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Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm

Doctoral Dissertations

Mental fatigue causes an increase in task-based EEG theta and alpha power and a decrease in performance (for a review, see Tran et al., 2020). However, little is known about the emergence of mental fatigue in resting state EEG recordings and whether the progression of mental fatigue over time is influenced by individual differences. The current dissertation examined the utility of resting state EEG as a measure of mental fatigue by testing whether EEG power changed in young adults over the course of a cognitively demanding battery of tasks. The current dissertation also tested how this measure of mental fatigue ...


The Effects Of Predictability And Stimulus Quality On Lexical Processing: Evidence From The Coregistration Of Eye Movements And Eeg, Jon Burnsky 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Effects Of Predictability And Stimulus Quality On Lexical Processing: Evidence From The Coregistration Of Eye Movements And Eeg, Jon Burnsky

Masters Theses

A word’s predictability has been shown to influence its processing. Two methodologies have demonstrated this time and again: eye tracking while reading and Event Related Potentials (ERPs). In eye tracking while reading, words that are made predictable by their contexts (as operationalized by the cloze task; Taylor, 1953) receive shorter first fixation times (Staub, 2015, for a review) as well as shorter gaze duration and increased skipping rate. In ERPs, the N400 component’s amplitude has also been shown to inversely correlate with a word’s predictability (Kutas and Federmeier, 2011, for a review). Despite the similarities, there is ...


An Interdisciplinary Approach: Schizophrenia Derails Heteronormative Expectations In Psychological Narratives, Bobbie Jo Weaver 2021 SUNY College Cortland

An Interdisciplinary Approach: Schizophrenia Derails Heteronormative Expectations In Psychological Narratives, Bobbie Jo Weaver

Master's Theses

Required introductory psychology courses teach students a general and oversimplified version of the immense number of subfields within Psychology studies, much like introductory literature classes compress different genera throughout history into a miniscule number of “representative” texts. Nevertheless, these footholds generate an entryway into a whole new world of (specialized) exploration. Reading a text such as The Quiet Room: A Journey out of the Torment of Madness by Lori Schiller and Amanda Bennett provides a window for many students to crawl into one of Psychology’s darkest shadows, the field of abnormal psychology. Schiller’s non-fictional memoir, The Quiet Room ...


Learned But Not Distracting: Low-Value Stimuli And Value-Driven Attentional Capture, John Albanese 2021 Trinity College

Learned But Not Distracting: Low-Value Stimuli And Value-Driven Attentional Capture, John Albanese

Senior Theses and Projects

Stimuli previously associated with reward slow response times (RTs) when presented as irrelevant distractors in subsequent, unrewarded tasks (value driven attentional capture, VDAC). Typical VDAC training requires search for one of two experimentally-determined, colored circles and an orientation judgement of a line inside the color-defined target. Reward follows correct responses, associating high- or low-value with specific colors. Distractors rendered in high-value colors consistently slow RTs in an unrewarded test phase, an outcome that is rarely observed for low-value colors. Might this be due to a failure to adequately learn the reward contingencies during training? 22 observers underwent a modified training ...


Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Brain And On Learning And Cognition By Animals, Thomas R. Zentall 2021 University of Kentucky

Effect Of Environmental Enrichment On The Brain And On Learning And Cognition By Animals, Thomas R. Zentall

Psychology Faculty Publications

The humane treatment of animals suggests that they should be housed in an environment that is rich in stimulation and allows for varied activities. However, even if one’s main concern is an accurate assessment of their learning and cognitive abilities, housing them in an enriched environment can have an important effect on the assessment of those abilities. Research has found that the development of the brain of animals is significantly affected by the environment in which they live. Not surprisingly, their ability to learn both simple and complex tasks is affected by even modest time spent in an enriched ...


Subsistence Marketplaces: Journal, Knowledge-Practice Portal, And Organization, Madhu Viswanathan 2021 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

Subsistence Marketplaces: Journal, Knowledge-Practice Portal, And Organization, Madhu Viswanathan

Subsistence Marketplaces

Subsistence Marketplaces: Journal, Knowledge-Practice Portal and Organization


Put Yourself In Their Shoes: Empathy And Thinking Patterns, Tyler Robinson 2021 Murray State University

Put Yourself In Their Shoes: Empathy And Thinking Patterns, Tyler Robinson

Scholars Week

Fewer social maxims are repeated more than to “put yourself in someone else’s shoes.” This sentiment encourages empathy by prompting one to change their entrenched thinking patterns. Empathy can be thought of as an active attempt to understand another’s perspective or the visceral sensation of identifying with another's emotions (i.e., cognitive or affective empathy; Davis, 1983). Recently, research has identified a relationship between empathy and self-serving cognitive distortions (Grieve & Panebianco, 2013). Cognitive distortions refer to predictable and inaccurate patterns of thinking. Self-serving cognitive distortions are a form of distorted thinking patterns that are steeped in self-centered attitudes, thoughts, and beliefs (Barriga & Gibbs, 1996). Research has also suggested that there is a significant relationship between empathy and sociopolitical ideology (i.e., either socially progressive or conservative; Marsden & Barnett, 2019). The primary goal of this study is to expand upon previous literature and investigate the relationships between all three variables. Participants will complete three questionnaires via an online survey. Those questionnaires include the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1983) and the How I Think Questionnaire (HIT-Q) to measure empathy and thinking patterns, respectively, and demographic questions including political identification. Correlations between the different ...


