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Visual Estimates Of Blood Loss By Medical Laypeople: Effects Of Blood Loss Volume, Victim Gender, And Perspective, Rachel Phillips, Marc Friberg, Mattias Lantz Cronqvist, Carl-Oscar Jonson, Erik Prytz 2020 Old Dominion University

Visual Estimates Of Blood Loss By Medical Laypeople: Effects Of Blood Loss Volume, Victim Gender, And Perspective, Rachel Phillips, Marc Friberg, Mattias Lantz Cronqvist, Carl-Oscar Jonson, Erik Prytz

Psychology Faculty Publications

A severe hemorrhage can result in death within minutes, before professional first responders have time to arrive. Thus, intervention by bystanders, who may lack medical training, may be necessary to save a victim's life in situations with bleeding injuries. Proper intervention requires that bystanders accurately assess the severity of the injury and respond appropriately. As many bystanders lack tools and training, they are limited in terms of the information they can use in their evaluative process. In hemorrhage situations, visible blood loss may serve as a dominant cue to action. Therefore, understanding how medically untrained bystanders (i.e., laypeople ...


Bilingual Versus Monolingual Performance Within Memory Suppression, Santiago David 2020 Claremont McKenna College

Bilingual Versus Monolingual Performance Within Memory Suppression, Santiago David

CMC Senior Theses

Bilingual participants have been argued to have a cognitive inhibitory advantage over monolinguals resulting in a faster ability to inhibit information. However, the advantage has not been studied using the item-method within the Directed Forgetting (DF) paradigm, which is suggested to cause inhibition through remember and forget instructions. As the DF paradigm uses a recall and then recognition task format, the current study also investigated the possibility of retrieval-practice effects of the recall task on recognition. By utilizing the item-method with recall and no-recall conditions, the possible bilingual cognitive advantage, role of inhibition in DF, and potential retrieval-practice effects were ...


The Future Self: Promoting Prosocial Decision-Making Through Motivated Episodic Simulation, Su Young (Kevin) Choi 2020 Claremont McKenna College

The Future Self: Promoting Prosocial Decision-Making Through Motivated Episodic Simulation, Su Young (Kevin) Choi

CMC Senior Theses

Vividly imagining the future self can help inform our present decisions. Given that most attempts aimed at understanding the prosocial effect of imagining future episodes have focused on sensory properties, little is known about how prosocial motivations can explain the link between episodic simulation and helping intentions. Here, the current research investigated whether altruistically and reputationally motivated simulation of helping behavior promote a willingness to help a person in need. The study found that imagining helping episodes increased willingness to help relative to a control manipulation, especially when reputational concerns were made salient. Path modeling analyses revealed that the prosocial ...


The Stained Glass Of Knowledge: On Understanding Novice Mental Models Of Computing, Briana Christina Bettin 2020 Michigan Technological University

The Stained Glass Of Knowledge: On Understanding Novice Mental Models Of Computing, Briana Christina Bettin

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Learning to program can be a novel experience. The rigidity of programming can be at odds with beginning programmer's existing perceptions, and the concepts can feel entirely unfamiliar. These observations motivated this research, which explores two major questions: What factors influence how novices learn programming? and How can analogy by more appropriately leveraged in programming education?

This dissertation investigates the factors influencing novice programming through multiple methods. The CS1 classroom is observed as a "whole system", with consideration to the factors present in it that can influence the learning process. Learning's cognitive processes are elaborated to ground exploration ...


The Effect Of Physical Interaction On Evolving Attention Relating To Advertisements And Visual Information, Margaret S. Davey 2020 Connecticut College

The Effect Of Physical Interaction On Evolving Attention Relating To Advertisements And Visual Information, Margaret S. Davey

Psychology Honors Papers

As more technology is used on a daily basis around the world, the platforms of advertisements and learning have also changed. However, little is known about the effects of image and video interaction type on information retention. The current research examines the effect of different types of interaction such as swiping, tapping or viewing on memory of an image both with and without using the same interaction when the participants were asked if they remembered the image or not. In experiment one, the participants from the Connecticut College subject pool used a hand tracker system to swipe and tap images ...


