, Nemanja Vujic, Shobana Jayapalan, Jeffry S. Nyman, Biswapriya B. Misra, Clifford J. Rosen, Michael P. Czech, Dagmar Kratky, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy 2021 Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Loss Of Function Of Lysosomal Acid Lipase (Lal) Profoundly Impacts Osteoblastogenesis And Increases Fracture Risk In Humans, Ron C. Helderman, Daniel G. Whitney, Madalina Duta-Mare, Alena Akhmetshina, Nemanja Vujic, Shobana Jayapalan, Jeffry S. Nyman, Biswapriya B. Misra, Clifford J. Rosen, Michael P. Czech, Dagmar Kratky, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is essential for cholesteryl ester (CE) and triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis in the lysosome. Clinically, an autosomal recessive LIPA mutation causes LAL deficiency (LALD), previously described as Wolman Disease or Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). LAL-D is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver, small intestine, spleen, adrenal glands, and blood. Considering the importance of unesterified cholesterol and fatty acids in bone metabolism, we hypothesized that LAL is essential for bone formation, and ultimately, skeletal health. To investigate the role of LAL in skeletal homeostasis, we used LAL-deficient ((-/-)) mice, in vitro osteoblast cultures, and novel clinical ...


Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah 2021 Seton Hall University

Theranostic Applications Of Sirna Bioconjugates In Cancer Detection And Treatment, Sunil S. Shah

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Abstract

The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in the applications of RNA in chemical biology, medicinal chemistry, and biotechnology. At the forefront of its utility is the ability to self-assemble multiple siRNAs into nanostructure formulations capable of targeting selected oncogenes and potentiating the gene therapy of malignant tumors. Self-assembled siRNA integrates multiple siRNAs within a single molecular platform for silencing multiple oncogenic mRNA targets with high precision and efficacy to potentially induce cancer cell apoptosis through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Furthermore, the conjugation of siRNA self-assemblies with bio-active probes results in multi-functional theranostic (therapy ...


Non-Linear Optical Imaging Of Atherosclerotic Plaques In The Context Of Siv And Hiv Infection Prominently Detects Crystalline Cholesterol Esters, Min Hi Park, Jeffrey L. Suhalim, Firas Elmastour, Santu K. Singha, Tadashi Imafuku, Ramanathan Venkatnarayan, Anette Christ, Alena Grebe, Sarah A. Oppelt, Dmitri Sviridov, Michael Bukrinsky, Eicke Latz, Eric O. Potma, Michael L. Fitzgerald 2021 Harvard Medical School

Non-Linear Optical Imaging Of Atherosclerotic Plaques In The Context Of Siv And Hiv Infection Prominently Detects Crystalline Cholesterol Esters, Min Hi Park, Jeffrey L. Suhalim, Firas Elmastour, Santu K. Singha, Tadashi Imafuku, Ramanathan Venkatnarayan, Anette Christ, Alena Grebe, Sarah A. Oppelt, Dmitri Sviridov, Michael Bukrinsky, Eicke Latz, Eric O. Potma, Michael L. Fitzgerald

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Chronic HIV infection may exacerbate atherosclerotic vascular disease, which at advanced stages presents as necrotic plaques rich in crystalline cholesterol. Such lesions can catastrophically rupture precipitating myocardial infarct and stroke, now important causes of mortality in those living with HIV. However, in this population little is known about plaque structure relative to crystalline content and its chemical composition. Here, we first interrogated plaque crystal structure and composition in atherosclerotic SIV-infected macaques using non-linear optical microscopy. By stimulated Raman scattering and second harmonic generation approaches both amorphous and crystalline plaque lipid was detected and the crystal spectral profile indicated a cholesterol ...


Fucoxanthin: A Review Of Potential Benefits Relative To Human Health, MICHAEL WHITE 2021 James Madison University

Fucoxanthin: A Review Of Potential Benefits Relative To Human Health, Michael White

Masters Theses, 2020-current

Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid sourced and extracted mainly from dark orange and brown seaweeds found in the pacific ocean, such as the wakame algae. The allenic bonds and unique oxygen groups give fucoxanthin its unique structure and are thought to be part of the reason fucoxanthin has unique physiological functions. Fucoxanthin has potentially numerous effects on the physiology of human health, ranging from skin health to metabolic health, which have been demonstrated in animal model research. The goal of this review is to examine current literature to discuss fucoxanthin’s potential application as a nutraceutical, treatment for obesity, type 2 ...


Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver

Honors Program Projects

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the hardening of arteries through the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cyclodextrins could potentially treat atherosclerosis by shrinking plaques. These cyclic oligosaccharides can make complexes with cholesterol but have also shown toxic side effects. This study looked for potential negative effects of cyclodextrins and cholesterol on gut bacteria. It was hypothesized that Bacteroides vulgatus will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cholesterol. In contrast, Clostridium bolteae will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cyclodextrins. Due to the fact that these bacteria are anaerobic, Clostridium bolteae and Bacteroides vulgatus ...


Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Identification And Characterization Of Butyrate-Producing Species In The Human Gut Microbiome, Grace Maline

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, and Crohn’s disease are increasingly common conditions that places a high physical and financial burden on individuals and global healthcare systems. Though many treatments exist for these conditions, their unpredictable nature and causation make them difficult to manage across the variety of IBD patients. Additionally, many of these treatments come with undesirable side effects or modes of delivery. Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore the use of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate whose affects in the human gut include decreased inflammation and decreased risk of colorectal cancer ...


Experimental And Computational Observations Of Immunogenic Cobalt Porphyrin Lipid Bilayers: Nanodomain-Enhanced Antigen Association., Jasmin Federizon, Conrard Giresse Tetsassi Feugmo, Wei-Chiao Huang, Xuedan He, Kazutoyo Miura, Aida Razi, Joaquin Ortega, Mikko Karttunen, Jonathan F Lovell 2021 Western University

Experimental And Computational Observations Of Immunogenic Cobalt Porphyrin Lipid Bilayers: Nanodomain-Enhanced Antigen Association., Jasmin Federizon, Conrard Giresse Tetsassi Feugmo, Wei-Chiao Huang, Xuedan He, Kazutoyo Miura, Aida Razi, Joaquin Ortega, Mikko Karttunen, Jonathan F Lovell

Chemistry Publications

Cobalt porphyrin phospholipid (CoPoP) can incorporate within bilayers to enable non-covalent surface-display of antigens on liposomes by mixing with proteins bearing a polyhistidine tag (his-tag); however, the mechanisms for how this occurs are poorly understood. These were investigated using the his-tagged model antigen Pfs25, a protein antigen candidate for malaria transmission-blocking vaccines. Pfs25 was found to associate with the small molecule aquocobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 and a cobalt-containing corrin macrocycle, but without particle formation, enabling comparative assessment. Relative to CoPoP liposomes, binding and serum stability studies indicated a weaker association of Pfs25 to aquocobalamin or cobalt nitrilotriacetic acid ...


Acute Fish Oil Supplementation And Aspirin Treatment Modulates Lipid Profile In Platelet Rich Plasma: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Joshua M. Morriss, Lisa A. Turner, Danielle M. McCormack, Daniel Contaifer, Naren Gajenthra Kumar, Saidheeraj Paravataneni, Monther Alsultan, Suad Alshammari, Silas Contaifer, Parthasarathy Madurantakam, Dayanjan Wijesinghe 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Pharmacy

Acute Fish Oil Supplementation And Aspirin Treatment Modulates Lipid Profile In Platelet Rich Plasma: A Randomized Pilot Trial, Joshua M. Morriss, Lisa A. Turner, Danielle M. Mccormack, Daniel Contaifer, Naren Gajenthra Kumar, Saidheeraj Paravataneni, Monther Alsultan, Suad Alshammari, Silas Contaifer, Parthasarathy Madurantakam, Dayanjan Wijesinghe

Pharmacotherapy and Outcomes Science Publications

Aims: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been used in tissue repair to treat numerous inflammatory pathophysiologies. Recent studies have elucidated that the bioactive lipid fraction of PRP significantly contributes towards the resolution of inflammation. There has been great interest in how therapeutics could modulate the PRP lipidome to formulate a more pro-resolving matrix. Many of the pathways used to produce either pro-resolving or pro-inflammatory lipids are shared between ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we explored the separate and interacting effects acute exogenous ω-3 PUFA supplementation and aspirin had on the lipidome of PRP within 6 hours.

Methods ...


Interaction Between Genetic Risk Scores For Reduced Pulmonary Function And Smoking, Asthma And Endotoxin, Sinjini Sikdar, Annah B. Wyss, Mi Kyeong Lee, Thanh T. Hoang, Marie Richards, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Christine Parks, Peter S. Thorne, John L. Hankinson, David M. Umbach, Alison Motsinger-Reif, Stephanie J. London 2021 Old Dominion University

Interaction Between Genetic Risk Scores For Reduced Pulmonary Function And Smoking, Asthma And Endotoxin, Sinjini Sikdar, Annah B. Wyss, Mi Kyeong Lee, Thanh T. Hoang, Marie Richards, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Christine Parks, Peter S. Thorne, John L. Hankinson, David M. Umbach, Alison Motsinger-Reif, Stephanie J. London

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

Rationale Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous loci associated with lower pulmonary function. Pulmonary function is strongly related to smoking and has also been associated with asthma and dust endotoxin. At the individual SNP level, genome-wide analyses of pulmonary function have not identified appreciable evidence for gene by environment interactions. Genetic Risk Scores (GRSs) may enhance power to identify gene–environment interactions, but studies are few.

Methods We analysed 2844 individuals of European ancestry with 1000 Genomes imputed GWAS data from a case–control study of adult asthma nested within a US agricultural cohort. Pulmonary function traits were FEV ...


Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

Finding The Balance​ The Effects Of Α-Cyclodextrin, 2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin, And Cholesterol Bacteroides Vulgatus And Clostridium Bolteae​, Bethany Weaver

Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship

Atherosclerosis is a cardiovascular disease that is characterized by the hardening of arteries through the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cyclodextrins could potentially treat atherosclerosis by shrinking plaques. These cyclic oligosaccharides can make complexes with cholesterol but have also shown toxic side effects. This study looked for potential negative effects of cyclodextrins and cholesterol on gut bacteria. It was hypothesized that Bacteroides vulgatus will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cholesterol. In contrast, Clostridium bolteae will have decreased growth when grown in broth with cyclodextrins. Due to the fact that these bacteria are anaerobic, Clostridium bolteae and Bacteroides vulgatus ...


Nuclear-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Enhance The Effects Of Radiation Therapy With And Without Liposomal Delivery, Maureen Aliru 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Nuclear-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Enhance The Effects Of Radiation Therapy With And Without Liposomal Delivery, Maureen Aliru

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Less that 10% of pancreatic cancer patients are eligible for curative resection, and clinical trials evaluating chemoradiation in locally advanced patients with unresectable disease have been largely disappointing. New and creative therapeutic approaches are needed to address the unment need for treatment options. The objective of this thesis is to advance radiosensitization of treatment-resistant densely desmoplastic pancreatic cancer using nanoparticles to surmount biological barriers to effective particle distribution for DNA-targeting.

Clinical translation of radiosensitizing nanoparticles has stalled owing to technical challenges. Current strategies to use AuNPs for radiosensitization require large quantities of gold, kilovoltage x-rays, immediate irradiation after intravenous administration ...


Assessment Of The Use Of Low Molecular Weight Diblock Copolymers For The Formation Of Stable, Tunable Droplet Interface Bilayers, Joseph Tawfik 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Assessment Of The Use Of Low Molecular Weight Diblock Copolymers For The Formation Of Stable, Tunable Droplet Interface Bilayers, Joseph Tawfik

Masters Theses

This thesis presents the use of diblock copolymers, poly(butadiene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PBm PEOn) and poly(isoprene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PImPEOn), as amphiphilic molecular building blocks for the formation of synthetic polymer bilayer membranes using the droplet interface bilayer (DIB) technique. The DIB technique makes use of the self-assembly of amphiphilic macromolecules along oil-water droplet interfaces that can then be physically connected for the construction of liquid supported macromolecular bilayers at the droplet interface. These bilayer membranes are capable of hosting both naturally occurring and synthetic protein channels. This technique has been used to ...


The Lipid Handling Capacity Of Subcutaneous Fat Is Programmed By Mtorc2 During Development, Wen-Yu Hsiao, Su Myung Jung, Yuefeng Tang, John A. Haley, Rui Li, Huawei Li, Camila Martinez Calejman, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Chien-Min Hung, Amelia K. Luciano, Victoria DeMambro, Kathryn E. Wellen, Clifford J. Rosen, Lihua Julie Zhu, David A. Guertin 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Lipid Handling Capacity Of Subcutaneous Fat Is Programmed By Mtorc2 During Development, Wen-Yu Hsiao, Su Myung Jung, Yuefeng Tang, John A. Haley, Rui Li, Huawei Li, Camila Martinez Calejman, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Chien-Min Hung, Amelia K. Luciano, Victoria Demambro, Kathryn E. Wellen, Clifford J. Rosen, Lihua Julie Zhu, David A. Guertin

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Overweight and obesity are associated with type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer, but all fat is not equal, as storing excess lipid in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) is more metabolically favorable than in visceral fat. Here, we uncover a critical role for mTORC2 in setting SWAT lipid handling capacity. We find that subcutaneous white preadipocytes differentiating without the essential mTORC2 subunit Rictor upregulate mature adipocyte markers but develop a striking lipid storage defect resulting in smaller adipocytes, reduced tissue size, lipid re-distribution to visceral and brown fat, and sex-distinct effects on systemic metabolic fitness ...


Single‐Molecule 3d Orientation Imaging Reveals Nanoscale Compositional Heterogeneity In Lipid Membranes, Jin Lu, Hesam Mazidi, Tianben Ding, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Single‐Molecule 3d Orientation Imaging Reveals Nanoscale Compositional Heterogeneity In Lipid Membranes, Jin Lu, Hesam Mazidi, Tianben Ding, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

In soft matter, thermal energy causes molecules to continuously translate and rotate, even in crowded environments, thereby impacting the spatial organization and function of most molecular assemblies, such as lipid membranes. Directly measuring the orientation and spatial organization of large collections (>3000 molecules μm−2) of single molecules with nanoscale resolution remains elusive. In this paper, we utilize SMOLM, single‐molecule orientation localization microscopy, to directly measure the orientation spectra (3D orientation plus “wobble”) of lipophilic probes transiently bound to lipid membranes, revealing that Nile red's (NR) orientation spectra are extremely sensitive to membrane chemical composition. SMOLM images resolve ...


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