Predictors Of Cognitive Failure In Everyday Life Among American Adults, Jared A. Holman 2021 Andrews University

Predictors Of Cognitive Failure In Everyday Life Among American Adults, Jared A. Holman

Honors Scholars & Undergraduate Research Poster Symposium Programs

Cognitive failures are a sometimes costly everyday experience—problematic use of mobile devices is related to higher cognitive failure in students. Is there a strong relationship between problematic mobile device use and cognitive failure in adults? If so, does that relationship remain when controlling for psychological well-being? In two samples of American adults, psychological well-being and distress accounted for over 70% of variance in everyday cognitive failures, as did problematic mobile device use. However, when controlling for psychological well-being, problematic mobile device use accounted for an additional 2% of variance. Well-being and device use overlap in relationship to cognitive failures.


“I Don’T See It That Way Anymore”: A Qualitative Study Of Significant Changes Of Mind, Austin C. Archer 2021 Walla Walla University

“I Don’T See It That Way Anymore”: A Qualitative Study Of Significant Changes Of Mind, Austin C. Archer

The Qualitative Report

The specific aim of the study is to explore the cognitive and emotional phenomena which accompany profound changes of perspective that people have. I would like to understand the change in a person’s thinking and in what way the person experiences these changes, whether it is a change in belief or a worldview. I would also like to understand whether external factors such as that facilitate these profound changes. Using a phenomenological approach, I interviewed eight adult participants in depth regarding changes to their worldview. I examined three phases of change, namely pre-change phase, the change phase, and the ...


The Journey Back To Wholeness That Already Is, Jenna Dishy Wes 2021 California Institute of Integral Studies

The Journey Back To Wholeness That Already Is, Jenna Dishy Wes

Journal of Conscious Evolution

If we are born into this world with in an already heightened state of consciousness, at what point in human development do we begin to disconnect? Is the human experience innately traumatic? Through the exploration of Piaget’s stages of development, and in coherence with the concept of transgenerational trauma, I explore moments and modes of intervention, with the intention of building on what is already whole instead of waiting until it is broken. Rather than spending another generation spending our lives trying to heal, reaching for enlightenment and soul connection, what if our end point was actually our beginning ...


Mystical Experience And The Evolution Of Consciousness: A Twenty-First Century Gnosis, Gary Lachman 2021 California Institute of Integral Studies

Mystical Experience And The Evolution Of Consciousness: A Twenty-First Century Gnosis, Gary Lachman

Journal of Conscious Evolution

This article addresses three ideas: mystical experience, the evolution of consciousness, and gnosis. There are different interpretations of these ideas, so I begin by saying how I intend to understand them. Mystical experience I see as a wider, broader, deeper perception of things and their relations than our usual limited view allows. It provides an ‘unitive’ and ‘participatory’ form of consciousness, in which the usual ‘subject/object’ divide has dissolved. The evolution of consciousness is the notion that our present consciousness is not consciousness per se, but has been arrived at over time. This suggests that there have been other ...


Decomorose: The Somatic Flowering Of The Living Quality, Shaun J. Martin 2021 California Institute of Integral Studies

Decomorose: The Somatic Flowering Of The Living Quality, Shaun J. Martin

Journal of Conscious Evolution

This essay is an exploration of the human maturation process from a transpersonal point of view. The main premise of the essay is the notion that our maturation on the level of consciousness (the living quality) is not synonymous with our bodily maturation or the ongoing construction of our social personality (the identity project). It suggests that transpersonality is a fundamental component in human development, but has been overlooked and left out in most areas of modern culture. The recent rise of mental illnesses and the overall frustration or discontent within our society is a direct result of infrastructures that ...


Lawrence Leshan’S Clairvoyant Reality As William James’ Revelation Of Veridical Reality, Jonathan Bricklin 2021 New York Open Center

Lawrence Leshan’S Clairvoyant Reality As William James’ Revelation Of Veridical Reality, Jonathan Bricklin

Journal of Conscious Evolution

The “Clairvoyant Reality” of pioneering psychologist Lawrence LeShan and medium Eileen Garrett, reprinted here in honor of LeShan’s recent passing at age 100, may well be the understanding of “veridical reality” that James proclaimed would not be found “in this generation or the next”.


