Investigating Trail Sensitivity In Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer, 2019 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University
Investigating Trail Sensitivity In Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer, Nicholas Pathoulas
All College Thesis Program, 2016-2019
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy in the United States. While these tumors may have a promising initial response to platinum-based chemotherapies, the patient’s prognosis is commonly hindered by the development of platinum resistant cancer. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been implicated as a potential treatment for many cancers based on its tumor selective nature. Combination therapies with TRAIL and platinum drugs have been shown to increase apoptosis and have been used in a variety of clinical trials, which have thus far failed to pass phase II.1 Researchers have not yet elucidated the complex mechanism ...
Development Of A Sonically Powered Biodegradable Nanogenerator For Bone Regeneration, 2019 University of Connecticut
Development Of A Sonically Powered Biodegradable Nanogenerator For Bone Regeneration, Avi Patel
Honors Scholar Theses
Background: Reconstruction of bone fractures and defects remains a big challenge in orthopedic surgery. While regenerative engineering has advanced the field greatly using a combination of biomaterial scaffolds and stem cells, one matter of difficulty is inducing osteogenesis in these cells. Recent works have shown electricity’s ability to promote osteogenesis in stem cell lines when seeded in bone scaffolds; however, typical electrical stimulators are either (a) externally housed and require overcomplex percutaneous wires be connected to the implanted scaffold or (b) implanted non-degradable devices which contain toxic batteries and require invasive removal surgeries.
Objective: Here, we establish a biodegradable ...
Yeast Mitochondrial Protein Pet111p Binds Directly To Two Distinct Targets In Cox2 Mrna, Suggesting A Mechanism Of Translational Activation, Julia L Jones, Katharina B. Hofmann, Andrew T. Cowan, Dmitry Temiakov, Patrick Cramer, Michael Anikin
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers
The genes in mitochondrial DNA code for essential subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. In yeast, expression of mitochondrial genes is controlled by a group of gene-specific translational activators encoded in the nucleus. These factors appear to be part of a regulatory system that enables concerted expression of the necessary genes from both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes to produce functional respiratory complexes. Many of the translational activators are believed to act on the 5'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this regulation remain obscure. In this study, we used a combination of in vivo and ...
Identification Of Anaerobes In Clinical Specimens Comparison Between The Rapid Ana Ii System And The Bruker Maldi-Tof Ms System Utilized In The Clinical Laboratory, 2019 Dominican University of California
Identification Of Anaerobes In Clinical Specimens Comparison Between The Rapid Ana Ii System And The Bruker Maldi-Tof Ms System Utilized In The Clinical Laboratory, Raymond Chow
Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Clinical Laboratory Sciences Culminating Projects
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been revealed as an invaluable platform for identifying anaerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory over traditional methods such as the RapID ANA II System.
A qualitative comparison is made, through the analysis of methodologies and specifications, to determine whether the RapID ANA II system or Bruker MALDI-TOF MS is more suitable for identifying anaerobic organism in the clinical laboratory. Based on the data reviewed, the MALDI-TOF MS is a more intuitive platform within the clinical laboratory due to its increased specificity, cost-effectiveness, and shorten turnaround time for the identification ...
Novel Mechanisms And Biomarkers In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., 2019 University of Louisville
Novel Mechanisms And Biomarkers In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., Christine E. Dolin
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Background. Ethanol (EtOH) consumption is known to affect multiple organs; this is unsurprising, as the concentration of EtOH in the blood at relevant doses reaches the millimolar range. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to elucidate mechanisms of alcohol-induced organ injury, specifically the effects of alcohol on the hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteome, the alcoholic hepatitis (AH) plasma peptidome, and the effects of alcohol on the renal cortex proteome and transcriptome. Methods. Mice were pair-fed ethanol-containing liquid diet chronically, and then some mice were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver sections from these mice were processed in a series of increasingly ...
Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Transcriptional Regulation Of Nlrc4 Inflammasome By Irf8, Ein Lee
Theses and Dissertations (ETD)
The NLRC4 inflammasome is a crucial part of the innate immune response against bacterial infections. We found that NLRC4 inflammasome activation in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) is greatly dependent on interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8). NLRC4-mediated caspase-1 activation and subsequent production of the inflammasome-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and cell death were impaired in IRF8-deficient cells. IRF8 mediated the transcription of genes encoding NAIPs, the receptors for NLRC4 inflammasome, which recognize bacterial flagellin and type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins. IRF8 was critical for host survival following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium or Burkholderia thailandensis. Furthermore, mice deficient in IRF8 were ...
Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Require Β1 Integrins To Promote Anchorage-Independent Growth., 2019 Thomas Jefferson University
Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Require Β1 Integrins To Promote Anchorage-Independent Growth., Rachel M. Derita, Aejaz Sayeed, Vaughn Garcia, Shiv Ram Krishn, Christopher D. Shields, Srawasti Sarker, Andrea Friedman, Peter Mccue, Sudheer Kumar Molugu, Ulrich Rodeck, Adam P. Dicker, Lucia R. Languino
Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers
The β1 integrins, known to promote cancer progression, are abundant in extracellular vesicles (EVs). We investigated whether prostate cancer (PrCa) EVs affect anchorage-independent growth and whether β1 integrins are required for this effect. Specifically using a cell-line-based genetic rescue and an in vivo PrCa model, we show that gradient-purified small EVs (sEVs) from either cancer cells or blood from tumor-bearing TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate) mice promote anchorage-independent growth of PrCa cells. In contrast, sEVs from cultured PrCa cells harboring a short hairpin RNA to β1, from wild-type mice or from TRAMP mice carrying a β1 conditional ablation ...
Gasdermin Pores Permeabilize Mitochondria To Augment Caspase-3 Activation During Apoptosis And Inflammasome Activation., 2019 Thomas Jefferson University
Gasdermin Pores Permeabilize Mitochondria To Augment Caspase-3 Activation During Apoptosis And Inflammasome Activation., Corey Rogers, Dan A. Erkes, Alexandria Nardone, Andrew E. Aplin, Teresa Fernandes-Alnemri, Emad S. Alnemri
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers
Gasdermin E (GSDME/DFNA5) cleavage by caspase-3 liberates the GSDME-N domain, which mediates pyroptosis by forming pores in the plasma membrane. Here we show that GSDME-N also permeabilizes the mitochondrial membrane, releasing cytochrome c and activating the apoptosome. Cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in response to intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic stimuli are significantly reduced in GSDME-deficient cells comparing with wild type cells. GSDME deficiency also accelerates cell growth in culture and in a mouse model of melanoma. Phosphomimetic mutation of the highly conserved phosphorylatable Thr6 residue of GSDME, inhibits its pore-forming activity, thus uncovering a potential mechanism by which ...
Interaction Between The Bag1s Isoform And Hsp70 Mediates The Stability Of Anti-Apoptotic Proteins And The Survival Of Osteosarcoma Cells Expressing Oncogenic Myc., Victoria J. Gennaro, Helen Wedegaertner, Steven B. Mcmahon
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers
BACKGROUND: The oncoprotein MYC has the dual capacity to drive cell cycle progression or induce apoptosis, depending on the cellular context. BAG1 was previously identified as a transcriptional target of MYC that functions as a critical determinant of this cell fate decision. The BAG1 protein is expressed as multiple isoforms, each having an array of distinct biochemical functions; however, the specific effector function of BAG1 that directs MYC-dependent cell survival has not been defined.
METHODS: In our studies the human osteosarcoma line U2OS expressing a conditional MYC-ER allele was used to induce oncogenic levels of MYC. We interrogated MYC-driven survival ...
Coming Together To Define Membrane Contact Sites., 2019 University of Padua
Coming Together To Define Membrane Contact Sites., Luca Scorrano, Maria Antonietta De Matteis, Scott Emr, Francesca Giordano, György Hajnóczky, Benoît Kornmann, Laura L. Lackner, Tim P. Levine, Luca Pellegrini, Karin Reinisch, Rosario Rizzuto, Thomas Simmen, Harald Stenmark, Christian Ungermann, Maya Schuldiner
Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers
Close proximities between organelles have been described for decades. However, only recently a specific field dealing with organelle communication at membrane contact sites has gained wide acceptance, attracting scientists from multiple areas of cell biology. The diversity of approaches warrants a unified vocabulary for the field. Such definitions would facilitate laying the foundations of this field, streamlining communication and resolving semantic controversies. This opinion, written by a panel of experts in the field, aims to provide this burgeoning area with guidelines for the experimental definition and analysis of contact sites. It also includes suggestions on how to operationally and tractably ...
