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Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella 2017 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to increased intake of sweet solutions by mammals, learning, particularly classically-conditioned “Pavlovian-like” learning, also plays an important role. An orosensory conditioned flavor preference (CFP) can be elicited by pairing one novel flavor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a fructose solution and a second novel flavor (CS-) with a saccharin solution. Rats will prefer the CS+ flavor in a subsequent 2-bottle choice test with both flavors mixed in saccharin. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 as well as NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonists eliminated the acquisition (learning) of fructose-CFP. Further, expression of ...


Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana 2017 Seton Hall University

Diversity Oriented Synthesis, Characterization And Anti-Cancer Activity Of Killer Peptide Nucleolipid Bioconjugates, Niki K. Rana

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The killer peptide sequence D-(KLAKLAK)2 has been originally designed and developed as an antibacterial agent. Despite having excellent cytotoxicity towards bacteria, this sequence maintains low cell cytotoxity in malignant mammalian cell types such as cancer. The chemical basis for its selectivity has been attributed to its poly(cationic) amphiphilic nature, which facilitates cell permeability across the negatively charged bacterial membrane, but with limited permeability across the zwitterionic membrane of mammalian cells. The positively charged D-(KLAKLAK)2 sequence has been found to accumulate on the surface of the mitochondria causing dissipation of the negatively charged mitochondrial membrane potential ...


Discovering A Novel Antifungal Target In Downstream Sterol Biosynthesis Using A Squalene Synthase Functional Motif, Kristin Brooke Linscott 2017 University of Kentucky

Discovering A Novel Antifungal Target In Downstream Sterol Biosynthesis Using A Squalene Synthase Functional Motif, Kristin Brooke Linscott

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The sterol biosynthetic pathway is essential for growth of all eukaryotic cells and the main target of antifungal agents. The emergence of resistance to these antifungals in an already ill patient population indicates a need to develop drugs that have a broad spectrum of activity among pathogenic fungi and have minimal patient toxicity. Squalene synthase is the first committed step in the sterol pathway and has been studied intensively for development of antifungal agents. While the overall architecture of this enzyme is identical throughout eukaryotes, it was shown that plant and animal genes cannot complement a squalene synthase knockout mutation ...


Lack Of Cross-Reactivity Allergy Following A Switch From Alirocumab To Evolocumab, Matthew D. Stryker, Michael Kane, Robert Busch 2016 Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

Lack Of Cross-Reactivity Allergy Following A Switch From Alirocumab To Evolocumab, Matthew D. Stryker, Michael Kane, Robert Busch

Excerpts in Pharmacy Research Journal

The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene and gain-of-function mutations were first described in 2003. The gain-of-function mutations observed were associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the 400’s, in addition to premature cardiovascular disease. Subsequent loss-of-function experiments conducted in mice demonstrated marked reductions in plasma cholesterol levels in the absence of PCSK9. Physiologically, PCSK9 serves as a chaperone protein and functions to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor recycling; consequently, less LDL-C is removed from circulation and serum lipid concentrations become elevated. Inhibition of PCSK9 prevents LDL receptor degradation and preserves receptor recycling to the hepatocyte surface ...


The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Bde-47) Administration In Mice And Its Implications In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Kristen Ciampi

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease characterized by the accumulation of fat in liver cells that is not due to alcohol consumption. Steatosis results when more than 5-10% of the liver’s weight consists of fat. People who are overweight, or who have diabetes or high cholesterol are more likely to develop NAFLD. Over time, NAFLD can advance to cause cirrhosis, and eventually, liver cancer or failure.

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, BDEs) are brominated flame- retardants, and are found in many plastics and household products such as cars, textiles, televisions, and computers. BDEs are released into the environment ...


Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Amyloid Beta (Aβ) was the major focus of this study. It is a peptide that is present in the brain with a high tendency to self-aggregate. When this protein aggregates, it forms oligomers and protofibrils which in turn are deposited as senile plaques in the brain. The reason for the concern with these plaques is their association with the neurological disorder Alzheimer’s disease. It has been found that the most dangerous oligomers are formed in a portion of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to understand how micelles affect the aggregation properties ...


Anti-Cancer Diets: Revolution Or Ruse?, Lauren Hogan 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Anti-Cancer Diets: Revolution Or Ruse?, Lauren Hogan

First Year Inquiry: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

This paper discusses how the foods we consume can play a role in the diagnosis of cancer.


Role Of Flippases In Protein Glycosylation In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Jeffrey S. Rush 2016 University of Kentucky

Role Of Flippases In Protein Glycosylation In The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Jeffrey S. Rush

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publication

Glycosylation is essential to the synthesis, folding, and function of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. Proteins are co- and posttranslationally modified by a variety of glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); modifications include C- and O-mannosylation, N-glycosylation, and the addition of glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. Protein glycosylation in the ER of eukaryotes involves enzymatic steps on both the cytosolic and lumenal surfaces of the ER membrane. The glycans are first assembled as precursor glycolipids, on the cytosolic surface of the ER, which are tethered to the membrane by attachment to a long-chain polyisoprenyl phosphate (dolichol) containing a reduced α-isoprene. The lipid-anchored building blocks ...


Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were 2016 California State University - Northridge

Effect Of Green Tea On Interaction Of Lipid Oxidation Products With Sarcoplasmic And Myofibrillar Protein Homogenates Extracted From Bovine Top Round Muscle, Nahathai Stapornkul, Tatiana Prytkova, Lilian Were

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The interaction between lipid oxidation products and bovine sarcoplasmic (SP) and myofibrillar protein (MP) homogenates in the presence of green tea was investigated. To monitor the effect of green tea on lipid oxidation, aldehydes were measured while effect on protein was monitored via changes in myoglobin, thiols, and tryptophan fluorescence over nine days of refrigerated storage. The presence of SP and MP decreased free aldehydes in the buffers. The SP bound more aldehydes than MP. The tea compounds exhibited more favorable binding energies than aldehydes near histidine 64 close to the heme moiety of myoglobin. Addition of tea lowered tryptophan ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky 2016 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of these preparatory course set of learning objectives is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

These 40+ learning objectives to prepare for Human Anatomy and Physiology can be downloaded and played in a desktop, or laptop (windows exe file).

The entire course has four parts:

Each learning objective is followed by a set of multiple choice question similar to those found later in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course.

The organization and ...


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Is The High Frequency Of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac And Lung Surgeries Related To Hypomagnesemia And Releases Of Ceramides And Platelet-Activating Factor?, Burton M. Altura, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Aimin Zhang, Wenyan Li, Bella T. Altura 2016 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown)

Is The High Frequency Of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation After Cardiac And Lung Surgeries Related To Hypomagnesemia And Releases Of Ceramides And Platelet-Activating Factor?, Burton M. Altura, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Aimin Zhang, Wenyan Li, Bella T. Altura

Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown) Publications and Research

The authors discuss the possible role of hypomagnesemia, ceramides and platelet-activating factor in the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac and lung surgeries.


Euphoria From Drinking Alcoholic Beverages May Be Due To Reversible Constriction Of Cerebral Blood Vessels: Potential Roles Of Unrecognized Ionized Hypomagnesemia, And Release Of Ceramides And Platelet-Activating Factor, Burton M. Altura, Aimin Zhang, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Asefa Gebrewold, Bella T. Altura 2016 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown)

Euphoria From Drinking Alcoholic Beverages May Be Due To Reversible Constriction Of Cerebral Blood Vessels: Potential Roles Of Unrecognized Ionized Hypomagnesemia, And Release Of Ceramides And Platelet-Activating Factor, Burton M. Altura, Aimin Zhang, Nilank C. Shah, Gatha J. Shah, Asefa Gebrewold, Bella T. Altura

Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown) Publications and Research

The authors discuss the feeling of euphoria when drinking alcohol. They summarize studies that suggest this feeling is due to blood vessel constriction, and explain why they believe that the specific mechanism that results in euphoria is the rapid, reversible release o free magnesium ions ([Mg2+]) coupled to the release of ceramides and platelet-activating factor (PAF).


Postprandial Paraoxonase 1 Activity Following Consumption Of Recommended Amounts Of Mixed Meals In Healthy Males, Noriko Kameyama, Chizuko Maruyama, Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Alejandro Gugliucci, Sadako Matsui, Taro Maruyama 2016 Touro University California

Postprandial Paraoxonase 1 Activity Following Consumption Of Recommended Amounts Of Mixed Meals In Healthy Males, Noriko Kameyama, Chizuko Maruyama, Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Alejandro Gugliucci, Sadako Matsui, Taro Maruyama

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

Aim: Postprandial lipid level increases induce oxidative stress, which is involved in atherogenesis. The antioxidant properties of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have attracted attention. However, changes in postprandial PON1 levels differ across prior studies, and changes in PON1 lactonase activity, potentially relevant to PON1 physiology, after the consumption of ordinary meals are unknown. Herein we evaluated postprandial serum lipid levels and PON1 changes following mixed-meal consumption of the amounts recommended for ordinary meals.
Methods: Nine healthy male volunteers consumed three different meals in a randomized cross-over design. The test meals were as follows: S, white rice; SMF, S with fat-containing protein-rich ...


The Effect Of All-Trans Retinoic Acid And Fatty Acids On Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cell Progression, David Brown 2015 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

The Effect Of All-Trans Retinoic Acid And Fatty Acids On Mcf-7 Breast Cancer Cell Progression, David Brown

David C. Brown

Vitamin A metabolites and retinoids may slow the progression of breast cancer and elicit anti-neoplastic properties similar to those of omega-3 fatty acids. Studies using animal models show a decrease in the incidence, growth and metastisis of mammary tumors in the presence of specific fatty acids. This effect is also seen with use of retinoids, specifically all-trans retinoic acid (AtRA). Thus, fatty acids may also alter retinoid homeostasis in mammary carcinoma cells (MCF-7s). The potential for inter/co dependency among fatty acids and retinoids is considerable, and here it has been hypothesized that a decrease in cancer progression will occur ...


