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Cognition and Perception Commons

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Reported Perception And Clinical Diagnosis Of Autism Among White And Non-White Groups, Margaret Gopaul, Ph.D., MSCP, Steven Little, Ph.D., BCBA-D 2020 Alliant University

Reported Perception And Clinical Diagnosis Of Autism Among White And Non-White Groups, Margaret Gopaul, Ph.D., Mscp, Steven Little, Ph.D., Bcba-D

Journal on Race, Inequality, and Social Mobility in America

Objective: Lessen racial disparity by advancing awareness and promoting culturally competent practice related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among racial groups to safeguard that children regardless of race, receive timely, accurate diagnosis and intervention. Evidence has been inconclusive regarding disparities in identifying and diagnosing ASD with some reports of higher incidents of delayed and missed diagnoses of ASD among underserved ethnic and racial minority groups. Thus, this study examined the relationship between the child’s race and reported perception of ASD and clinical diagnosis of ASD among White and Non-White children. Method: The sample (N=48) consisted of preschool children ...


Adhd, Willpower, And Interest: A Positive Approach, Roger DeWitt 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Adhd, Willpower, And Interest: A Positive Approach, Roger Dewitt

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that typically presents with challenges of attention, impulsivity, self-regulation, memory, and sometimes, physical restlessness. Many practitioners, as well as the general public, often treat ADHD as a “disorder” that needs to be “cured,” and precious few researchers and practitioners look to understand and work with the ADHD nervous system rather than trying to align it to the “norm.” This paper will examine ADHD from a positive focus: that it is a nervous system that works extremely well as long as certain criteria are met. It will examine what ADHD is, where ...


Clusters Of Individuals Experiences Form A Continuum Of Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences In Adults, Jeffery A. Martin 2020 Center for the Study of Non-Symbolic Consciousness

Clusters Of Individuals Experiences Form A Continuum Of Persistent Non-Symbolic Experiences In Adults, Jeffery A. Martin

CONSCIOUSNESS: Ideas and Research for the Twenty-First Century

Persistent forms of nondual awareness, enlightenment, mystical experience, and so forth (Persistent Non-Symbolic Experience) have been reported since antiquity. Though sporadic research has been performed on these experiences, the scientific literature has yet to report a large-scale cognitive psychology study of this population. Method: Assessment of the subjective experience of 319 adult participants reporting persistent non-symbolic experience was undertaken using 6-12 hour semi-structured interviews and evaluated using grounded theory and thematic analysis. Results: Five core, consistent categories of change were uncovered: sense-of-self, cognition, affect, perception, and memory. Participants’ reports formed phenomenological groups in which the types of change in each ...


Micromoments Matter: Finding Agency And Connection Through A Micromoments Mindset, Cindy Chou, Amanda J. Masters 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Micromoments Matter: Finding Agency And Connection Through A Micromoments Mindset, Cindy Chou, Amanda J. Masters

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

As humans, our tendency is to reduce uncertainty, leading us to want to hold things still rather than accept the inevitable change that comes (Langer, 2009). However, psychological and behavioral attempts to do so can result in clinging to outdated and erroneous information, limiting our perspectives and narrowing opportunities for meaningful choice. In this paper, we merge Western psychology and Eastern wisdom traditions and build upon conceptions of mindfulness from both perspectives, to present our theory of the micromoments mindset as a tool for well-being. We define a micromoment as both the instant opening into conscious awareness of the present ...


Metacognition And Living Above Zero, Mary Margaret Rogers 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Metacognition And Living Above Zero, Mary Margaret Rogers

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Metacognition is a multi-dimensional phenomenon consisting of knowledge and regulatory skills used to monitor, control, and appraise one’s thoughts and thought processes (Schraw, 1998; Wells, 2009). This essay contends that metacognition is relevant to positive psychology and the non-clinical application of well-being practices as it may be utilized to promote self-efficacy, decrease anxiety, and increase well-being. Fortifying metacognitive processes (i.e. knowledge and regulation of cognition) is conceived to foster a sense of control regarding one’s thoughts and behaviors, thereby increasing one’s self-efficacy. Next, it is argued that metacognition may be used to decrease anxiety as the ...


Comparison Of College Students' Behavior Toward Nutrition Information Communication Between Korea And The Us, Chang-Sik Kim, Robert H. Bosselman, Hyung-Min Choi, Keum Sil Lee, Eojina Kim, Hyeyoung Moon, Yoon J. Jang, Sunny Ham 2020 Sejong University

Comparison Of College Students' Behavior Toward Nutrition Information Communication Between Korea And The Us, Chang-Sik Kim, Robert H. Bosselman, Hyung-Min Choi, Keum Sil Lee, Eojina Kim, Hyeyoung Moon, Yoon J. Jang, Sunny Ham

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Publications

Background/objectives: The expansion of menu labeling to restaurants has created a need to study customers' behavior toward nutrition information. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to compare college students' behavior toward nutrition information communication between Korea and the US. This study consisted of three objectives: 1) to compare the frequency of usage as well as degree of trust regarding smartphone-based communication channels in the acquisition of nutrition information among college students between Korea and the US, 2) to compare knowledge-sharing behavior related to nutrition information among college students between Korea and the US, and 3) to identify the ...


