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Discovering The Role Of Repeat Sequences In Regulation Of The Phaz Gene In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Harrison Senter, Stephen Baron 2022 Bridgewater College

Discovering The Role Of Repeat Sequences In Regulation Of The Phaz Gene In Streptomyces Sp. Sfb5a, Harrison Senter, Stephen Baron

Honors Projects

Streptomyces sp. SFB5A is an actinomycete (filamentous bacterium) that degrades PHB using an extracellular PHB depolymerase. PHB depolymerase synthesis is induced by growth on PHB and repressed by glucose (or other preferred carbon sources)2, which suggests that there is transcriptional regulation of its corresponding gene, phaZ. Binding sites are suspected to be the repeat sequences found in the phaZ gene. There are 3 different sets of primers that can be made in order to emphasize specific functional repeats while disrupting the functionality of others. The goal of the project is to transform Streptomyces sp. 5A with constructs containing a ...


Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody 2021 Utah State University

Comparative Metabolism Of Aflatoxin B1 In Two Quail Genera Coturnix Japonica And Callipepla Californica, Sean Moody

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Avian species are highly susceptible to the hepatotoxic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Domesticated turkeys are exquisitely sensitive, due to a combination of highly-efficient hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated bioactivation, and to dysfunctional alpha-class glutathione S-transferases (GSTAs) which typically detoxify the bioactivated electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Wild turkeys are relatively resistant to AFB1 in large part due to expression of functional GSTAs. Quail, a related Galliforme, are slightly less sensitive in vivo to AFB1, but whether this is related to the hepatic metabolic profiles of these two critical enzymes has not been rigorously evaluated ...


Understanding The Role Of Rhamm In Tumor Load– Mediated Tumor Invasiveness Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Ashwin Sritharan, Britney Messam 2021 Western University

Understanding The Role Of Rhamm In Tumor Load– Mediated Tumor Invasiveness Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Ashwin Sritharan, Britney Messam

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

1.Compare the levels of proliferation between RHAMM+/+ and RHAMM -/- MDA-MB-231 spheroids as determined by ki67 and Caspase 3 signaling 2.Compare levels of RHAMM, CD44, Has2, and p-ERK activation between RHAMM+/+ and RHAMM -/- MDA-MB-231 spheroids


Ganglioside Alters Phospholipase Trafficking, Inhibits Nf-Κb Assembly, And Protects Tight Junction Integrity, John J. Miklavcic, Qun Li, Jordan Skolnick, Alan B. R. Thomson, Vera C. Mazurak, Michael Tom Clandinin 2021 Chapman University

Ganglioside Alters Phospholipase Trafficking, Inhibits Nf-Κb Assembly, And Protects Tight Junction Integrity, John J. Miklavcic, Qun Li, Jordan Skolnick, Alan B. R. Thomson, Vera C. Mazurak, Michael Tom Clandinin

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

Background and Aims: Dietary gangliosides are present in human milk and consumed in low amounts from organ meats. Clinical and animal studies indicate that dietary gangliosides attenuate signaling processes that are a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gangliosides decrease pro-inflammatory markers, improve intestinal permeability, and reduce symptoms characteristic in patients with IBD. The objective of this study was to examine mechanisms by which dietary gangliosides exert beneficial effects on intestinal health.

Methods: Studies were conducted in vitro using CaCo-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Gangliosides were extracted from milk powder and incubated with differentiated CaCo-2 cells after exposure to pro-inflammatory stimuli ...


Using Deep Learning To Identify Bladder Cancers With Fgfr-Activating Mutations From Histology Images, Constantine S. Velmahos, Marcus Badgeley, Ying-Chun Lo 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Using Deep Learning To Identify Bladder Cancers With Fgfr-Activating Mutations From Histology Images, Constantine S. Velmahos, Marcus Badgeley, Ying-Chun Lo

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway has been proven to be an important therapeutic target in bladder cancer. FGFR-targeted therapies are effective for patients with FGFR mutation, which can be discovered through genetic sequencing. However, genetic sequencing is not commonly performed at diagnosis, whereas a histologic assessment of the tumor is. We aim to computationally extract imaging biomarkers from existing tumor diagnostic slides in order to predict FGFR alterations in bladder cancer.

METHODS: This study analyzed genomic profiles and HandE-stained tumor diagnostic slides of bladder cancer cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 418 cases ...


Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Cardiometabolic Responses In Individuals With/Without Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes, Christopher J. Cavazos

MEDI 8127 Scholarly Activities Pre-Clerkship

Intro: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a national epidemic and is a disease that greatly affects the Rio Grande Valley. Many individuals in the United States, especially in the Rio Grande Valley, have a family history of T2D. Previous evidence has shown that those with a family history of T2D are metabolically inflexible, have a decreased ability to clear circulating glucose, and poor postprandial microvascular recruitment in skeletal muscle tissue. The aforementioned occurs in otherwise healthy individuals with a family history of T2D to nearly the same extent as those who have T2D. Previous studies have not shown where ...


The Comorbidity Of Drug And Alcohol Consumption In Relation To Mental Health Disorders, Sydney Dawson 2021 Brigham Young University

The Comorbidity Of Drug And Alcohol Consumption In Relation To Mental Health Disorders, Sydney Dawson

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

The constantly increasing use of drugs and alcohol in young adults has created great controversy in the medical community on the long-term effects of these substances. The average brain development of adolescence and young adults is not complete until the age of 25, though drug and alcohol intake occur across the United States at younger ages each year. Impulsive behavior and underdeveloped neural pathways create a strong pull for addiction formulations and the development of severe mental-health problems. This paper reviews the positive and negative effects of illicit drugs and alcohol intake and their comorbidity with mental health disorders. There ...


Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate: Future Directions For Translational Science, Tao Wang, Brian C. Lewis, Ameer L. Elaimy, Marcus Ruscetti, Mitchell H. Sokoloff, Kriti Mittal, Thomas J. Fitzgerald 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate: Future Directions For Translational Science, Tao Wang, Brian C. Lewis, Ameer L. Elaimy, Marcus Ruscetti, Mitchell H. Sokoloff, Kriti Mittal, Thomas J. Fitzgerald

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a common malignancy affecting one in nine men, with six of every 10 cases identified in men older than 66 years, and more adversely affects African American males. It remains less common in men under the age of 40. The age adjusted incidence is increasing with the application of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker. PSA helps identifying the disease at an early stage, which is treatable and curable with traditional therapies. However, a significant percentage of men present with high Gleason grade and advanced disease, with lower PSA, and younger age at presentation ...


Randomized Controlled Trial Of Sulforaphane And Metabolite Discovery In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Andrew W. Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Susan Connors, Hua Liu, Anita A. Panjwani, Li-Ching Lee, Eileen Diggins, Ann Foley, Stepan Melnyk, Indrapal N. Singh, S. Jill James, Richard E. Frye, Jed W. Fahey 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Randomized Controlled Trial Of Sulforaphane And Metabolite Discovery In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Andrew W. Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Susan Connors, Hua Liu, Anita A. Panjwani, Li-Ching Lee, Eileen Diggins, Ann Foley, Stepan Melnyk, Indrapal N. Singh, S. Jill James, Richard E. Frye, Jed W. Fahey

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

BACKGROUND: Sulforaphane (SF), an isothiocyanate in broccoli, has potential benefits relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) through its effects on several metabolic and immunologic pathways. Previous clinical trials of oral SF demonstrated positive clinical effects on behavior in young men and changes in urinary metabolomics in children with ASD.

METHODS: We conducted a 15-week randomized parallel double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with 15-week open-label treatment and 6-week no-treatment extensions in 57 children, ages 3-12 years, with ASD over 36 weeks. Twenty-eight were assigned SF and 29 received placebo (PL). Clinical effects, safety and tolerability of SF were measured as were biomarkers ...


Expanded Analysis Of 20 Pneumococcal Serotypes Associated With Radiographically Confirmed Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Hospitalized Us Adults, Raul Isturiz, Gregory A. Volturo 2021 Pfizer Inc

Expanded Analysis Of 20 Pneumococcal Serotypes Associated With Radiographically Confirmed Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Hospitalized Us Adults, Raul Isturiz, Gregory A. Volturo

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has significantly decreased the burden of PCV13-serotype pneumococcal disease; however, disease due to nonvaccine serotypes remains substantial. A recent study documented the persistence of PCV13 serotypes among US adults hospitalized with radiographically confirmed CAP. The current analysis used a recently developed urinary antigen detection (UAD) assay (UAD2) to extend these results to additional serotypes included in an investigational PCV20 vaccine.

