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To Examine The Effects Of Exercise & Instructional Based Interventions On Executive Functioning, Motor Learning & Emotional Intelligence Abilities Among Older Adults, Lavanya Rajesh Kumar 2021 Michigan Technological University

To Examine The Effects Of Exercise & Instructional Based Interventions On Executive Functioning, Motor Learning & Emotional Intelligence Abilities Among Older Adults, Lavanya Rajesh Kumar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Motor skills are a vital part of our life, and there might be situations where we will be required to either learn a new skill or relearn a known one. We examined the effectiveness of two different interventions - eccentric exercise and motivation-based instructions on enhancing the ability of older adults to learn a novel motor skill. Exercise intervention studies have shown that as little as 12 weeks of exercise can lead to improvements in both physical fitness and cognitive function in older adults, particularly executive control. But it is still unclear whether those improvements translate to improvements in other domains ...


Effect Of Short-Storage Hrgcs On Driver Decision Behavior And Safety Concerns: Real-World Analysis And Experimental Evidence, Anne Linja 2021 Michigan Technological University

Effect Of Short-Storage Hrgcs On Driver Decision Behavior And Safety Concerns: Real-World Analysis And Experimental Evidence, Anne Linja

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Vehicle-train collisions at highway-rail grade crossings (HRGCs) continue to be a safety concern, and despite improvements in warnings, many of these incidents are attributed to human error. In some cases, distractions other than railroad traffic, such as HRGCs with limited space between the railroad tracks and the highway intersection, may create additional cognitive burdens for drivers. We investigated the effect of HRGC type (short-storage vs. non-short storage) on driver attention and decision-making in two studies. In Study 1, we systematically analyzed 996 incidents from 2017-2019 from the Federal Railroad Administration’s Safety database. Driver decision making and outcomes were different ...


Spelling And Reading Novel Homophones: Testing The Value Of Lexical Distinctiveness, Jayde Homer 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Spelling And Reading Novel Homophones: Testing The Value Of Lexical Distinctiveness, Jayde Homer

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lexical distinctiveness, according to which a written form represents one and only one morpheme, is a feature of some writing systems. For example, ‹bear› and ‹bare› are spelled differently in English. In two experiments, we asked whether readers and spellers of English benefit from distinctive spellings of homophones. In Experiment 1, university students listened to 40 passages, each containing a novel homophone (e.g., /kel/ used to mean a gossip-lover). In Experiment 2, participants read the passages. Half of the novel homophones were homographic (e.g., ‹kale›), and half were heterographic (e.g., ‹kail›). In both experiments, participants answered questions ...


Integration Of Morphine And Virtual Reality: Pain Management For Adult Hospice Cancer Patients, Arlisa Hurd 2021 Walden University

Integration Of Morphine And Virtual Reality: Pain Management For Adult Hospice Cancer Patients, Arlisa Hurd

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is currently a problem in that cancer patients engaging in hospice may experience an excessive amount of perceived pain and a decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore an intervention that could lessen the perceived pain experienced by, and increase the quality of life of, cancer patients engaging in hospice. Immersion music virtual reality (IMVR) allows a user to interact with a realistic, computer-generated environment. 3D music (IMVR) is likely suited for pain management with patients in hospice and was used for this study. The theory for the study is the gate control theory ...


Holding On To Who They Are: Pathways For Variations In Response To Toxic Workplace Behavior Among U.S. Intelligence Officers, Greta Creech 2021 Antioch University - PhD Program in Leadership and Change

Holding On To Who They Are: Pathways For Variations In Response To Toxic Workplace Behavior Among U.S. Intelligence Officers, Greta Creech

Dissertations & Theses

The U.S. intelligence community is a critical mission industry responsible for protecting lives and safety in ways that impact the global security environment. Research on the deleterious impact of toxic workplace behavior on other critical mission fields, such as health care and the U.S. military, is robust. However, intelligence scholars publishing within the unclassified arena have been silent on the phenomenon, how personnel respond to it, and how it may impact the intelligence function. This lack of scholarship has afforded an opportunity to understand what constitutes toxic behavior in the intelligence environment and how it may affect U ...