Does Being Unaware Predict Being Unskilled? Analyzing The Predictive Ability Of The Metacognition Awareness Inventory, Daniel A. Scheibe 2020 Eastern Washington University

Does Being Unaware Predict Being Unskilled? Analyzing The Predictive Ability Of The Metacognition Awareness Inventory, Daniel A. Scheibe

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

Students’ perceptions of how well they know information ultimately impact the study choices they make. The more accurate these perceptions are, the more prepared students are to be academically successful. Thus, the current study aimed to find an efficient way to quickly identify students who struggle with this self-assessment, and ultimately classroom performance, using a tool designed to assess metacognitive ability. Participants first completed a metacognition scale designed to assess learning strategies – the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI). Next, the participants were administered a 29-minute lecture followed by a brief exam at the end of the lecture. There were three types ...


The Effects Of Positive Emotions On Eyewitness Memory, Brandy R. Hutton 2020 Eastern Washington University

The Effects Of Positive Emotions On Eyewitness Memory, Brandy R. Hutton

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of positive emotions on eyewitness memory. Though little research has been done investigating this question, it has serious implications within the criminal justice system, towards our understanding of emotions, and in creating a fuller comprehension of how memory works. The current study chose two distinct positive emotions and participants were randomly assigned to one of three emotion inductions (joy, gratitude, or neutral). Participants then watched a computer video of a minor crime and responded to questionnaires testing them on their recall accuracy of central and peripheral details of that crime ...


The Wholeness Of Nature, Marthe Kiley-Worthington 2020 Centre d'Eco-Etho Recherche et Education.

The Wholeness Of Nature, Marthe Kiley-Worthington

Animal Sentience

The target article outlines various positions on conservation and preservation but ignores practical considerations of management since there is no wild habitat left. Population controls, either human or nonhuman mammals, are not discussed. The suggestions for legal changes are vague and will require much more thinking about how to integrate animal welfare with wildlife conservation concerns. “Freedoms” as outlined in the human bill of rights might help with decision making for improving animal welfare. Other commentators have made anthropocentric judgements concerning animal welfare, ignoring the importance of developing other ways of seeing and understanding the “multiplicity within unity,” combining empirical ...


The Effects Of Virtual Reality In The Treatment Of Stroke Patients, Melissa Schoettle 2020 Arcadia University

The Effects Of Virtual Reality In The Treatment Of Stroke Patients, Melissa Schoettle

Capstone Showcase

The Effects of Virtual Reality in the Treatment of Stroke Patients

Stroke patients face many challenges on their road to recovery. Patients may lose motor function, speech abilities, and other important cognitive functions. They go through various forms of therapy to help rehabilitate them and improve their cognition, including physical, occupational, and speech therapy. Physical therapy helps improve motor function and muscle control, occupational therapy improves those skills needed for success in work and life, and speech therapy helps patients recover the ability to speak and the cognitive processes to think and form words and sentences. While these therapies are ...


Adapting Implicit Stereotype Expectation Through Perspective Distancing, Cheyenne Perez 2020 Arcadia University

Adapting Implicit Stereotype Expectation Through Perspective Distancing, Cheyenne Perez

Capstone Showcase

Investigated within this study is how stereotype expectations might be affected when violated or reinforced, and how distancing the self from the expectation via a different perspective can allow for recognition that it can be wrong and even changed. This research is motivated by an interest in how stereotype expectations develop throughout life and experiences, and how the tendency to defend them when challenged can hinder understanding of other views. In a real world setting, placing a person in a distanced perspective could allow for change in their personal expectations and become less prejudiced/more accepting. Within the lab setting ...