Neurocognitive Interactions Between Anticipatory Anxiety And Memory Encoding, Felicia M. Chaisson 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Neurocognitive Interactions Between Anticipatory Anxiety And Memory Encoding, Felicia M. Chaisson

LSU Master's Theses

Although acute anxiety has been shown to improve encoding of threat-relevant information, its effects on threat-neutral information are less understood. Recent research suggests that anxiety can impair subsequent recall for neutral words, particularly following practice with the recall task. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the notion that anxiety specifically disrupts the implementation of encoding strategies—such as elaborative encoding—that tend to develop with practice. ERPs were recorded as participants studied two sets of neutral words, one of which was presented in a stressful context using the threat-of-shock paradigm (threat block), and the other in a non-threatening ...


Strategies For Change: Behavior Change Using Self Talk, Kaitlyn Chamberlain 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Strategies For Change: Behavior Change Using Self Talk, Kaitlyn Chamberlain

Diet, Food, Exercise, and Nutrition (D-FEND)

Speaker shares how self-talk can help improve our ability to meet our goals.


Attention In Social Anxiety Disorder And Depression: Insights From Evoked Brain Responses, Matt Judah 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Attention In Social Anxiety Disorder And Depression: Insights From Evoked Brain Responses, Matt Judah

Publications and Presentations

Social anxiety disorder and depression are thought to involve biased attention. For example, social anxiety may be associated with paying more attention to negative facial expressions. Depression may be associated with less attention to reward. Such biases in attention are thought to maintain symptoms, such as negative thoughts and avoidance. The presentation will describe the history of research examining biased attention in social anxiety disorder and depression. The speaker will present research using evoked brain responses as a window to understanding biased attention. Implications for social anxiety disorder and depression, as well as treatment, will be discussed.


Analysis Of Communication, Team Situational Awareness, And Feedback In A Three-Person Intelligent Team Tutoring System, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Alec G. Ostrander, Jamiahus Walton, Adam Kohl, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot Winer, Anne M. Sinatra 2021 Iowa State University

Analysis Of Communication, Team Situational Awareness, And Feedback In A Three-Person Intelligent Team Tutoring System, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Alec G. Ostrander, Jamiahus Walton, Adam Kohl, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot Winer, Anne M. Sinatra

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

This research assessed how the performance and team skills of three-person teams working with an Intelligent Team Tutoring System (ITTS) on a virtual military surveillance task were affected by feedback privacy, participant role, task experience, prior team experience, and teammate familiarity. Previous work in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) has focused on outcomes for task skill training for individual learners. As research extends into intelligent tutoring for teams, both task skills and team skills are necessary for good team performance. This work includes a brief review of previous research on ITTSs, feedback, teams, and teamwork, including the recounting of two categories ...


Victims As Stakeholders: Insights From The Intersection Of Psychosocial, Ethical, And Crisis Communication Paths, Wouter Jong, Kjell Brataas 2021 Leiden University, The Netherlands

Victims As Stakeholders: Insights From The Intersection Of Psychosocial, Ethical, And Crisis Communication Paths, Wouter Jong, Kjell Brataas

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

This article examines the position of victims and those affected within communication theory. Current research has broadly been skewed toward reputation management and protecting brand value as primary goals of crisis communication efforts. As crises affect real people, crisis communication theory needs to be adapted to include their needs. To assure their needs are met, an integration of business ethics and psychosocial mechanisms in the field of crisis communication is proposed. This integration prevents crisis communication output from becoming an additional source of stress to the affected in the aftermath of crises. We offer recommendations for crisis communication scholarship to ...


Individual Differences In Executive Functioning And Psycho-Emotional Well-Being And The Impact Of Acute Exercise On Children And Youth With Adhd, Madeline Crichton 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Individual Differences In Executive Functioning And Psycho-Emotional Well-Being And The Impact Of Acute Exercise On Children And Youth With Adhd, Madeline Crichton

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Short bouts of exercise can improve inhibitory control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, individual differences among children with ADHD may impact the effectiveness of exercise interventions. We investigated how individual differences in inhibitory control, mood, and self-efficacy impact the efficacy of acute exercise among children with ADHD. Sixteen participants (ages 10-14) completed two interventions: 10 minutes of exercise and 10 minutes of silent reading (control). Inhibitory control was assessed prior to the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and after a 10-minute delay. Results suggested that participants with lower initial inhibitory control benefited more from exercise than ...


Is Motor Excitability Modulated By Isochronous Rhythms?, Syed Z. Raza 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Is Motor Excitability Modulated By Isochronous Rhythms?, Syed Z. Raza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Humans perceive and synchronize to regularity in auditory temporal sequences. Auditory regularity activates motor areas, but how the timing of motor responses relates to the regularity is unclear. Thus, we examined whether motor excitability, an index of motor activity, fluctuated to an isochronous sequence and characterized the timing of these fluctuations. Participants heard isochronous tones followed by a short silence, during which they imagined the tones continuing. Using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we indexed excitability throughout the sequence. Cosine models were fit to constructed excitability timecourses to quantify periodicity of the excitability fluctuations. Motor excitability did not fluctuate ...


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