Video Meetings In A Pandemic Era: Emotional Exhaustion, Stressors, And Coping, Betty J. Johnson 2021 Antioch University - PhD Program in Leadership and Change

Video Meetings In A Pandemic Era: Emotional Exhaustion, Stressors, And Coping, Betty J. Johnson

Dissertations & Theses

In the first quarter of 2020, societal upheavals related to the COVID-19 pandemic included employers’ work-from-home mandates and an almost overnight adoption of video meetings to replace in-person meetings no longer possible due to contagion fears and social distancing requirements. This exploratory study aimed to address, in part, the scientific knowledge gap about video meetings as a source of emotional labor. The study used mixed methods to explore three hypotheses concerning how the contemporary use of video meetings related to emotional exhaustion, stressors, and coping. Data were gathered through an online survey questionnaire. Emotional exhaustion, the dependent variable in the ...


Veracious Verdicts: An Expansion Of Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory In Jury Decision-Making Using Attribution Theory, Jade E. Larson 2021 South Dakota State University

Veracious Verdicts: An Expansion Of Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory In Jury Decision-Making Using Attribution Theory, Jade E. Larson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As a pillar in our judicial system, the courts utilize almost ten million citizens each year for jury service. As a result, the courts are faced with issues of inconsistency and unpredictability. This study aims to examine some factors that significantly influence jury decision-making by investigating cognitive experiential self-theory (CEST) as a jury decision-making model, unified with attribution theory to better predict verdict outcomes. An online survey was distributed to 121 participants. The respondents were asked to read a civil trial case presentation; they were then randomly divided into two conditions (high and low unrelated detail eyewitness testimony). The testimonies ...


Medical Knowledge As A Recalcitrant Epistemological System: An Application Of Standpoint Epistemology In The Analysis Of Marginalization Within U.S Healthcare, Abby DeShazo 2021 Claremont Colleges

Medical Knowledge As A Recalcitrant Epistemological System: An Application Of Standpoint Epistemology In The Analysis Of Marginalization Within U.S Healthcare, Abby Deshazo

CMC Senior Theses

Research on healthcare disparities outside the field of epistemology tend to miss the true origins of oppressions imposed on marginalized individuals by the U.S healthcare system. This happens because of the false belief that these oppressions are reducible to social or political oppressions. By employing the perspective of a standpoint epistemologist, we can better identify the origins of these oppressions and subsequently consider more appropriate solutions. The standpoint epistemologist’s perspective (1) provides an intuitive case for the role individuals’ schemas play in the evaluation of what healthcare professionals know; (2) situates medical knowledge within epistemology, leading us to ...


The Effectiveness Of Locomotion Interfaces Depends On Self-Motion Cues, Environmental Cues, And The Individual, Jonathan W. Kelly, Stephen B. Gilbert 2021 Iowa State University

The Effectiveness Of Locomotion Interfaces Depends On Self-Motion Cues, Environmental Cues, And The Individual, Jonathan W. Kelly, Stephen B. Gilbert

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

The proliferation of locomotion interfaces for virtual reality necessitates a framework for predicting and evaluating navigational success. Spatial updating—the process of mentally updating one’s self-location during locomotion—is a core component of navigation, is easy to measure, and is sensitive to common elements of locomotion interfaces. This paper highlights three factors that influence spatial updating: body-based self-motion cues, environmental cues, and characteristics of the individual. The concordance framework, which characterizes locomotion interfaces based on agreement between body movement and movement through the environment, serves as a useful starting point for understanding the effectiveness of locomotion interfaces for enabling ...


A Review Of The Effects Of Dietary Restriction, Dehydration, And Caffeine Withdrawal On Cognition: Implications For A Disabled Submarine Scenario, Sarah Chabal 2020 Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

A Review Of The Effects Of Dietary Restriction, Dehydration, And Caffeine Withdrawal On Cognition: Implications For A Disabled Submarine Scenario, Sarah Chabal

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

In the event that submariners become trapped aboard a disabled submarine (DISSUB), they must perform a multitude of cognitively demanding tasks in order to maximize their likelihood of survival. During this time, submariners will also be forced to endure poor living conditions, including drastic changes to their nutrition. These nutritional changes have the potential to impair submariners’ cognitive functioning and affect operational performance, which could jeopardize survival; however, the effects of DISSUB nutrition on cognitive performance are not well understood. This review first describes the unique nutritional conditions that submariners will experience in a DISSUB scenario, including the change to ...