METHODS: This prospective study enrolled adults aged > /=18 years hospitalized with radiographically confirmed CAP between October 2013-September 2016. Presence of S pneumoniae was ...


The Role Of A Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance Diagnosis In Healthcare Utilization, Maira A. Castaneda-Avila 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Role Of A Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance Diagnosis In Healthcare Utilization, Maira A. Castaneda-Avila

Morningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses

Background

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) is an understudied precursor of multiple myeloma (MM), the second most prevalent hematologic malignancy in the United States. This dissertation was designed to: (1) Describe the trajectories of serum biomarkers over time in patients with an MGUS diagnosis, (2) Determine if an MGUS diagnosis is associated with changes in healthcare service utilization, and (3) explore the patient- and provider-level drivers of healthcare utilization in patients with MGUS.

Methods

Data sources include health claims and electronic health records from a community-based population of patients seeking care in central Massachusetts and primary qualitative data collected ...


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel 2021 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...


Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich 2021 Olivet Nazarene University

Mediation Of The Uncoupled Enos Pathway Following Oxidative Stress Using Tetrahydrobiopterin And Nitric Oxide Donor Drugs To Restore Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration, Brianna Munnich

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

The eNOS pathway, found in the endothelium of blood vessels, is a key regulator of nitric oxide levels in the circulatory system. The pathway is controlled through several positive and negative feedback loops [2]. The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a major control point in this pathway and under conditions of stress can be reduced into the dihydrobiopterin (BH2) [2,6,7,8,9]. When the reduced form is predominant, the pathway produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than nitric oxide, causing stress and damage to the vessels [6,7,8,9]. In ...


Cancer Immune Evasion Through Loss Of Mhc Class I Antigen Presentation, Karthik Dhatchinamoorthy, Jeff D. Colbert, Kenneth L. Rock 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cancer Immune Evasion Through Loss Of Mhc Class I Antigen Presentation, Karthik Dhatchinamoorthy, Jeff D. Colbert, Kenneth L. Rock

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Major histocompatibility class I (MHC I) molecules bind peptides derived from a cell's expressed genes and then transport and display this antigenic information on the cell surface. This allows CD8 T cells to identify pathological cells that are synthesizing abnormal proteins, such as cancers that are expressing mutated proteins. In order for many cancers to arise and progress, they need to evolve mechanisms to avoid elimination by CD8 T cells. MHC I molecules are not essential for cell survival and therefore one mechanism by which cancers can evade immune control is by losing MHC I antigen presentation machinery (APM ...


Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Virtualized Clinical Studies To Assess The Natural History And Impact Of Gut Microbiome Modulation In Non-Hospitalized Patients With Mild To Moderate Covid-19 A Randomized, Open-Label, Prospective Study With A Parallel Group Study Evaluating The Physiologic Effects Of Kb109 On Gut Microbiota Structure And Function: A Structured Summary Of A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Study [Preprint], John P. Haran, Jose C. Pinero, Yan Zheng, Norma Alonzo Palma, Mark Wingertzahn

COVID-19 Publications by UMass Chan Authors

These 2 parallel studies (K031 and K032) aim to evaluate the safety of KB109 in addition to supportive self-care (SSC) compared with SSC alone in outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). KB109 is a novel synthetic glycan that was formulated to modulate the gut microbiome composition and metabolic output in order to increase beneficial short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in the gut. The K031 study is designed to evaluate the safety of KB109 and characterize its impact on the natural progression of COVID-19 in patients with mild to moderate disease. The K032 study is evaluating the effect ...


Differential Role Of Mlkl In Alcohol-Associated And Non-Alcohol-Associated Fatty Liver Diseases In Mice And Humans, Tatsunori Miyata, Bruce A. Barton, Laura E. Nagy 2021 Kumamoto University Hospital

Differential Role Of Mlkl In Alcohol-Associated And Non-Alcohol-Associated Fatty Liver Diseases In Mice And Humans, Tatsunori Miyata, Bruce A. Barton, Laura E. Nagy

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Hepatocellular death contributes to progression of alcohol-associated (ALD-associated) and non-alcohol-associated (NAFL/NASH) liver diseases. However, receptor-interaction protein kinase 3 (RIP3), an intermediate in necroptotic cell death, contributes to injury in murine models of ALD but not NAFL/NASH. We show here that a differential role for mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), the downstream effector of RIP3, in murine models of ALD versus NAFL/NASH and that RIP1-RIP3-MLKL can be used as biomarkers to distinguish alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH) from NASH. Phospho-MLKL was higher in livers of patients with NASH compared with AH or healthy controls (HCs). MLKL expression, phosphorylation, oligomerization, and ...