Individual Differences In Teleporting Through Virtual Environments, Lucia A. Cherep, Jonathan W. Kelly, Anthony Miller, Alex F. Lim, Stephen B. Gilbert 2020 Iowa State University

Individual Differences In Teleporting Through Virtual Environments, Lucia A. Cherep, Jonathan W. Kelly, Anthony Miller, Alex F. Lim, Stephen B. Gilbert

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Publications

Virtual reality (VR) allows users to walk to explore the virtual environment (VE), but this capability is constrained by real obstacles. Teleporting interfaces overcome this constraint by allowing users to select a position, and sometimes orientation, in the VE before being instantly transported without self-motion cues. This study investigated whether individual differences in navigation performance when teleporting correspond to characteristics of the individual, including spatial ability. Participants performed triangle completion (traverse two outbound path legs, then point to the path origin) within VEs differing in visual landmarks. Locomotion was accomplished using three interfaces: walking, partially concordant teleporting (teleport to change ...


Retrieval-Induced Forgetting In Autism Spectrum: Combining Narrative Experience With Clinical Research To Explore Stress-Induced, Transitory Retrograde Amnesia, Elizabeth Willsmore-Finkle 2020 Claremont Colleges

Retrieval-Induced Forgetting In Autism Spectrum: Combining Narrative Experience With Clinical Research To Explore Stress-Induced, Transitory Retrograde Amnesia, Elizabeth Willsmore-Finkle

Scripps Senior Theses

Currently, psychological research explores autism, a blanket term for a range of neurobiological and developmental differences, through a clinical, as opposed to an experiential, lens. Autism has only existed as formal diagnosis under that name since 1943 (Kanner); however, the advocacy of activists such as Temple Grandin, a slaughterhouse systems designer best known for documenting her life with autism in a series of autobiographic accounts, has begun to legitimize the incorporation of emic experiences of autism within clinical research. Researcher Dermot Bowler and colleagues (2011) have conducted extensive reviews of memory distinctions in autism, finding differences of varying degrees across ...


Situational Awareness Methods In Virtual Reality Training: A Scoping Review, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Melynda Hoover, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot H. Winer 2020 Iowa State University

Situational Awareness Methods In Virtual Reality Training: A Scoping Review, Kaitlyn M. Ouverson, Melynda Hoover, Stephen B. Gilbert, Michael C. Dorneich, Eliot H. Winer

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

In 2020, the US Military budget for Air Operations Training increased by $197.7m to accommodate additional virtual training, instructor pilots, and air support. These virtual trainers are essential for preparing warfighters for scenarios that are rare, dangerous, and complex. While virtual training has historically been conducted in costly and immobile “big box” simulators, they can now be deployed using consumer-grade immersive virtual reality (VR) head-mounted displays (HMDs). For example, Air Force maintenance airmen use VR HMDs to train on the C-130 due to savings of time and money over live training, without loss of training effectiveness. However, one challenge ...


Individual Differences In Teleporting Through Virtual Environments: A Latent Profile Analysis, Lucia A. Cherep, Alex F. Lim, Jonathan W. Kelly, Anthony Miller, Stephen B. Gilbert 2020 Iowa State University

Individual Differences In Teleporting Through Virtual Environments: A Latent Profile Analysis, Lucia A. Cherep, Alex F. Lim, Jonathan W. Kelly, Anthony Miller, Stephen B. Gilbert

Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Posters

Teleportation in virtual reality (VR) affords the ability to explore beyond the physical space. Previous work has demonstrated that this interface comes at a spatial cognitive cost – though, upon closer inspection, not everyone appears similarly affected. A latent profile analysis identified three groups that significantly differed on spatial updating performance and follow-up analyses showed significant differences in objective measures of spatial ability (e.g., mental rotation and perspective-taking). These results suggest that there are individual differences in domains of spatial cognition that are related to how well a user may keep track of his or her location while teleporting in ...


Are Individual Characteristics And Behaviors Necessary-But-Not-Sufficient Conditions For Academic Success?: A Demonstration Of Dul's (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis, Michael C. Tynan, Marcus Crede, Peter D. Harms 2020 Iowa State University

Are Individual Characteristics And Behaviors Necessary-But-Not-Sufficient Conditions For Academic Success?: A Demonstration Of Dul's (2016) Necessary Condition Analysis, Michael C. Tynan, Marcus Crede, Peter D. Harms

Psychology Publications

Claiming that high levels of an independent variable represent a necessary-but-not-sufficient condition for an outcome suggests that the outcome is only possible – but not guaranteed – with high levels of that variable. Necessary condition analysis (NCA) allows researchers to determine if an observed relation between an independent variable and a dependent variable is consistent with such a necessary-but-not-sufficient relation. Using both archival and primary data, we apply Dul's (2016) necessary condition analysis techniques to common correlates of academic success in college. We find data patterns that are consistent with necessary-but-not-sufficient conditions for academic success for a variety of variables including ...