Supervised Dimension Reduction For Large-Scale "Omics" Data With Censored Survival Outcomes Under Possible Non-Proportional Hazards, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan
COBRA Preprint Series
The past two decades have witnessed significant advances in high-throughput ``omics" technologies such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and radiomics. These technologies have enabled simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of tens of thousands of features from individual patient samples and have generated enormous amounts of data that require analysis and interpretation. One specific area of interest has been in studying the relationship between these features and patient outcomes, such as overall and recurrence-free survival, with the goal of developing a predictive ``omics" profile. Large-scale studies often suffer from the presence of a large fraction of censored observations and potential ...
Improving The Genetic Diagnosis Of Familial Hypercholesterolemia, 2019 The University of Western Ontario
Improving The Genetic Diagnosis Of Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Michael Iacocca
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder of severely elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol that is widely underdiagnosed and undertreated. To improve the identification of FH and initiate timely and appropriate treatment strategies, genetic testing is becoming increasingly offered worldwide as a central part of diagnosis. I describe three main ways providing a genetic diagnosis in FH can be improved. First, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approaches can be used to reliably identify large-scale variant types known as copy number variations (CNVs) in the LDL receptor gene (LDLR); second, NGS methodology can be further applied to extend CNV screening to additional ...
Investigating Gαs Pepducin’S Effect On Β2ar Signaling For Chf Pharmacology, 2019 Thomas Jefferson University
Investigating Gαs Pepducin’S Effect On Β2ar Signaling For Chf Pharmacology, Nida Bajwa, Nathan Hopfinger, Charles Scott
Introduction: Congestive heart failure affects nearly six million Americans and significantly impairs their quality of life. New and better interventions are needed to improve HF patients’ survival and outcomes. Pharmacologics that bias β2AR signaling towards arrestin, which promotes cardiomyocyte survival and contractility, may offer advantages over traditional β-blockers.
Objective: It has been demonstrated that peptides mimicking the C-terminus of the Gαs subunit block downstream signaling of GPCRs. The study’s objective is to determine if a pepducin derived from the C-terminus of the Gαs subunit of the β2AR could block Gs signaling but maintain arrestin-recruitment, thereby producing ...
Biotransformed Metabolites Of The Hop Prenylflavanone Isoxanthohumol, 2019 Mokpo National University
Biotransformed Metabolites Of The Hop Prenylflavanone Isoxanthohumol, Hyun Jung Kim, Soon-Ho Yim, Fubo Han, Bok Yun Kang, Hyun Jin Choi, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R. Williams, Kirk R. Gustafson, Edward J. Kennelly, Ik-Soo Lee
Publications and Research
A metabolic conversion study on microbes is known as one of the most useful tools to predict the xenobiotic metabolism of organic compounds in mammalian systems. The microbial biotransformation of isoxanthohumol (1), a major hop prenylflavanone in beer, has resulted in the production of three diastereomeric pairs of oxygenated metabolites (2–7). The microbial metabolites of 1 were formed by epoxidation or hydroxylation of the prenyl group, and HPLC, NMR, and CD analyses revealed that all of the products were diastereomeric pairs composed of (2S)- and (2R)- isomers. The structures of these metabolic compounds were elucidated to be (2S,200S ...
Regulation Of Na-K-Atpase By Arachidonic Acid Metabolites In Intestinal Epithelial Cells, 2019 Marshall University
Regulation Of Na-K-Atpase By Arachidonic Acid Metabolites In Intestinal Epithelial Cells, Niraj Nepa
Theses, Dissertations and Capstones
The integral membrane protein sodium potassium adenosine triphosphate (Na-K-ATPase), has been extensively studied in various animal cell models. Na-K-ATPase is a multifunctional enzyme which plays a significant role in cellular physiology by regulating electrochemical potential, cell volume, pH, cytosolic calcium, and many nutrient and electrolyte transport processes. As such, it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and has been shown to play a vital role in the malabsorption of nutrients and electrolytes. In this context, a significant amount of research has been done over the last two decades to understand the mechanisms of alteration of ...
