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Phenomenological Study On The Lived Experience Of Black Women In Positions Of Leadership In California State Government, Tonia Burgess 2021 Brandman University

Phenomenological Study On The Lived Experience Of Black Women In Positions Of Leadership In California State Government, Tonia Burgess

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of Black women in their roles as leaders in the California state government with respect to support received and barriers encountered.

Methodology: The phenomenological qualitative study involved exploring the lived experiences of 12 Black women in positions of leadership in northern California state government with regard to the supports they received and the barriers they encountered during their careers in California state government. Patton (2015) asserted that phenomenology's philosophical interpretation occurs when individuals only know what they experience. Additionally, "to fully understand the phenomenon, it must ...


Anger, Internet Memes And Belief, Rick Stevens 2021 University of Louisiana Monroe

Anger, Internet Memes And Belief, Rick Stevens

Contemporary Southern Psychology

The relationship of anger, the tendency to believe in conspiracies, and the tendency to believe a short statement accompanied by a related image was investigated. The Generic Conspiracist Belief (GCB) scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS) were presented to 154 participants, including 125 females and 28 males, before the presentation of 12 statements of fact which were each accompanied by images related to the statements. The belief in conspiracy scores and the trait anger scores significantly predicted the tendency to believe the statements accompanied by images, explaining 55% of the variance (R2=.553, F(2,151)=95 ...


Effects Of Television Content On Children’S Development Of Traditional Gender Role Schemata: A Literature Review, Molly Shilo 2021 Fordham University

Effects Of Television Content On Children’S Development Of Traditional Gender Role Schemata: A Literature Review, Molly Shilo

Proceedings of the New York State Communication Association

Despite the progress television has made since its creation, the medium unfortunately still portrays subtle, and not so subtle, gender stereotypes, especially in children’s television shows. Content analyses have documented the pervasive stereotypes set forth on TV that not only portray strict behaviors for both males and females, but that also often depict the female behaviors and characters as inferior (Calvert, 1999). In a wave of advocacy and regulation, parents, teachers, and children have demanded shows that better promote inclusivity and appropriate, family-friendly values. The Children’s Television Act of 1990 required broadcasters to provide educational children’s programming ...


Effects Of Mindfulness Meditation On Selective, Sustained Attention, Brain Neural Oscillations, And Short-Term Memory, Anamaria Guzman 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Mindfulness Meditation On Selective, Sustained Attention, Brain Neural Oscillations, And Short-Term Memory, Anamaria Guzman

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The following extended literature review and research proposal study started initially as a complete research proposal but, due to the challenges COVID-19 has brought, it has become a stand-alone piece of work without data collection. The goal is to synthesize a broad range of literature and previous research on mindfulness meditation and its effects on attention, memory, and brain activity and thus, offering a new perspective and a proposed research path on this subject. This proposed research study, besides previous studies, indicates that mindfulness meditation is expected to improve and enhance selective and sustained attention, which results in better attentional ...


Examining The Repeatable Battery For The Assessment Of Neuropsychological Status Validity Indices In People With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Rune Raudeberg, Justin E. Karr, Grant L. Iverson, Åsa Hammar 2021 University of Bergen, Norway

Examining The Repeatable Battery For The Assessment Of Neuropsychological Status Validity Indices In People With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Rune Raudeberg, Justin E. Karr, Grant L. Iverson, Åsa Hammar

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: We examined the frequency of possible invalid test scores on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and whether there was an association between scores on the embedded RBANS performance validity tests (PVTs) and self-reported symptoms of apathy as measured by the Initiate Scale of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). Methods: Participants included 250 patients (M = 24.4 years-old, SD = 5.7) with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Base rates of RBANS Effort Index (EI), Effort Scale (ES), and Performance Validity Index (PVI) test scores were computed. Spearman ...


The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan 2021 Chapin High School

The Effect Of The Difference In The Perception Of Temperature Between Sexes On The Academic Performance Of Chapin High School Students, Tiffany V. Phan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Mental performance and mental functions may be negatively affected by decreases in thermal comfort as a result of large differences in temperature. Additionally, females are seen to be less content with room temperatures and actually prefer rooms with higher temperatures in comparison to males. This investigation explored the potential effect that sex plays in thermal perception and the impact it may yield on academic performance within a high school population. It was hypothesized that female students would experience an increase in academic performance as the temperature increased while males would experience the opposite effect. A quasi-experimental approach was used to ...


Review Of Innumeracy In The Wild: Misunderstanding And Misusing Numbers By Ellen Peters, Gizem Karaali 2021 Pomona College

Review Of Innumeracy In The Wild: Misunderstanding And Misusing Numbers By Ellen Peters, Gizem Karaali

Numeracy

Ellen Peters’s new book Innumeracy in the Wild: Misunderstanding and Misusing Numbers (Oxford University Press, 2020) is a whirlwind tour of psychological research on numeracy and its interactions with decision-making. The book is packed full of convincing arguments about the impact of numeracy and innumeracy on people's decisions and life outcomes, piles of supporting evidence and relevant references, and detailed expositions of multitudes of research results. Thus, it can serve the motivated reader well as a comprehensive literature review of psychologically oriented research on numeracy and decision-making.