The Effect That Testing Has On Nondeclarative Memory, David Smith 2020 University of Maine

The Effect That Testing Has On Nondeclarative Memory, David Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Testing has been shown to improve long-term memory retention by decreasing the amount of material forgotten, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. This positive impact of testing has been shown using direct tests of memory that require declarative memory, things like memorizing word-pairs and single-word lists. This dissertation is the first research to investigate how testing impacts nondeclarative memory using three experiments. The first and second experiment utilize the word fragment completion task to measure the effect that testing has on words learned via methodology thought to recruit either declarative or nondeclarative memory. The third experiment utilizes a probabilistic ...


Are Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca) Averse To Inequity?, Miranda R. Trapani 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Are Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca) Averse To Inequity?, Miranda R. Trapani

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Inequity aversion, a negative response to situations of unequal reward distribution, is a cognitive trait usually seen in social species. This capacity is thought to regulate cooperative relationships in intelligent, cognitively flexible animals. Giant pandas are a unique case in that wild populations are characterized as nonsocial, however captive populations are socially housed until sexual maturity. This allows for the study of a nonsocial species in a social context and thus the assessment of socio-cognitive flexibility across evolutionarily distant taxa. Here, we assessed whether the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) displays inequity aversion by testing ten juveniles living at the Chengdu ...


Examining The Association Between Trait Mindfulness And How Positively An Exercise Bout Is Remembered, Bree Geary 2020 Southern Methodist University

Examining The Association Between Trait Mindfulness And How Positively An Exercise Bout Is Remembered, Bree Geary

Psychology Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Remembered affect is associated with future exercise behavior. Research suggests that trait mindfulness is associated with better emotion regulation, more positive affective memory of negative stimuli, and less rumination. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relation between trait mindfulness and remembered affect of an exercise bout. Methods: Undergraduate students from Southern Methodist University (N=94) completed baseline measures of trait mindfulness and physical activity, a 15-minute vigorous-intensity exercise bout, and post-exercise measure (remembered affect at 15 minutes post exercise session, 1-2 days post, and 1-week post). Multilevel modeling was used to test the association with ...


Measuring Intelligence With The Sandia Matrices: Psychometric Review And Recommendations For Free Raven-Like Item Sets, Alexandra M. Harris, Jeremiah T. McMillan, Benjamin Listyg, Laura E. Matzen, Nathan Carter 2020 University of Georgia; Northwestern University

Measuring Intelligence With The Sandia Matrices: Psychometric Review And Recommendations For Free Raven-Like Item Sets, Alexandra M. Harris, Jeremiah T. Mcmillan, Benjamin Listyg, Laura E. Matzen, Nathan Carter

Personnel Assessment and Decisions

The Sandia Matrices are a free alternative to the Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPMs). This study offers a psychometric review of Sandia Matrices items focused on two of the most commonly investigated issues regarding the RPMs: (a) dimensionality and (b) sex differences. Model-data fit of three alternative factor structures are compared using confirmatory multidimensional item response theory (IRT) analyses, and measurement equivalence analyses are conducted to evaluate potential sex bias. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding factor structure, results do not show evidence of bias or mean differences by sex. Finally, although the Sandia Matrices software can generate infinite items ...


Person-Based Prominence In Ojibwe, Christopher Hammerly 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Person-Based Prominence In Ojibwe, Christopher Hammerly

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation develops a formal and psycholinguistic theory of person-based prominence effects, the finding that certain categories of person such as "first" and "second" (the "local" persons) are privileged by the grammar. The thesis takes on three questions: (i) What are the possible categories related to person? (ii) What are the possible prominence relationships between these categories? And (iii) how is prominence information used to parse and interpret linguistic input in real time?

The empirical through-line is understanding obviation — a “spotlighting” system, found most prominently in the Algonquian family of languages, that splits the (ani- mate) third persons into two ...