You Are Resilient: Trauma-Informed, Strengths-Based Treatment For Low-Ses, Urban Youth, Courtney Molina 2020 National Louis University

You Are Resilient: Trauma-Informed, Strengths-Based Treatment For Low-Ses, Urban Youth, Courtney Molina

Dissertations

The focus in this review was to explore the benefits and optimal use of trauma-informed, strengths-based care for the therapeutic treatment of low-socioeconomic status (SES), urban youth. Specific focus was given to evidence-based research on the treatment of emotional and behavioral dysregulation among low-SES, urban youth. The review was guided by the following research questions: How can emotional and behavioral dysregulation be symptoms of trauma among low-SES, urban youth; What makes trauma-informed and strengths-based care optimal for the treatment of low-SES, urban youth with dysregulation; and What are clear guidelines for providing trauma-informed, strengths-based care to low-SES, urban youth with ...


Using Behavior Skills Training To Increase Quality Parent Talk During A Read-Aloud, Britnea Monaco 2020 Missouri State University

Using Behavior Skills Training To Increase Quality Parent Talk During A Read-Aloud, Britnea Monaco

MSU Graduate Theses

Reading to children is one way to engage a child in high-level conversations that go beyond the explicit message of the book. There is a positive correlation between the amount of high-quality caregiver/child joint attention activities and language development. The purpose of this study was to use Behavior Skills Training to teach parents seven component reading skills in order to increase parents word count and quality of words read during read-alouds with their children. Results showed as parents mastered the seven reading components they increased their overall word count. Implications of these findings are discussed within the context of ...


Consider The Agent In The Arthropod, Nicolas Delon, Peter Cook, Gordon Bauer, Heidi Harley 2020 New College of Florida

Consider The Agent In The Arthropod, Nicolas Delon, Peter Cook, Gordon Bauer, Heidi Harley

Animal Sentience

Whether or not arthropods are sentient, they can have moral standing. Appeals to sentience are not necessary and retard progress in human treatment of other species, including invertebrates. Other increasingly well-documented aspects of invertebrate minds are pertinent to their welfare. Even if arthropods are not sentient, they can be agents whose goals—and therefore interests—can be frustrated. This kind of agency is sufficient for moral status and requires that we consider their welfare.


Zones Of Precaution, Jonathan Birch 2020 London School of Economics and Political Science

Zones Of Precaution, Jonathan Birch

Animal Sentience

My commentary focusses on Mikhalevich & Powell’s criticisms of the Animal Sentience Precautionary Principle. I emphasize the pragmatic nature of my rationale for proposing that, rather than extending the scope of animal welfare protection on a species-by-species basis, we should be willing to protect entire Linnaean orders on the basis of evidence from a single species.


Brain Complexity, Sentience And Welfare, Donald M. Broom 2020 University of Cambridge

Brain Complexity, Sentience And Welfare, Donald M. Broom

Animal Sentience

Neither sentience nor moral standing is confined to animals with large or human-like brains. Invertebrates deserve moral consideration. Definition of terms clarifies the relationship between sentience and welfare. All animals have welfare but humans give more protection to sentient animals. Humans should be less human-centred.


Invertebrate Cognition, Sentience And Biology, Georges Chapouthier 2020 CNRS, Paris

Invertebrate Cognition, Sentience And Biology, Georges Chapouthier

Animal Sentience

All animal species have adapted for survival and no species is superior overall. For cognitive capacities and sentience, invertebrates such as the octopus, although quite unlike vertebrates, can achieve similar performance levels. So can other invertebrates with small brains; hence they too, as sentient beings, deserve moral consideration from humans. How are we to identify these species? Only though a detailed analysis of their behavior. The decision, which is a moral judgment, depends on biological knowledge that still needs to be acquired.


Convergent Evolution Of Sentience?, Culum Brown Prof. 2020 Macquarie University

Convergent Evolution Of Sentience?, Culum Brown Prof.

Animal Sentience

Mikhalevich & Powell make a compelling case that some invertebrates may be sentient and that our moral obligations in the context of welfare should hence extend to them. Although the case is similar to that made for fishes, there is one obvious difference in that examples of invertebrate sentience probably arose independently from vertebrate sentience. We have unequivocal proof that complex cognition arose multiple times over evolutionary history. Given that cognition is our best tool for indirectly quantifying sentience, it seems highly likely that this multiple polygenesis may also have occurred for sentience. In acknowledging this, we must accept that the ...