Environmental Regulation Of The Heart: The Role Of Non-Coding Rna And Epigenetics In Influencing Mitochondrial And Cellular Health, Quincy Alexander Hathaway
Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports
The mitochondrion, a small but ubiquitously distributed organelle in the cell, continues to be the focus of many disease pathogeneses, tissue and organ dysfunctions, and other morbidities that occur throughout the body. The purpose of this work was to understand how cardiac mitochondrion are altered in disease and pathological states, specifically in their adaptation to environmentally stimulated regulatory networks, such as epigenetic modifications and promotion/inhibition of non-coding RNAs. Acute stress to mitochondrial regulation (inhalation toxicology) as well as chronic (type 2 diabetes mellitus) was examined. Using a FVB transgenic microRNA-378a mouse knockout model, the cardiovascular impact derived from altering ...
Clinically Significant Gains In Skillful Grasp Coordination By An Individual With Tetraplegia Using An Implanted Brain-Computer Interface With Forearm Transcutaneous Muscle Stimulation, 2019 Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
Clinically Significant Gains In Skillful Grasp Coordination By An Individual With Tetraplegia Using An Implanted Brain-Computer Interface With Forearm Transcutaneous Muscle Stimulation, M. Bockbrader, N. Annetta, D. Friedenberg, M. Schwemmer, Skomrock, Colachis, M. Zhang, C. Bouton, A. Rezai, W. J. Mysiw, +1 Additional Author
© 2019 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine Objective: To demonstrate naturalistic motor control speed, coordinated grasp, and carryover from trained to novel objects by an individual with tetraplegia using a brain-computer interface (BCI)-controlled neuroprosthetic. Design: Phase I trial for an intracortical BCI integrated with forearm functional electrical stimulation (FES). Data reported span postimplant days 137 to 1478. Setting: Tertiary care outpatient rehabilitation center. Participant: A 27-year-old man with C5 class A (on the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale) traumatic spinal cord injury Interventions: After array implantation in his left (dominant) motor cortex, the participant trained with BCI-FES to control ...
Tissue-Specific Metabolic Profiles After Prolonged Cardiac Arrest Reveal Brain Metabolome Dysfunction Predominantly After Resuscitation, J. Choi, M. Shoaib, T. Yin, G. Nayyar, Shinozaki, G. F. Stevens, L. B. Becker, J. Kim
No abstract provided.
Large-Scale Validation Of The Paddling Pool Task In The Clockmaze For Studying Hippocampus-Based Spatial Cognition In Mice, 2019 Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
Large-Scale Validation Of The Paddling Pool Task In The Clockmaze For Studying Hippocampus-Based Spatial Cognition In Mice, R. Sankowski, T. S. Huerta, R. Kalra, T. J. Klein, J. Strohl, A. Al-Abed, S. Robbiati, P. T. Huerta
No abstract provided.
Effect Of Vitamin D On Serum Markers Of Bone Turnover In Sle In A Randomised Controlled Trial, 2019 Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
Effect Of Vitamin D On Serum Markers Of Bone Turnover In Sle In A Randomised Controlled Trial, S. K. Tedeschi, C. Aranow, D. L. Kamen, M. Leboff, Diamond, H. Costenbader
© 2019 Author(s). Objective Bone health in SLE is adversely affected by vitamin D deficiency, inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoid use. We hypothesised that vitamin D supplementation would increase markers of bone formation and decrease markers of bone resorption in SLE subjects. Methods We studied 43 vitamin D-deficient SLE subjects who participated in a 12-week randomised controlled trial of 2000-4000 IU/day vitamin D supplementation versus placebo. Subjects had inactive SLE (SLE Disease Activity Index ≤4) and were taking D, N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP) and C-telopeptide (CTX). We tested the effect of vitamin D versus placebo on change ...