A Pilot Study Of Propofol As An Anti-Emetic In Laparoscopic, Gynecologic Surgery Patients, Flem-Flam Aaron Flemister 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

A Pilot Study Of Propofol As An Anti-Emetic In Laparoscopic, Gynecologic Surgery Patients, Flem-Flam Aaron Flemister

Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects

The goal of this project was to use sub-hypnotic doses of propofol to decrease post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) rates in the immediate post-operative period in females, ages 18-65, undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

PONV is one of the largest complications of anesthesia affecting 20-30% of all surgical patients. Risk factors associated with PONV are female gender, laparoscopy, general anesthesia, opioids, volatile agents, and post-operative pain; all of which are frequently encountered. The incidence of PONV can prolong recovery time, delay discharge, increase patient cost, decrease patient satisfaction, and can cause significant medical complications. Propofol has previously demonstrated anti-emetic properties ...


Cloning And Characterization Of The Escherichia Coli Heptosyltransferase Iii: Exploring Substrate Specificity In Lipopolysaccaride Core Biosynthesis, Jagadesh Mudapaka, Erika Taylor 2015 Wesleyan University

Cloning And Characterization Of The Escherichia Coli Heptosyltransferase Iii: Exploring Substrate Specificity In Lipopolysaccaride Core Biosynthesis, Jagadesh Mudapaka, Erika Taylor

Erika A. Taylor, Ph.D.

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules are an important cell surface component that enables adhesion to surfaces and cell motility, amongst other functions. In Escherichia coli, there are multiple Heptosyltransferase enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the core region of LPS. Here we describe the first ever cloning, expression, purification and characterization of Heptosyltransferase III (HepIII) from E. coli, which catalyzes the addition of an l-glycero-d-manno-heptose (Hep) residue to the growing LPS core via an α(1→7) bond. Inspired by results from our lab on the E. coli HepI, we assessed the catalytic efficiency with phospho-Hep2-Kdo2-Lipid A (PH2K2LA) and two deacylated ...


Cave Cyanobacteria Showing Antibacterial Activity, Vasiliki Lamprinou, Kyriaki Tryfinopoulou, Emmanuel N. Velonakis, Alkiviadis Vatopoulos, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Adriani Pantazidou, Athena Economou-Amilli 2015 University of Athens, Faculty of Biology, Department of Ecology & Systematics

Cave Cyanobacteria Showing Antibacterial Activity, Vasiliki Lamprinou, Kyriaki Tryfinopoulou, Emmanuel N. Velonakis, Alkiviadis Vatopoulos, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Adriani Pantazidou, Athena Economou-Amilli

International Journal of Speleology

Cave Cyanobacteria - thriving in an ‘extreme’ environment with interesting species biodiversity - are supposed to be a potential source of bioactive compounds. Lipid extracts from pure cultures of two recently established Cyanobacteria from Greek caves, Toxopsis calypsus and Phormidium melanochroun, were used for antibacterial screening against human pathogenic bacteria (reference and clinical isolates). Antimicrobial Susceptibility testing for both taxa was carried out using the disc-diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method, while preliminary data applying the standard broth microdilution method for the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) are given only for T. calypsus. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated against the Gram-positive clinical and ...


Evaluation Of Bde-47 And -99 Lipid Modulating Effects In Hepg2 Human Carcinoma Cells, Eileen A. Holovac 2015 University of Rhode Island

Evaluation Of Bde-47 And -99 Lipid Modulating Effects In Hepg2 Human Carcinoma Cells, Eileen A. Holovac

Senior Honors Projects

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a significantly more common problem in today’s society, affecting up to 25% of people in the United States as reported by the American Liver Foundation. According to the American Association of the Study of Liver Diseases, NAFLD is the buildup of fat in the liver that is not caused by secondary factors such as alcohol consumption, hereditary disorders, or the use of steatogenic medication such as amioderone. A liver is considered fatty when 5-10% of the liver’s weight is fat. The progression of NAFLD can lead to cirrhosis, liver cancer, or ...


Oxphos-Mediated Induction Of Nad+ Promotes Complete Oxidation Of Fatty Acids And Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Thomas E. Akie, Lijun Liu, Minwoo Nam, Shi Lei, Marcus P. Cooper 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Oxphos-Mediated Induction Of Nad+ Promotes Complete Oxidation Of Fatty Acids And Interdicts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Thomas E. Akie, Lijun Liu, Minwoo Nam, Shi Lei, Marcus P. Cooper

Open Access Articles

OXPHOS is believed to play an important role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, precise mechanisms whereby OXPHOS influences lipid homeostasis are incompletely understood. We previously reported that ectopic expression of LRPPRC, a protein that increases cristae density and OXPHOS, promoted fatty acid oxidation in cultured primary hepatocytes. To determine the biological significance of that observation and define underlying mechanisms, we have ectopically expressed LRPPRC in mouse liver in the setting of NAFLD. Interestingly, ectopic expression of LRPPRC in mouse liver completely interdicted NAFLD, including inflammation. Consistent with mitigation of NAFLD, two markers of hepatic insulin resistance-ROS and PKCepsilon ...


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