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Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose 2020 Lesley University

Mental Associations And Music Therapy: Including The History Of Associationism And The Neurology Of Associations, Dianna Rose

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Associations are formed in our minds based upon three elements: sensory experience, emotions, and memories. These associations, unique to each individual, dictate thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, and actions. Some are necessary and supportive, while others can be maladaptive. Established associations can be changed, and new associations can be formed, to align with a client’s goals. The literature presents a strong history of associationism, as well as a body of research that demonstrates the neurological processes of how mental associations are formed. There are also studies showing how music activates the brain. However, there is a lack of research which draws ...


The Effect Of Melody And Rhythm In Music-Based Therapy For Nonfluent Aphasics: A Literature Review, M. Abraham Kimball 2020 Lesley University

The Effect Of Melody And Rhythm In Music-Based Therapy For Nonfluent Aphasics: A Literature Review, M. Abraham Kimball

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The aim of this review is to examine studies which explored whether melody or rhythm played a more integral role in the facilitation of music-based speech and language rehabilitation for the population of individuals with nonfluent aphasia. This paper is intended to serve as a succinct synthesis of the myriad articles covering the efficacy of the treatment program called Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) and the impact of its primary musical mechanisms. Secondarily, it may assist in a deeper examination into speech and language-based music cognition and neurologic music therapy research. The speech and language disorder of aphasia; the relationships between ...


Rhythm And Safety Of Social Engagement: Polyvagal Theory Informed Dance/Movement Therapy, Suzanne Weare 2020 Lesley University

Rhythm And Safety Of Social Engagement: Polyvagal Theory Informed Dance/Movement Therapy, Suzanne Weare

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The polyvagal theory has exerted great influence on the field of clinical therapy since the 1990s by proposing an understanding of the psychological expression seen in clients as a reflection of their physiological state of safety or threat of danger. When affect and psychological states are viewed through the lens of the autonomic nervous system directed by neuroception through bidirectional vagal nerve information, therapeutic presence and somatic therapy practices, such as those utilized in the field of dance/movement therapy, become more conceivable as best practices to treat a variety of psychological conditions to include trauma recovery, autism spectrum disorders ...


Presence And Degree Of Contrafreeloading In African Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Gabriella E. Smith 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Presence And Degree Of Contrafreeloading In African Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus), Gabriella E. Smith

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study examined contrafreeloading—choosing a physical task to access food over free food—in two Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Both birds contrafreeloaded for food of equal or higher value, but differed in which contrafreeloading task they preferred. Differences between the parrots are considered as individual preferences for self-reinforcing tasks.


Veridical And False Memory Performance As A Function Of The Timing Of High-Intensity Acute Exercise, Claire Sanderson 2020 University of Mississippi

Veridical And False Memory Performance As A Function Of The Timing Of High-Intensity Acute Exercise, Claire Sanderson

Honors Theses

Background: Our recent experimental work demonstrated that high-intensity acute exercise improved veridical (true) memories and also increased the rate of false memories. The present experiment was designed to re-evaluate these effects for replication purposes. We also extend this literature by evaluating whether these effects are influenced by the timing of acute exercise. Methods: The sample included young adults (N=37; Mage = 21.16 years). We employed a three-condition, within-group, counterbalanced controlled design, consisting of two exercise conditions and a control condition. The exercise conditions involved a 15-minute bout of high-intensity acute exercise. These conditions included the bout of exercise ...


The Effect Of Story Processing On Memory Performance, Anna Miller 2020 University of Mississippi

The Effect Of Story Processing On Memory Performance, Anna Miller

Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to determine how recall performance following story processing compared to both survival processing and pleasantness processing. Participants were provided with a set of instructions depending on the condition they were in, narrative, survival, or pleasantness. Following this, participants rated the words one at a time, completed a brief distractor task, and then attempted to remember as many items as they could. The primary results demonstrated that narrative processing may provide a recall advantage similar to survival processing. These results suggest that similar underlying mechanisms may enhance recall in both sets of instructional conditions.