Hard Criteria For Empirical Theories Of Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Michael H. Herzog 2020 EPFL – École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

Hard Criteria For Empirical Theories Of Consciousness, Adrian Doerig, Aaron Schurger, Michael H. Herzog

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Consciousness is now a well-established field of empirical research. A large body of experimental results has been accumulated and is steadily growing. In parallel, many Theories of Consciousness (ToCs) have been proposed. These theories are diverse in nature, ranging from computational to neurophysiological and quantum theoretical approaches. This contrasts with other fields of natural science, which host a smaller number of competing theories. We suggest that one reason for this abundance of extremely different theories may be the lack of stringent criteria specifying how empirical data constrains ToCs. First, we argue that consciousness is a well-defined topic from an empirical ...


Previous Experiences Drive Attention, Sunghyun Kim 2020 Louisiana State University

Previous Experiences Drive Attention, Sunghyun Kim

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Traditionally, the allocation of attention was understood within goal-driven and stimulus-driven factors. However, the traditional approach cannot fully account for the mechanism of attentional orienting. Instead, a growing body of evidence shows that previous search experiences, irrelevant to both goal-driven and stimulus-driven factors, influence attentional allocation. For example, when contexts predict information of targets, the contexts guide attention toward the stimuli having the information predicted by the contexts: contextual cueing. In addition, more valuable stimuli attract more attention: value-driven attentional capture. However, two critical issues are present. First, contextual cueing has been found largely when the contexts and the target ...


Rejection Sensitivity And Social Support As Predictors Of Peer Victimization Among Youth With Psychiatric Illness, Katherine C. Hyde 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Rejection Sensitivity And Social Support As Predictors Of Peer Victimization Among Youth With Psychiatric Illness, Katherine C. Hyde

Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I examined whether rejection sensitivity and perceptions of social support predicted concurrent peer victimization in a sample of adolescents with psychiatric illness. Participants included 43 adolescents, aged 12-18 with diverse psychiatric diagnoses, who were recruited from a summer residential treatment program. Participants completed measures of peer victimization, perceptions of social support, and rejection sensitivity. Participants also completed the global victimization item in the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, which allowed for comparison of rates of peer victimization across studies (Solberg & Olweus, 2003). Results replicate and extend previous research that indicates adolescents with psychiatric illness experience high rates of peer victimization (Cook, William, Guerra, & Kim, 2009; Hunt, Peters, & Rapee, 2012; Kärnä et al., 2011). Additionally, adolescents high in rejection sensitivity reported lower rates of peer ...


Architecture In Open World Video Games, Congshuo Zhang 2020 Syracuse University

Architecture In Open World Video Games, Congshuo Zhang

English Language Institute

No abstract provided.


Reconsidering Black And Light: Black And Light Projects That Challenge Perception, Chen-Yang Chang 2020 Syracuse University

Reconsidering Black And Light: Black And Light Projects That Challenge Perception, Chen-Yang Chang

English Language Institute

No abstract provided.


Medical Noncompliance In A Pediatric Patient Living In A Single-Parent Household, Lucy Obianuju Norrell 2020 Abilene Christian University

Medical Noncompliance In A Pediatric Patient Living In A Single-Parent Household, Lucy Obianuju Norrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Abstract Noncompliance is a patient’s inability to comply with the recommended treatment for their complete recovery from an ailment, while compliance is the extent to which a patient adheres to the provider’s directive, such as medication and orders given. The purpose of this study was to determine if motivational interviewing when applied to noncompliant pediatric patients from single-parent households, would improve global medical compliance in this population as compared to the standard of care at the end of three months. Thirty-two participants were recruited using the homogeneous purposeful sampling. The project employed a mixed-method approach. Fred Kleinsinger’s ...


The Effect Of State Gratitude On Cognitive Flexibility: A Within-Subject Experimental Approach, Andree HARTANTO, Nadia Cui Hui ONG, Wee Qin NG, NADYANNA BINTE MOHAMED MAJEED 2020 Singapore Management University

The Effect Of State Gratitude On Cognitive Flexibility: A Within-Subject Experimental Approach, Andree Hartanto, Nadia Cui Hui Ong, Wee Qin Ng, Nadyanna Binte Mohamed Majeed

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Considerable research has examined the relationship between positive emotion and cognitive flexibility. Less is known, however, about the causal relationship between discrete positive emotions, specifically gratitude, and cognitive flexibility. Given that different positive emotions may dissimilarly affect cognitive functioning, we sought to examine the effect of state gratitude on cognitive flexibility. A pilot study with ninety-five participants was employed to ensure the effectiveness of our gratitude manipulation. One hundred and thirteen participants were recruited for the main study, which utilized a within-subject experimental approach. After the manipulation, participants completed a well-established task-switching paradigm, which was used to measure cognitive flexibility ...


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