Exploring The Mechanisms That Underlie The Benefits Of Retrieval Practice In Younger And Older Adults, Ruth A. Shaffer 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Exploring The Mechanisms That Underlie The Benefits Of Retrieval Practice In Younger And Older Adults, Ruth A. Shaffer

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The testing effect—or the benefit of retrieval practice to later memory—is often considered to be a recollection-related phenomenon. However, recent work (Shaffer & McDermott, 2020) has observed a benefit of testing to both recollection and familiarity processing on both immediate and delayed final tests. Further, although aging populations show marked declines in recollection, older and younger adults often benefit from testing to a similar degree (Meyer & Logan, 2013). This finding suggests that the testing effect in older adults may function via relatively preserved familiarity and lends further support to the notion that the testing effect does not function solely ...


A Conceptual Replication To Investigate The Hostile Priming Effect, Charlotte Basch 2021 CUNY Hunter College

A Conceptual Replication To Investigate The Hostile Priming Effect, Charlotte Basch

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The current study attempts a conceptual replication of Srull and Wyer’s 1979 study on hostile priming as part of a large-scale replication. The current study did not find that participants who were exposed to the hostile phrases rated the individual as more hostile as the original study did.


Impaired Suppression Of Attentional Capture Near The Hands, Xiaojin Ma 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Impaired Suppression Of Attentional Capture Near The Hands, Xiaojin Ma

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Attention tends to be attracted to eye-catching stimuli, which, however, are not always helpful to look at, depending on the particular task. Recent findings demonstrated that attention to a salient but task-irrelevant distractor could be actively suppressed via a top-down process. In other research, increased scrutiny in visual inspection has been found in the near hand space, making it interesting to question, at the intersection of the two lines of research, whether the ability to ignore salient distraction would be compromised near the hands. Two experiments were conducted to test this idea. Experiment 1 compared the attentional allocation to a ...


Temperamental Constellations And School Readiness: A Multivariate Approach, Andrew S. White, Kate M. Sirota, Scott R. Frohn, Sarah E. Swenson, Kathleen Moritz Rudasill 2021 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Temperamental Constellations And School Readiness: A Multivariate Approach, Andrew S. White, Kate M. Sirota, Scott R. Frohn, Sarah E. Swenson, Kathleen Moritz Rudasill

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

This study uses canonical correlation analyses to explore the relationship between mul- tiple predictors of school readiness (i.e., academic readiness, social readiness, and teacher-child relationship) and multiple temperamental traits using data from the second wave (age 54 months, n = 1226) of the longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; NICHD ECCRN 1993). This longitudinal study collected data on a large cohort of children and their families from birth through age 15. For academic readiness, only one temperamental constellation emerged, representing the construct of effortful control (i.e., high attentional focusing, high inhibitory con- trol). For peer ...


Diversifying Participation: The Rarity Of Reporting Racial Demographics In Neuroimaging Research, Madeline Goldfarb 2021 Claremont Colleges

Diversifying Participation: The Rarity Of Reporting Racial Demographics In Neuroimaging Research, Madeline Goldfarb

Pitzer Senior Theses

Background: Functional neuroimaging techniques have been instrumental to progress in the cognitive and behavioral sciences; however, their increasing prevalence has evoked conversations concerning limitations associated with reproducibility and bias (Gilmore et al., 2017). While the literature has explored several mechanisms driving issues of replicability, few discussions have considered the effects of confounding social and environmental variables such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race (Sauce & Matzel, 2013). The prevailing racial, cultural, and socioeconomic bias in scientific research and the methodological limitations of EEG perpetuate racial and ethnic homogeneity in participation, eliciting qualms regarding the generalizability of findings (Henrich et al ...


Music And Its Effects On The Brain, Caitlyn Herron 2021 The University of Akron

Music And Its Effects On The Brain, Caitlyn Herron

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper will discuss, in short, how music influences our brain, as well as some behavioral and physiological effects as a result. The brain consists of many regions responsible for different cognitive processes, such as learning, memory, recall, speech, and our emotions. It has been found that music helps to facilitate all of these cognitive processes, regardless of its emotional valence or whether the music is active or passive, such as singing or listening to it, respectively. It was discovered that music influences our ability to learn novel concepts related to mathematics, reading, and even language acquisition. It was also ...