Uncovering The Neural And Behavioral Factors That Underlie Changes In Processing Visual Orientation, Patrick Sadil 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Uncovering The Neural And Behavioral Factors That Underlie Changes In Processing Visual Orientation, Patrick Sadil

Doctoral Dissertations

From moment to moment, the visual environment appears stable; despite prolonged scrutiny, the edge of a desk is not perceived to change. But this apparent stability emerges from perceptual and decisional systems that undergo continuous modulation. In two chapters, I focus on two different kinds of modulation to the processing of visual orientation (i.e., the tilt of an edge). In both chapters, the form of modulation is latent, obscured by standard analyses. To detect those latent changes in perceptual decisions, I develop in this dissertation new statistical tools, at both behavioral and neural levels.

In the first chapter, I ...


Language Abilities As A Function Of Lateralization Of Language-Specific Brain Networks, Jacey Anderson 2020 University of Connecticut

Language Abilities As A Function Of Lateralization Of Language-Specific Brain Networks, Jacey Anderson

Honors Scholar Theses

The strength of hemispheric lateralization appears to be a good predictor of language abilities in children with developmental language impairments. Studies of healthy adults, in contrast, have generally failed to identify any association between degree of lateralization and language abilities, perhaps due to limited sensitivity to individual differences in standardized language assessments. This study used fMRI to measure the lateralization of functional task-engaged language networks in 25 healthy right-handed adults. Linear regressions examined lateralization indices (LI) of language activation in inferior temporal, superior temporal, and frontal brain networks, as a function of syntactic complexity (via story retelling), a grammaticality judgment ...


Better News About Math: A Research Agenda, Jena Barchas-Lichtenstein, John Voiklis, Laura Santhanam, Nsikan Akpan, Shivani Ishwar, Elizabeth Attaway, Patti Parson, John Fraser 2020 Knology

Better News About Math: A Research Agenda, Jena Barchas-Lichtenstein, John Voiklis, Laura Santhanam, Nsikan Akpan, Shivani Ishwar, Elizabeth Attaway, Patti Parson, John Fraser

Numeracy

Numeracy is not a luxury: numbers constantly factor into our daily lives. Yet adults in the United States have lower numeracy than adults in most other developed nations. While formal statistical training is effective, few adults receive it – and schools are a major contributor to the inequity we see among U.S. adults. That leaves news well-poised as a source of informal learning, given that news is a domain where adults regularly encounter quantitative content. Our transdisciplinary team of journalists and social scientists propose a research agenda for thinking about math and the news. We engage here in a dialogue ...


Effects Of Alcohol Intoxication On Hostile Attribution Bias And Relational Aggression In Women, Alita M. Mobley 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Alcohol Intoxication On Hostile Attribution Bias And Relational Aggression In Women, Alita M. Mobley

Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol intoxication is consistently linked to physical and sexual aggression in men, but not women. The lack of evidence supporting the relationship between alcohol and aggression for women could be due to a failure to measure relational aggression (i.e., harmful social manipulation), the form of aggression more commonly employed by women. Further, alcohol intoxication may interfere with the interpretation of social cues, resulting in greater perceived provocation in ambiguous social interactions and increased aggression. The current study examined the relationship between alcohol intoxication and relational aggression in women and the extent to which interpretation of social cues (i.e ...


Are Individual Differences In Media Multitasking Habits Associated With Changes In Brain Activation: An Erp Investigation Of Multitasking And Cognitive Control, Morgan Middlebrooks 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Are Individual Differences In Media Multitasking Habits Associated With Changes In Brain Activation: An Erp Investigation Of Multitasking And Cognitive Control, Morgan Middlebrooks

Theses and Dissertations

As the number of mobile phone users grows, understanding the impact of multiple streams of media on media multitasking and related neural correlates is especially pertinent. This research aims to understand the association between media multitasking tendencies on the neural correlates underlying cognitive control using event-related potentials (ERPs). Specifically, we were interested in the N2 and P3, ERPs that measure neural activation underlying aspects of cognitive control. Based on the literature, we predicted that participants who have high media multitasking scores would show more negative N2 activation and more positive P3 activation than their low media multitasking counterparts during an ...


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