Mast Cell And Astrocyte Hemichannels And Their Role In Alzheimer's Disease, Als, And Harmful Stress Conditions, Paloma A. Harcha, Polett Garces, Cristian Arredondo, German Fernandez, Juan C. Saez, Brigitte van Zundert 2021 Institute of Neuroscience

Mast Cell And Astrocyte Hemichannels And Their Role In Alzheimer's Disease, Als, And Harmful Stress Conditions, Paloma A. Harcha, Polett Garces, Cristian Arredondo, German Fernandez, Juan C. Saez, Brigitte Van Zundert

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Considered relevant during allergy responses, numerous observations have also identified mast cells (MCs) as critical effectors during the progression and modulation of several neuroinflammatory conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). MC granules contain a plethora of constituents, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and mitogen factors. The release of these bioactive substances from MCs occurs through distinct pathways that are initiated by the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors/channels. Here, we focus on hemichannels (HCs) formed by connexins (Cxs) and pannexins (Panxs) proteins, and we described their contribution to MC degranulation in AD, ALS, and ...


Investigation Of A Monoclonal Antibody Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Expressed As Secretory Iga1 And Iga2 In Plants, Audrey Y-H. Teh, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yue Hu, Ozan S. Kumru, Jian Xiong, David T. Bolick, Sangeeta B. Joshi, Clemens Grunwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Mark S. Klempner, Richard L. Guerrant, David B. Volkin, Yang Wang, Julian K-C. Ma 2021 St. George's University of London

Investigation Of A Monoclonal Antibody Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli, Expressed As Secretory Iga1 And Iga2 In Plants, Audrey Y-H. Teh, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yue Hu, Ozan S. Kumru, Jian Xiong, David T. Bolick, Sangeeta B. Joshi, Clemens Grunwald-Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Mark S. Klempner, Richard L. Guerrant, David B. Volkin, Yang Wang, Julian K-C. Ma

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

Passive immunization with antibodies is a promising approach against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhea, a prevalent disease in LMICs. The objective of this study was to investigate expression of a monoclonal anti-ETEC CfaE secretory IgA antibody in N. benthamiana plants, with a view to facilitating access to ETEC passive immunotherapy. SIgA1 and SIgA2 forms of mAb 68-81 were produced by co-expressing the light and engineered heavy chains with J chain and secretory component in N. benthamiana. Antibody expression and assembly were compared with CHO-derived antibodies by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, size-exclusion chromatography and LC-MS peptide mapping. N-linked glycosylation was assessed by rapid ...


Effect Of Hyperprolactinemia On Male Fertility, Ghazi Tadmori, Najwa Fakhal, Marwan Halabi 2020 Jinan University

Effect Of Hyperprolactinemia On Male Fertility, Ghazi Tadmori, Najwa Fakhal, Marwan Halabi

Al Jinan الجنان

This study aims at the investigation of the effect of prolactinemia on male fertility. The study group included 30 males with infertility problems and accompanied with high prolactin hormone levels in the blood. Hormone and seminal fluid analyses were performed before and after treatments with Cabergoline (DostinexTM), and results were comparable to those observed in a control group consisting of 14 healthy males. Results have shown that the increase in prolactin levels led to flaws in sexual hormone concentrations and to a decrease in sperm count and mobility compared to the control group. For this purpose, two groups were tested ...


Contraceptive Methods In The United States: The Question Of Abortive Mechanisms, Tara Ferenczy 2020 Liberty University

Contraceptive Methods In The United States: The Question Of Abortive Mechanisms, Tara Ferenczy

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis reviews the many methods of contraception available in the United States. Although society’s understanding of women’s health has become a major topic, there is still a significant deficit of information regarding how the accessible methods affect women’s bodies, specifically reproductive tissue. The thesis analyzes numerous contraceptive options focusing specifically on the mechanisms of action to determine whether options have abortifacient properties so that readers may develop educated opinions regarding medical and ethical uses. Information involving strengths and limitations of each technique and the effects on both the female body and the reproductive material assist in ...


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