Effect Of Task-Irrelevant Emotional Faces On Attention To A Letter Search Task At High And Low Perceptual Loads, Nina Plotnikov 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Effect Of Task-Irrelevant Emotional Faces On Attention To A Letter Search Task At High And Low Perceptual Loads, Nina Plotnikov

Theses and Dissertations

The attentional processing of emotional faces has interested researchers over the past thirty years. However, differing methodology has led to inconsistent findings. It has been suggested that using emotional faces as task-irrelevant distractors and varying perceptual load of the primary task can create an experimental framework that will allow attentional capture by emotional face processing to be better identified and differentiated from other processes. Furthermore, the effects of time on-task on attentional processing of emotional faces are currently not well understood, in part because traditional statistical analyses, such as the ANOVA, are insufficient for finding longitudinal trends in the data ...


Third Culture Kids - Playing To Heal, Amna Sana 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Third Culture Kids - Playing To Heal, Amna Sana

Theses and Dissertations

With increased globalization and a large expat population, Qatar is home to increasing numbers of Third Culture Kids (TCKs). TCKs are children who live in a country where their parents are non-native, children who grow up between cultures. Young TCKs, especially children between the ages of three and seven, do not possess the skills to adequately vocalize their feelings, but fortunately, play therapy allows them to articulate problems and feelings on their own terms. This thesis addresses the emotional hurdles facing TCKs, using concepts derived from play therapy and offering a series of interactive objects designed to reflect emotional expression ...


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


Risk Factors For Bullying Victimization In Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (Nf1), Peter L. Stavinoha, Cody Solesbee, Susan M. Swearer Napolitano, Steven Svoboda, Laura J. Kless, Alice Ann Holland 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Risk Factors For Bullying Victimization In Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (Nf1), Peter L. Stavinoha, Cody Solesbee, Susan M. Swearer Napolitano, Steven Svoboda, Laura J. Kless, Alice Ann Holland

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal disorder associated with numerous physical stigmata. Children with NF1 are at known risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), academic struggles, and significant social difficulties and adverse social outcomes, including bullying victimization. The primary aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with bullying victimization in children with NF1 to better inform clinicians regarding targets for prevention and clinical intervention. Children and a parent completed questionnaires assessing the bully victim status, and parents completed a measure of ADHD symptoms. Analyses were completed separately for parent-reported victimization of the child and the child ...


(Non)Religious Coping With A Natural Disaster In A Rural U.S. Community, Dena Abbott, Andrew Franks, Corey Cook, Caitlin Mercier 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

(Non)Religious Coping With A Natural Disaster In A Rural U.S. Community, Dena Abbott, Andrew Franks, Corey Cook, Caitlin Mercier

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Religious/spiritual (R/S) coping following natural disasters is associated with positive outcomes, leading to perceptions that the absence of R/S coping leads to negative outcomes among nonreligious individuals. However, little research explicitly explores the coping strategies of nonreligious individuals in response to natural disasters and traumatic events. The present study collected data from a sample of survivors of a natural disaster event (i.e., a tornado) to test the relationship between (non)religiosity/(non)spirituality, coping, psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth. Statistical models suggested that problem-focused coping facilitated posttraumatic growth and lower levels of psychological distress among people ...


Unlearning Myths One Question At A Time, Jessica K. Kolman 2021 Georgia Southern University

Unlearning Myths One Question At A Time, Jessica K. Kolman

Honors College Theses

People may believe in myths such as “you only use 10% of your brain” that are related to psychology. Additionally, belief in these myths may prevail despite education, or in some cases, because of education. Indeed, some research suggests students acquired false memories by remembering the wrong answers instead of the correct information (Nitschke et al., 2019). However, research on how leading questions affects memory can provide insight to this problem. Specifically, research shows that subjects who are presented with leading questions or content are more likely to recall an event consistent with that question (Miller & Loftus, 1976). Such research may provide a mechanism for how to encourage students to remember correct information as opposed to myths. Specifically, the structure of test questions as leading questions for students to retain correct information could be formatted to maximize memory for the misconceptions in most popular psychology myths. Thus, the present study aims to test the extent that leading questions affects memory for myths and facts. Based on previous research, it is predicted that certain leading questions can improve memory and correct for myths. The results did not support this hypothesis; however, this could be ...


Spelling And Reading Novel Homophones: Testing The Value Of Lexical Distinctiveness, Jayde Homer 2021 Washington University in St. Louis

Spelling And Reading Novel Homophones: Testing The Value Of Lexical Distinctiveness, Jayde Homer

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lexical distinctiveness, according to which a written form represents one and only one morpheme, is a feature of some writing systems. For example, ‹bear› and ‹bare› are spelled differently in English. In two experiments, we asked whether readers and spellers of English benefit from distinctive spellings of homophones. In Experiment 1, university students listened to 40 passages, each containing a novel homophone (e.g., /kel/ used to mean a gossip-lover). In Experiment 2, participants read the passages. Half of the novel homophones were homographic (e.g., ‹kale›), and half were heterographic (e.g., ‹kail›). In both experiments, participants answered questions ...


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