An Exploration Of Student Athletes Perception On The Athletic Trainer/Coach Relationship, Nikki Owens 2020 James Madison University

An Exploration Of Student Athletes Perception On The Athletic Trainer/Coach Relationship, Nikki Owens

Masters Theses, 2020-current

The goal of this study was to explore how the athletic trainer and coach relationship impacts the social support provided to Division I intercollegiate student—athletes. Through a qualitative-case study design, eleven participants were recruited and interviewed for the study. Criterion for inclusion included all NCAA sports at the university. This included males and females in various years of school and sport. After the completion of data analysis, four main themes were developed. These themes included social support, positive impact, negative impact, and unforeseen findings. Seven of the eleven student—athletes reported feeling that there was a direct relationship between ...


Peer Acceptance In The Lunchroom And Children’S Internalizing Symptoms, Jake Steggerda 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Peer Acceptance In The Lunchroom And Children’S Internalizing Symptoms, Jake Steggerda

Theses and Dissertations

There is evidence to suggest that the context of the school lunchrooms provides children with rich opportunities for enhancing or hampering the quality of their relationships (Craig, Gregus, Elledge, Pastrana, & Cavell, 2016; Steggerda et al., in preparation). Although past research has linked children’s peer acceptance to their level of internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined peer acceptance within the lunchroom context. This study extends that work by examining associations between lunchroom peer acceptance (assessed via self- and peer-reports) and children’s internalizing symptoms. Participants were 676 fourth-grade students (50.7% female; 42.7% Hispanic/Latino, 30.3% White, 10% Pacific Islander ...


An Experimental Test Of The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Approach Behavior, Rebecca L. Campbell 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Experimental Test Of The Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Approach Behavior, Rebecca L. Campbell

Theses and Dissertations

Emotion regulation and sleep have been identified as mechanisms that may be involved in the development and maintenance of many mental health disorders. However, there has been little research into the relation between sleep and emotion regulation. To address this gap in knowledge, a novel study was conducted. We hypothesized that sleep deprived individuals would demonstrate less approach behavior toward a negatively valenced stimulus, as well as increased self-reported avoidance, compared to a control group. To test this, a randomized controlled experiment using a behavioral measure of approach and a self-report measure of avoidance was conducted. Fifty-two healthy individuals ages ...


Disentanglement In A Contested Setting: Testing The Effects Of Cultural Reminders On Kahan Et Al.'S Geoengineering Result, Michael Giovanniello 2020 William & Mary

Disentanglement In A Contested Setting: Testing The Effects Of Cultural Reminders On Kahan Et Al.'S Geoengineering Result, Michael Giovanniello

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The cultural cognition thesis argues that individuals have two channels for processing information: culture and knowledge. The reason that American climate change belief remains polarized along political and cultural lines is that the issue has accrued cultural significance blocking some groups from accepting scientific consensus. Kahan says the solution is to ‘disentangle’ the two, so that individuals may asses climate change information without cultural interference. In their 2015 paper Geoengineering and Climate Change Polarization: Testing a Two-Channel Model of Science Communication, Kahan et al. showed that exposing conservative individuals to information on geoengineering increased their concern about climate change. This ...


Synesthesia And Its Cognitive Correlates, Bailey Hall 2020 William & Mary

Synesthesia And Its Cognitive Correlates, Bailey Hall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Synesthesia is a neurological condition involving the pairing of senses. For synesthetes, a stimulus invokes a sensory perception; for instance, the letter “B” may be pink or the name “Susan” may taste like apples. Scientists hypothesize that this condition is caused by neurological differences; synesthetes may have more cross-activation between brain areas, either neuroanatomically, through cross-wiring, or perceptually, through disinhibited feedback from higher to lower multimodal areas, or vice versa. These differences have implications for synesthetic learning, memory, attention and inhibition. In the present experiment Multimodal Perception, participants completed a survey investigating their synesthetic experiences, in addition to five tasks ...