Mechanisms Of Value-Biased Prioritization In Fast Sensorimotor Decision Making, Kivilcim Afacan-Seref 2020 CUNY City College

Mechanisms Of Value-Biased Prioritization In Fast Sensorimotor Decision Making, Kivilcim Afacan-Seref

Dissertations and Theses

In dynamic environments, split-second sensorimotor decisions must be prioritized according to potential payoffs to maximize overall rewards. The impact of relative value on deliberative perceptual judgments has been examined extensively, but relatively little is known about value-biasing mechanisms in the common situation where physical evidence is strong but the time to act is severely limited. This research examines the behavioral and electrophysiological indices of how value biases split-second perceptual decisions and the possible mechanisms underlying the process. In prominent decision models, a noisy but statistically stationary representation of sensory evidence is integrated over time to an action-triggering bound, and value-biases ...


Does Resilience Moderate The Impact Of Children’S Experiences Of Racial And Ethnic Discrimination On Internalizing Problems?, Dahlia Abbas 2020 CUNY City College

Does Resilience Moderate The Impact Of Children’S Experiences Of Racial And Ethnic Discrimination On Internalizing Problems?, Dahlia Abbas

Dissertations and Theses

This study’s objectives were to investigate how children’s experiences of discrimination impact the severity of their internalizing symptoms, and whether the relation between discrimination and internalizing symptom severity is moderated by resilience. It was predicted that children who had experienced more discrimination would have more severe internalizing symptoms, especially when they have low levels of resilience. Children [N=20; Mean (SD) age= 11.83 (2.50)] receiving low-cost music lessons in northern Manhattan were recruited into a larger study examining how learning music affects cognitive and emotional development. Children were interviewed in-person about experiences of discrimination because of ...


The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran 2020 University of Kentucky

The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

During a midsession reversal task, the session begins with a simple simultaneous discrimination in which one stimulus (S1) is correct and the alternate stimulus (S2) is incorrect (S1+/S2-). At the halfway point, the discrimination reverses and S2 becomes the correct choice (S2+/S1-). When choosing optimally, a pigeon should choose S1 until the first trial in which it is not reinforced and then shift to S2 (win-stay/lose-shift). With this task pigeons have been shown to respond suboptimally by anticipating the reversal (anticipatory errors) and continuing to choose S1 after the reversal (perseverative errors). This suboptimal behavior may result ...


Exploring Eight-Armed Intelligence Through Film, Tierney M. Thys 2020 California Academy of Sciences

Exploring Eight-Armed Intelligence Through Film, Tierney M. Thys

Animal Sentience

Mather (2019) provides a rich overview of the elements underlying octopus cognition and behavioral flexibility. Recently, two remarkable natural history films, My Octopus Teacher and The Octopus in My House have explored intimate human-octopus relationships with a wild (Octopus vulgaris) and a captive octopus (Octopus cyanea) respectively. Both films show rare behaviors that offer observations to test new hypotheses as well as a novel perspective on our own human relationships and place within the natural world. An interview with filmmaker Craig Foster from My Octopus Teacher reveals the profound and transformative power of forming a trusting relationship with such a ...


Human-Controlled Survival Of Nonhumans, Donelson E. Dulany 2020 University of Illinois

Human-Controlled Survival Of Nonhumans, Donelson E. Dulany

Animal Sentience

Treves et al. are right about the need for morally just preservation of nonhumans. Their suggestions can move us in that direction. But isn’t what only humans are capable of doing in analyzing and solving these problems, in its broadest sense, “anthropocentrism”?


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