Teleporting Through Virtual Environments: Effects Of Path Scale And Environment Scale On Spatial Updating, Jonathan W. Kelly, Alec G. Ostrander, Alex F. Lim, Lucia A. Cherep, Stephen B. Gilbert 2020 Iowa State University

Teleporting Through Virtual Environments: Effects Of Path Scale And Environment Scale On Spatial Updating, Jonathan W. Kelly, Alec G. Ostrander, Alex F. Lim, Lucia A. Cherep, Stephen B. Gilbert

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Virtual reality systems typically allow users to physically walk and turn, but virtual environments (VEs) often exceed the available walking space. Teleporting has become a common user interface, whereby the user aims a laser pointer to indicate the desired location, and sometimes orientation, in the VE before being transported without self-motion cues. This study evaluated the influence of rotational self-motion cues on spatial updating performance when teleporting, and whether the importance of rotational cues varies across movement scale and environment scale. Participants performed a triangle completion task by teleporting along two outbound path legs before pointing to the unmarked path ...


The Role Of Action In Affordance Perception Using Virtual Reality, Ashley J. Funkhouser 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Role Of Action In Affordance Perception Using Virtual Reality, Ashley J. Funkhouser

Honors Theses

Space perception in virtual reality (VR) is distorted. Does action in conjunction with an avatar's presence improve perception in VR? Participants judged whether a virtual ball was within reach. Condition 1 was perception-only, where the participant was not allowed to move nor could see their arms. Condition 2 was perception with nonvisible action, where the participant could move their real arm to reach but could not see an avatar representation of the arm. Condition 3 was perception with visible action, where the participant could move and see a virtual hand that corresponded to the actual arm movement. Participants overestimated ...


Preferences In Information Processing, Marginalized Identity, And Non-Monogamy: Understanding Factors In Suicide-Related Behavior Among Members Of The Alternative Sexuality Community, Robert J. Cramer, Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Andrea R. Kaniuka, Corrine N. Wilsey, Annelise Mennicke, Susan Wright, Erika Montanaro, Jessamyn Bowling, Kristin E. Heron 2020 Old Dominion University

Preferences In Information Processing, Marginalized Identity, And Non-Monogamy: Understanding Factors In Suicide-Related Behavior Among Members Of The Alternative Sexuality Community, Robert J. Cramer, Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Andrea R. Kaniuka, Corrine N. Wilsey, Annelise Mennicke, Susan Wright, Erika Montanaro, Jessamyn Bowling, Kristin E. Heron

Psychology Faculty Publications

Suicide-related behavior (SRB) is a mental health disparity experienced by the alternative sexuality community. We assessed mental health, relationship orientation, marginalized identities (i.e., sexual orientation minority, gender minority, racial minority, ethnic minority, and lower education), and preferences in information processing (PIP) as factors differentiating lifetime SRB groups. An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2018. Members of the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF; n = 334) took part. Bivariate analyses identified the following SRB risk factors: female and transgender/gender non-binary identity, sexual orientation minority identity, lower education, suicide attempt/death exposure, Need for Affect (NFA) Avoidance, depression ...


Searching For Neural Mechanisms Of Social Cognition, Chandler Siemonsma, Cristina Uribe, LouAnne Boyd, Aaron Schurger, Deanna Hughes, Tian Lan 2020 Chapman University

Searching For Neural Mechanisms Of Social Cognition, Chandler Siemonsma, Cristina Uribe, Louanne Boyd, Aaron Schurger, Deanna Hughes, Tian Lan

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Social cognition involves the integration and pruning of perceptual information which leads to the formation of an abstract representation, which is also known as the perceptual gist. This study examined 87 differences in visual perception of Mooney face stimuli of differing sizes and the relationship to gist formation in ten individuals with autism compared to neurotypical controls. Parents of both groups completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2) to assess social functioning in real-world scenarios.


Mode Of Delivery And Infant Cognitive Development, Madison Olson, Laura M. Glynn 2020 Chapman University

Mode Of Delivery And Infant Cognitive Development, Madison Olson, Laura M. Glynn

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The rate of nonindicated cesarean births is increasing each year within the United States. Although cesarean delivery can function as a life- saving intervention, emerging evidence suggests that it may also be associated with deleterious developmental consequences for the child. Here we test the hypothesis that mode of delivery is associated with cognitive development during infancy. 229 pregnant women were recruited and their infants’ cognitive development was assessed at 6, 12 and 24 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Medical charts were reviewed by obstetric nurses to determine prenatal medical risk and birth outcomes, including mode of delivery ...


Effects Of Chair Testing In Orchestra On Student Motivation: Student Perspectives And Applications From Motivational Theories, Rosanna Christine Honeycutt 2020 Missouri State University

Effects Of Chair Testing In Orchestra On Student Motivation: Student Perspectives And Applications From Motivational Theories, Rosanna Christine Honeycutt

MSU Graduate Theses

The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine how string students perceive achievement on chair testing through the lens of attribution and achievement goal motivational self-theories. A teacher survey was administered to identify the goals of chair testing in two high school and seven middle school orchestra classrooms. A student survey was used to collect data in those same classrooms on (a) the reasons why students do and do not do well on chair tests, (b) the perceived goals of chair testing and (c) the ratings of motivation and self-achievement. Qualitative techniques were used to analyze attributions within both ...


Teleporting Through Virtual Environments: Effects Of Path Scale And Environment Scale On Spatial Updating, Jonathan W. Kelly, Alec G. Ostrander, Alex F. Lim, Lucia A. Cherep, Stephen B. Gilbert 2020 Iowa State University

Teleporting Through Virtual Environments: Effects Of Path Scale And Environment Scale On Spatial Updating, Jonathan W. Kelly, Alec G. Ostrander, Alex F. Lim, Lucia A. Cherep, Stephen B. Gilbert

Psychology Publications

Virtual reality systems typically allow users to physically walk and turn, but virtual environments (VEs) often exceed the available walking space. Teleporting has become a common user interface, whereby the user aims a laser pointer to indicate the desired location, and sometimes orientation, in the VE before being transported without self-motion cues. This study evaluated the influence of rotational self-motion cues on spatial updating performance when teleporting, and whether the importance of rotational cues varies across movement scale and environment scale. Participants performed a triangle completion task by teleporting along two outbound path legs before pointing to the unmarked path ...


Longitudinal Applications Of Stepladder Technique For Enhancing Group Performance, Conner Lutterman 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Longitudinal Applications Of Stepladder Technique For Enhancing Group Performance, Conner Lutterman

Discovery Day - Prescott

Stepladder technique is intended to improve decision making in small groups by structuring the entry of group members, ensuring that each member contributes to the decision-making process. Previous research has employed the stepladder technique for intellective exercises of short duration. Here, we examined a more realistic application of the stepladder technique to a longitudinal project team engaged in a design/build/ test engineering program. Application of stepladder technique beyond a laboratory/one-time setting is a unique addition to the team performance research. Preliminary data indicates that the stepladder technique is effective in a longitudinal project more aligned to typical organization ...


Individual Differences In Cognitive Flexibility And Cognitive Map Accuracy, Vanessa C. Cunha 2020 Brescia University

Individual Differences In Cognitive Flexibility And Cognitive Map Accuracy, Vanessa C. Cunha

Brescia Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

Research has demonstrated broad individual differences in the ability to form a cognitive map of a novel environment. The current study investigated whether individual differences in cognitive map accuracy are driven by differences in cognitive flexibility specifically, the ability to switch between tasks. Using the Silcton virtual environment, participants explored four routes in Silcton and were assessed on cognitive map accuracy using the Silcton onsite pointing task and the Silcton model building task. To assess task-switching, perseveration error from the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) was measured. There was a significant correlation between the WCST and the onsite pointing task ...


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